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Ch12 ppt


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Ch12 ppt

  1. 1. Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 12 Motivation James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers
  2. 2. Motivation  Motivation  a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior  Instinct  complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
  3. 3. Motivation  Drive-Reduction Theory  the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need Need Drive-reducing Drive (e.g., for behaviors (hunger, thirst) food, water) (eating, drinking)
  4. 4. Motivation  Homeostasis  tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state  regulation of any aspect of body chemistry around a particular level  Incentive  a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
  5. 5. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-actualization needs Need to live up to one’s  begins at the fullest and unique potential base with Esteem needs Need for self-esteem, physiological achievement, competence, and independence; need for needs that must recognition and respect from others first be satisfied Belongingness and love needs  then higher-level Need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid safety needs loneliness and alienation become active Safety needs  then Need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable psychological needs become Physiological needs active Need to satisfy hunger and thirst
  6. 6. Motivation-Hunger  Stomach contractions accompany our feelings of hunger
  7. 7. Motivation-Hunger  Glucose  the form of sugar that circulates in the blood  provides the major source of energy for body tissues  when its level is low, we feel hunger
  8. 8. Motivation-Hunger  Set Point  the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set  when the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight  Basal Metabolic Rate  body’s base rate of energy expenditure
  9. 9. Motivation-Hunger  The hypothalamus controls eating and other body maintenance functions
  10. 10. Motivation-Hunger
  11. 11. Eating Disorders  Anorexia Nervosa  when a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly (>15%) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve  usually an adolescent female  Bulimia Nervosa  disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
  12. 12. Women’s Body Images
  13. 13. Sexual Motivation  Sex  a physiologically based motive, like hunger, but it is more affected by learning and values  Sexual Response Cycle  the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson  excitement  plateau  orgasm  resolution
  14. 14. Sexual Motivation  Refractory Period  resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm  Estrogen  a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males
  15. 15. Forces Affecting Sexual Motivation
  16. 16. Sexual Motivation  Same drives, different attitudes
  17. 17. Sexual Motivation  Births to unwed parents
  18. 18. Sexual Motivation  Sexual Orientation  an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own gender (homosexual orientation) or the other gender (heterosexual orientation)
  19. 19. Sexual Motivation
  20. 20. Sexual Motivation
  21. 21. Motivation at Work  Flow  a completely, involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one’s skills  Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology  the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
  22. 22. Motivation at Work  Personnel Psychology  sub-field of I-O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development  Organizational Psychology  Sub-field of I-O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change
  23. 23. Motivation at Work
  24. 24. Motivation at Work  Structured Interview  process that asks the same job- relevant questions of all applicants  rated on established scales  Achievement Motivation  a desire for significant accomplishment  for mastery of things, people, or ideas  for attaining a high standard
  25. 25. Motivation at Work  Personnel psychologists’ tasks
  26. 26. Motivation at Work  360-degree feedback
  27. 27. Motivation at Work  On the right path
  28. 28. Motivation  Task Leadership  goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals  Social Leadership  group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
  29. 29. Motivation  Theory X  assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money  workers should be directed from above  Theory Y  assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity