<ul><li>A Mandatory US Federal Carbon Cap (Kyoto-II) will Help Reduce the Cost Advantage that Michigan (MI) Fossil Electri...
The Conference
The Presenter Michael Stavy  Consulting Energy Economist 432 N. Clark St. Suite 204 Chicago, Il 60654 USA 312-832-1631 www...
The Lecture Handout <ul><li>Download lecture handout with details and footnotes </li></ul><ul><li>At end of presentation p...
The Disclaimer <ul><li>While I prepared this presentation and I believe that it contains correct information, I make no wa...
<ul><li>The Global Problem </li></ul>
<ul><li>Increase in GHG emissions is causing an increase in the earth’s surface  temperature   </li></ul><ul><li>Global wa...
Life as Usual Parc Montsouris, Paris 14 th
An OECD Coal Plant  Life as Usual will not continue
<ul><li>Solutions to Global Warming </li></ul>
<ul><li>Suffer </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation </li></ul><ul><li>The  Kyoto   Protocol  is an at...
The Lecture <ul><li>Michigan wind-centric </li></ul><ul><li>Kyoto-I (and Kyoto-II) centric </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon reduct...
<ul><li>The Kyoto Protocol </li></ul>
Protocol Basics <ul><li>Tries to change the human economy so that it will produce the required output with less carbon </l...
Protocol Basics <ul><li>Only citizens of  signatory  countries can trade Protocol carbon units </li></ul><ul><li>No matter...
Protocol Basics <ul><li>Sets a cap (ceiling) on carbon emissions in the Annex B signatory countries </li></ul><ul><li>U S ...
The Green House Gases <ul><li>Protocol measures  GHG  in metric tons (t m ) of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), the major GHG.  </l...
Protocol Carbon Unit <ul><li>Main  GHG  from burning fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, oil) to generate MI electricity is C...
More on the Protocol Carbon Unit <ul><li>A ssigned Carbon Emission  A llowance  U nit (AAU) is the basic Protocol carbon u...
Protocol Carbon Cap <ul><li>Carbon cap is maximum t-CO 2 /yr that a country is allowed emit into air  </li></ul><ul><li>Ba...
The Annex I Countries <ul><li>Annex I countries are all the OECD countries plus CIT countries. </li></ul><ul><li>CIT are f...
The Non-Annex I Countries <ul><li>Countries under development </li></ul>
The Annex B Countries <ul><li>Certain Annex I countries that have been assigned to reduce their emissions </li></ul><ul><l...
Kyoto-II Basics <ul><li>US  signatory to Kyoto-II  </li></ul><ul><li>Except for certain parameters, Kyoto-II has same arch...
Carbon Control Architectures  <ul><li>Protocol allows each Annex B country to design its own regulatory structure to reduc...
US Cap and Command-C & C <ul><li>Each MI fossil power plant given cap-maximum t-CO 2 /yr that it can emit </li></ul><ul><l...
US Cap and Command-C & C <ul><li>C & C used for HFC emissions caps under the Montréal Protocol  </li></ul><ul><li>US Montr...
US Cap and Command-C & C <ul><li>Fossil power plant 1 is even with cap </li></ul><ul><li>Plant 2 is  below   its cap </li>...
 
US Cap and Trade-C & T <ul><li>Basis for C & T is the “command” from  </li></ul><ul><li>C & C </li></ul><ul><li>Used by EU...
EU ETS <ul><li>Protocol allows countries next to each other to cap emissions under a joint emissions bubble </li></ul><ul>...
Countries  Under  the ETS Bubble <ul><li>25 EU Countries </li></ul>
EU ETS Specifics <ul><li>Study EU ETS because it is currently the only major C & T market </li></ul><ul><li>Under EU ETS b...
EU ETS Specifics <ul><li>EU Directorate administers the EU ETS </li></ul><ul><li>EU Directorate receives AAU from the  UNF...
EU ETS Specifics <ul><li>Each EU ETS country decided which industrial sectors are capped during first commitment period </...
US Cap and Trade-C & T <ul><li>Each US plant must have an AAU for each t-CO 2 /yr it emits up to its cap </li></ul><ul><li...
US Cap and Trade-C & T <ul><li>US government will get Kyoto-II AAU from  UNFCC Secretariat </li></ul><ul><li>US government...
US Cap and Trade-C & T <ul><li>Table # 2 below shows Kyoto-II C & T emissions data for same 3 MI fossil power plants </li>...
 
US Cap and Trade-C & T <ul><li>If a power plant actual emissions < assigned cap, it is  long , can sell its AAU in the US ...
Cap and Trade Market Efficiency   <ul><li>A power plant  long  is more efficient </li></ul><ul><li>in reducing carbon emis...
US Cap and Trade-C & T <ul><li>Kyoto-II C & T helps reduce US fossil electricity’s cost advantage over wind electricity by...
Carbon Cost of Fossil Electricity <ul><li>Under Kyoto-II C & T, the carbon content  </li></ul><ul><li>(t-CO 2 /MWh) of US ...
Carbon Cost of Fossil Electricity <ul><li>Table # 3 below shows carbon cost for US coal, natural gas and wind electricity ...
 
Price of US Kyoto-II AAU  <ul><li>EUA price is  proxy  for US AAU price </li></ul><ul><li>Currently no US market price for...
Price of US Kyoto-II AAU <ul><li>EU ETS has no public EUA markets with transparent prices for long-term contracts or for c...
Price of US Kyoto-II AAU <ul><li>ECX EUA Dec 08  futures   </li></ul><ul><li>30 Sept 08 month-end settlement price used as...
Price of US Kyoto-II AAU <ul><li>1  € =  US$ 1.4445   ( 30 Sept 08) </li></ul><ul><li>Converted  proxy  EUA € price into  ...
Kyoto-II Reduces US Fossil Electricity's Cost Advantage <ul><li>Table # 4 below shows the amount by which the after carbon...
Kyoto-II Reduces US Fossil Electricity's Cost Advantage <ul><li>Total  is the sum of the cost of generation and the cost o...
 
Cost of Generating Electricity <ul><li>No public domain data (IEA, EIA) on the actual cost of generating EU (or US) fossil...
Cost of Generating Electricity <ul><li>Table # 5 below shows EU and US cost of coal, gas and wind generation converted fro...
Fossil cost < wind cost
Reliable Cost Data
 
The Carbon Tax Architecture <ul><li>Under Kyoto-II, US can also use a carbon tax to cap carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Tax is  $...
The Carbon Tax Architecture <ul><li>Table # 6 below uses a tax equal to above  proxy  price of Kyoto-II AAU $32.29/AAU (22...
Carbon Tax Computation
Carbon Tax Summary  <ul><li>Kyoto-II carbon tax is as efficient as C & T but historically unpopular in USA </li></ul><ul><...
The Conclusion <ul><li>EU-ETS has not been able to reduce its carbon emissions to the % from the base year level required ...
Some More Conclusions <ul><li>Other “EU non C & T” Kyoto-I carbon reduction  drivers  have reduced EU fossil electricity's...
Some “Non EU ETS” C & T Wind  +  &  -  &  -  Drivers <ul><li>ETS country specific wind feed in tariffs (example DK, DE, IT...
Wind Transmission Dispatch <ul><li>Merit dispatch of electric power is currently least costly generation including congest...
Wind Facts to consider by MI when planning for Kyoto-II <ul><li>World’s first wind feed-in-tariff was in California  U S A...
MI Government Policies to Help MI  Wind  During “Kyoto-II” <ul><li>Wind feed-in-tariffs  </li></ul><ul><li>Community wind ...
More LAU-Indiana Dunes  U S A   US ladybug wishes you good luck!
Download Lecture Handout <ul><li>My website: www.michaelstavy.com </li></ul><ul><li>User Name: Detroit2009 </li></ul><ul><...
My Contact Information <ul><li>www.michaelstavy.com </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>312-832-1631 </li>...
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A Mandatory US Federal Carbon Emissions Program (Kyoto-II) Will Reduce the Cost Advantage that Michigan Fossil Electricity has over Michigan Wind Electricity

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My presentation at the 2009 Michigan Wind Conference, Cobo Hall, Detroit, MI, March 3, 2009

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A Mandatory US Federal Carbon Emissions Program (Kyoto-II) Will Reduce the Cost Advantage that Michigan Fossil Electricity has over Michigan Wind Electricity

  1. 1. <ul><li>A Mandatory US Federal Carbon Cap (Kyoto-II) will Help Reduce the Cost Advantage that Michigan (MI) Fossil Electricity has over MI Wind Electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Tues., 03/03/09 2:00-3:00pm </li></ul><ul><li>Cobo Hall Detroit, MI  </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Conference
  3. 3. The Presenter Michael Stavy Consulting Energy Economist 432 N. Clark St. Suite 204 Chicago, Il 60654 USA 312-832-1631 www.michaelstavy.com [email_address]
  4. 4. The Lecture Handout <ul><li>Download lecture handout with details and footnotes </li></ul><ul><li>At end of presentation provide webpage, username and password </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Disclaimer <ul><li>While I prepared this presentation and I believe that it contains correct information, I make no warranty expressed or implied, nor do I assume any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information presented. </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation © 2009 Michael Stavy </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Global Problem </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Increase in GHG emissions is causing an increase in the earth’s surface temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Global warming is an observed scientific fact </li></ul><ul><li>An increase in temperature will change life as usual (LAU) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Life as Usual Parc Montsouris, Paris 14 th
  9. 9. An OECD Coal Plant Life as Usual will not continue
  10. 10. <ul><li>Solutions to Global Warming </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Suffer </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation </li></ul><ul><li>The Kyoto Protocol is an attempt at mitigation </li></ul><ul><li>Windpower is a mitigating technology </li></ul><ul><li>Kyoto Protocol mitigating “Galbraithian” technostructure </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Lecture <ul><li>Michigan wind-centric </li></ul><ul><li>Kyoto-I (and Kyoto-II) centric </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon reduction centric </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The Kyoto Protocol </li></ul>
  14. 14. Protocol Basics <ul><li>Tries to change the human economy so that it will produce the required output with less carbon </li></ul><ul><li>A treaty among sovereign nations </li></ul><ul><li>UNFCC Secretariat administers Protocol for signatory nations </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol only applies to signatory nations and their citizens </li></ul>
  15. 15. Protocol Basics <ul><li>Only citizens of signatory countries can trade Protocol carbon units </li></ul><ul><li>No matter what the Annex B domestic architecture, Protocol trading is sovereign government to sovereign government </li></ul>
  16. 16. Protocol Basics <ul><li>Sets a cap (ceiling) on carbon emissions in the Annex B signatory countries </li></ul><ul><li>U S A not currently a signatory </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol (Kyoto-I) used as model for future mandatory US federal carbon cap (Kyoto-II) </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Green House Gases <ul><li>Protocol measures GHG in metric tons (t m ) of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), the major GHG. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Protocol, the other GHG emissions (i.e. CH 4 , N 2 O, HFC, PFC, SF 6 ) are standardized into t m -CO 2 by their global warming potential (GWP). </li></ul>
  18. 18. Protocol Carbon Unit <ul><li>Main GHG from burning fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, oil) to generate MI electricity is CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>t m -CO 2e or t m -CO 2 or t-CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>carbon emissions or C emissions </li></ul>
  19. 19. More on the Protocol Carbon Unit <ul><li>A ssigned Carbon Emission A llowance U nit (AAU) is the basic Protocol carbon unit of measurement </li></ul><ul><li>AAU = 1 t m -CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>AAU are only issued by the UNFCC Secretariat </li></ul>
  20. 20. Protocol Carbon Cap <ul><li>Carbon cap is maximum t-CO 2 /yr that a country is allowed emit into air </li></ul><ul><li>Base Year 1990-t 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions measured from base year </li></ul><ul><li>First Commitment Period 2008-2012 </li></ul><ul><li>Period during which Annex B countries must reduce their carbon emissions by, on average, 5.2% from t 0 </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Annex I Countries <ul><li>Annex I countries are all the OECD countries plus CIT countries. </li></ul><ul><li>CIT are former East European countries that are transitioning from central planning to market economies </li></ul><ul><li>The developed countries </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Non-Annex I Countries <ul><li>Countries under development </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Annex B Countries <ul><li>Certain Annex I countries that have been assigned to reduce their emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol assigns carbon cap in AAU (1 AAU = 1 t-CO 2 ) to each Annex B county </li></ul><ul><li>U S A is an Annex I country assigned to Annex B but is not a signatory </li></ul>
  24. 24. Kyoto-II Basics <ul><li>US signatory to Kyoto-II </li></ul><ul><li>Except for certain parameters, Kyoto-II has same architecture as Kyoto-I </li></ul><ul><li>Base Year stays 1990-t 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Second Commitment Period 2013-2017 </li></ul><ul><li>Period during which Annex B countries must reduce their carbon emissions by, on average, another X % from t 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Possible goal 385 ppm atmospheric CO 2 </li></ul>
  25. 25. Carbon Control Architectures <ul><li>Protocol allows each Annex B country to design its own regulatory structure to reduce its carbon footprint </li></ul><ul><li>Three most common are </li></ul><ul><li>1. Cap and command </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cap and trade </li></ul><ul><li>3. Carbon tax </li></ul>
  26. 26. US Cap and Command-C & C <ul><li>Each MI fossil power plant given cap-maximum t-CO 2 /yr that it can emit </li></ul><ul><li>Based on historical emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Plant penalized if actual t-CO 2 /yr > cap </li></ul><ul><li>Not rewarded if actual t-CO 2 /yr < cap </li></ul><ul><li>Wind plants emit 0 t-CO 2 /yr </li></ul>
  27. 27. US Cap and Command-C & C <ul><li>C & C used for HFC emissions caps under the Montréal Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>US Montréal Protocol signatory </li></ul><ul><li>Table # 1 below shows Kyoto-II C & C emissions data for 3 hypothetical MI fossil power plants </li></ul>
  28. 28. US Cap and Command-C & C <ul><li>Fossil power plant 1 is even with cap </li></ul><ul><li>Plant 2 is below its cap </li></ul><ul><li>Plant 3 is above its cap </li></ul><ul><li>Current US state Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) are C & C architectures </li></ul>
  29. 30. US Cap and Trade-C & T <ul><li>Basis for C & T is the “command” from </li></ul><ul><li>C & C </li></ul><ul><li>Used by EU ETS </li></ul><ul><li>EU ETS will be model for US Kyoto-II C & T </li></ul><ul><li>US voluntary emissions schemes do not significantly reduce CO 2 emissions -- not good for MI wind electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Each US power plant is given cap (max t-CO 2 /yr that it can emit) </li></ul>
  30. 31. EU ETS <ul><li>Protocol allows countries next to each other to cap emissions under a joint emissions bubble </li></ul><ul><li>European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is one such bubble </li></ul>
  31. 32. Countries Under the ETS Bubble <ul><li>25 EU Countries </li></ul>
  32. 33. EU ETS Specifics <ul><li>Study EU ETS because it is currently the only major C & T market </li></ul><ul><li>Under EU ETS bubble, the AAU is called Eu ropean Carbon Emission A llowance (EUA) </li></ul><ul><li>Use AAU for US Kyoto-II carbon unit </li></ul>
  33. 34. EU ETS Specifics <ul><li>EU Directorate administers the EU ETS </li></ul><ul><li>EU Directorate receives AAU from the UNFCC Secretariat </li></ul><ul><li>EU Directorate distributes EUA to EU ETS countries </li></ul>
  34. 35. EU ETS Specifics <ul><li>Each EU ETS country decided which industrial sectors are capped during first commitment period </li></ul><ul><li>For now only look at carbon caps for EU ETS and US electric utility industries </li></ul>
  35. 36. US Cap and Trade-C & T <ul><li>Each US plant must have an AAU for each t-CO 2 /yr it emits up to its cap </li></ul><ul><li>Assigned cap based on historical emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Plants get AAU from US carbon market purchase, US government auction or US government distribution </li></ul>
  36. 37. US Cap and Trade-C & T <ul><li>US government will get Kyoto-II AAU from UNFCC Secretariat </li></ul><ul><li>US government auctions greatly increases US AAU price- very good for MI wind </li></ul><ul><li>Auctions also very good for planet Earth </li></ul>
  37. 38. US Cap and Trade-C & T <ul><li>Table # 2 below shows Kyoto-II C & T emissions data for same 3 MI fossil power plants </li></ul><ul><li>Plant 1 is even on AAU </li></ul><ul><li>Plant 2 is long AAU; sells AAU </li></ul><ul><li>Plant 3 is short AAU; buys AAU </li></ul>
  38. 40. US Cap and Trade-C & T <ul><li>If a power plant actual emissions < assigned cap, it is long , can sell its AAU in the US carbon market </li></ul><ul><li>If a power plant actual emissions > assigned cap, it is short , must buy AAU in the US carbon market </li></ul>
  39. 41. Cap and Trade Market Efficiency <ul><li>A power plant long is more efficient </li></ul><ul><li>in reducing carbon emissions than a plant that is short </li></ul><ul><li>allowing short emitters to buy from long emitters increases economic efficiency </li></ul>
  40. 42. US Cap and Trade-C & T <ul><li>Kyoto-II C & T helps reduce US fossil electricity’s cost advantage over wind electricity by including the carbon cost of the fossil electricity ( US$/MWh) </li></ul>
  41. 43. Carbon Cost of Fossil Electricity <ul><li>Under Kyoto-II C & T, the carbon content </li></ul><ul><li>(t-CO 2 /MWh) of US fossil electricity must be offset with AAU </li></ul><ul><li>US carbon cost of fossil electricity depends on its carbon content and the cost of an AAU </li></ul><ul><li>Higher the AAU price, the greater the carbon cost, the better it is for MI wind electricity </li></ul>
  42. 44. Carbon Cost of Fossil Electricity <ul><li>Table # 3 below shows carbon cost for US coal, natural gas and wind electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon cost of wind is given as a comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon content of fossil electricity from my 2004 Global Wind Power Conference Paper </li></ul>
  43. 46. Price of US Kyoto-II AAU <ul><li>EUA price is proxy for US AAU price </li></ul><ul><li>Currently no US market price for mandatory carbon </li></ul><ul><li>EUA is best mandatory market price for carbon </li></ul>
  44. 47. Price of US Kyoto-II AAU <ul><li>EU ETS has no public EUA markets with transparent prices for long-term contracts or for current (spot) trades </li></ul><ul><li>EUA prices and volumes not in public domain </li></ul><ul><li>European Climate Exchange (ECX) only provides public access to transparent prices for EUA futures and options </li></ul>
  45. 48. Price of US Kyoto-II AAU <ul><li>ECX EUA Dec 08 futures </li></ul><ul><li>30 Sept 08 month-end settlement price used as proxy EUA price </li></ul><ul><li>EUA price is proxy for US Kyoto-II AAU </li></ul><ul><li>EUA settlement price: 22.35 € </li></ul>
  46. 49. Price of US Kyoto-II AAU <ul><li>1 € = US$ 1.4445 ( 30 Sept 08) </li></ul><ul><li>Converted proxy EUA € price into US$ for use as proxy US Kyoto-II AAU price </li></ul>
  47. 50. Kyoto-II Reduces US Fossil Electricity's Cost Advantage <ul><li>Table # 4 below shows the amount by which the after carbon cost of US fossil electricity is less (more) than MI wind electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of generation is the levelized cost of generation; not the wholesale price (discussed below) </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of carbon is from Table # 3 above </li></ul>
  48. 51. Kyoto-II Reduces US Fossil Electricity's Cost Advantage <ul><li>Total is the sum of the cost of generation and the cost of carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil < wind is amount that MI fossil electricity total cost is less (more) than total cost of MI wind electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Hydro column without data requires further study </li></ul>
  49. 53. Cost of Generating Electricity <ul><li>No public domain data (IEA, EIA) on the actual cost of generating EU (or US) fossil, wind and hydro electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of generating electricity not transparent </li></ul><ul><li>Without transparent costs, the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) does not hold in these wholesale electric markets </li></ul>
  50. 54. Cost of Generating Electricity <ul><li>Table # 5 below shows EU and US cost of coal, gas and wind generation converted from proxy € values published in January, 2008 Wind Power Monthly (WPM) article and graphs </li></ul><ul><li>Used WPM 8% cost of capital € values </li></ul><ul><li>Readers can use their own values </li></ul>
  51. 55. Fossil cost < wind cost
  52. 56. Reliable Cost Data
  53. 58. The Carbon Tax Architecture <ul><li>Under Kyoto-II, US can also use a carbon tax to cap carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Tax is $/t-CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>The carbon content ( t-CO 2 /MWh) of fossil electricity is taxed </li></ul><ul><li>Must convert tax into $/MWh </li></ul>
  54. 59. The Carbon Tax Architecture <ul><li>Table # 6 below uses a tax equal to above proxy price of Kyoto-II AAU $32.29/AAU (22.35 €/EUA) </li></ul>
  55. 60. Carbon Tax Computation
  56. 61. Carbon Tax Summary <ul><li>Kyoto-II carbon tax is as efficient as C & T but historically unpopular in USA </li></ul><ul><li>No financial drivers behind it </li></ul><ul><li>Tax/MWh is the reduction in MI fossil electricity cost advantage over MI wind electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon tax also very good for MI wind </li></ul><ul><li>Tax also reduces cost advantage of MI fossil electricity over MI wind electricity </li></ul>
  57. 62. The Conclusion <ul><li>EU-ETS has not been able to reduce its carbon emissions to the % from the base year level required under Kyoto-I </li></ul><ul><li>Current carbon status quo only reduction of 0.6% by 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>New steps in EU-ETS will need to take to reduce GHG by 20% in 2020 </li></ul>
  58. 63. Some More Conclusions <ul><li>Other “EU non C & T” Kyoto-I carbon reduction drivers have reduced EU fossil electricity's very large cost and institutional advantages </li></ul><ul><li>EU accelerating the increase in wind and other non-carbon electricity </li></ul>
  59. 64. Some “Non EU ETS” C & T Wind + & - & - Drivers <ul><li>ETS country specific wind feed in tariffs (example DK, DE, IT, ES wind feed tariff) ++++++ </li></ul><ul><li>Political parties with Green agenda +++++++++++++++++++++ </li></ul><ul><li>Wind transmission dispatch & bottlenecks -------- </li></ul><ul><li>Rising cost of wind turbines ------ </li></ul>
  60. 65. Wind Transmission Dispatch <ul><li>Merit dispatch of electric power is currently least costly generation including congestion pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Not enough transmission to handle all wind plants </li></ul><ul><li>Congestion pricing; paying economic rents </li></ul><ul><li>Merit dispatch should also be defined in terms of least carbon generation </li></ul>
  61. 66. Wind Facts to consider by MI when planning for Kyoto-II <ul><li>World’s first wind feed-in-tariff was in California U S A under the first Governor Jerry Brown </li></ul><ul><li>EU transmission and siting regulations supported by EU Green Parties have allowed EU ETS wind to develop </li></ul>
  62. 67. MI Government Policies to Help MI Wind During “Kyoto-II” <ul><li>Wind feed-in-tariffs </li></ul><ul><li>Community wind plants </li></ul><ul><li>Wind friendly grid access tariffs </li></ul><ul><li>Green siting statutes for wind plants </li></ul><ul><li>MI carbon cap with consequences </li></ul>
  63. 68. More LAU-Indiana Dunes U S A US ladybug wishes you good luck!
  64. 69. Download Lecture Handout <ul><li>My website: www.michaelstavy.com </li></ul><ul><li>User Name: Detroit2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Password: Mi1837 </li></ul><ul><li>Must use capital D & M </li></ul>
  65. 70. My Contact Information <ul><li>www.michaelstavy.com </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>312-832-1631 </li></ul><ul><li>432 N Clark St., Suite 204, </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago, IL 60610 USA </li></ul><ul><li>3 March 2009 </li></ul>

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