Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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The American Journey: A History of the United State...
Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The American Journey: A History of the United State...
Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The American Journey: A History of the United State...
Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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The American Journey: A History of the United State...
Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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The American Journey: A History of the United State...
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The American Journey: A History of the United State...
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Slideshow Chapter 5

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Slideshow detailing the major causes of the American Revolution. Used as a resource with the textbook: The American Journey. This is not a slideshow I created, but a resource given by the publisher.

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  • Having apparently originated in a May Day–like celebration of the repeal of the Stamp Act in the spring of 1766, liberty poles were particularly characteristic of New York City, where citizens of all social classes supported their erection (as in the picture). However, British soldiers repeatedly destroyed them, thereby prompting serious rioting. Elsewhere, liberty trees served similar symbolic functions. John C. McRae of New York published this print in 1875.
  • Cunne Shote, one of three Cherokee chiefs who visited London in 1762, had this portrait painted there by Francis Parsons.
  • MAP 5–1 Colonial Settlement and the Proclamation Line of 1763 This map depicts the regions claimed and settled by the major groups competing for territory in eastern North America. With the Proclamation Line of 1763, positioned along the crest of the Appalachian Mountains, the British government tried to stop the westward migration of settlers under its jurisdiction and thereby limit conflict with the Indians. The result, however, was frustration and anger on the part of land-hungry settlers.
  • Samuel Adams, the leader of the Boston radicals, as he appeared to John Singleton Copley in the early 1770s. In this famous picture, thought to have been commissioned by another revolutionary leader, John Hancock, Adams points to legal documents guaranteeing American rights. John Singleton Copley (1738-1815), “Samuel Adams,” ca. 1772. Oil on canvas, 49 1⁄2 x 39 1⁄2 in. (125.7 cm x 100.3 cm). Deposited by the City of Boston, 30.76c.Courtesy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Reproduced with permission. © 2000 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. All Rights Reserved.
  • A satirical British engraving from 1766 showing English politicians burying the Stamp Act, “born 1765 died 1766.” The warehouses in the background symbolize the revival of trade with America.
  • FIGURE 5–1 Value of American Exports to and Imports from England, 1763–1776 This figure depicts the value of American exports to and imports from England. The decrease of imports in 1765–1766 and the even sharper drop in 1769 illustrate the effect of American boycotts in response to the Stamp Act and Townshend duties. Data Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970, Bicentennial Edition, Part 1 (1975).
  • This depiction of Governor William Tryon’s confrontation with the North Carolina Regulators during May 1771 was produced at Philadelphia in 1876 by F.O.C. Darley (1822–1888).
  • MAP 5–2 The Quebec Act of 1774 The Quebec Act enlarged the boundaries of the Canadian province southward to the Ohio River and westward to the Mississippi, thereby depriving several colonies of claims to the area granted them by their original charters.
  • This engraving shows colonists dressed like Indians destroying British tea in December 1773 in protest against the Tea Act. This participant at the Tea Party convention, held in Nashville in February 2010, donned a Revolutionary-era costume to illustrate the movement’s identification with the original Boston Tea Party. Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Mifflin of Philadelphia. Mifflin was a prominent merchant and radical opponent of British policy toward the colonies. He and his wife were visiting Boston in 1773, when John Singleton Copley painted them. Working at a small loom, Sarah Morris Mifflin weaves a decorative fringe. She no doubt did the same during the nonimportation movement against the Townshend duties, thereby helping to make importation of such goods from England unnecessary. Source: John Singleton Copley, Portrait of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Mifflin. PMA of Art: Beq. of Mrs. Esther B. Wistar to the HS, Pa. in 1900 and acquired by the PMA # EW 1999–45–1, Photograph © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
  • This engraving shows colonists dressed like Indians destroying British tea in December 1773 in protest against the Tea Act. Copyright © North Wind/North Wind Picture Archives—All rights reserved.
  • This participant at the Tea Party convention, held in Nashville in February 2010, donned a Revolutionary-era costume to illustrate the movement’s identification with the original Boston Tea Party.
  • Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Mifflin of Philadelphia. Mifflin was a prominent merchant and radical opponent of British policy toward the colonies. He and his wife were visiting Boston in 1773,when John Singleton Copley painted them. Working at a small loom, Sarah Morris Mifflin weaves a decorative fringe. She no doubt did the same during the nonimportation movement against the Townshend duties, thereby helping to make importation of such goods from England unnecessary. John Singleton Copley, Portrait of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Mifflin. Philadelphia Museum of Art: Bequest of Mrs. Esther B. Wistar to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania in 1900 and acquired by the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Accession # EW 1999-45-1, Photograph © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
  • This image shows John Malcolm, an unpopular customs commissioner, being tarred and feathered in Boston. By 1774, radicals threatened others who defended British measures with similar punishment.
  • Slideshow Chapter 5

    1. 1. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger THE AMERICAN JOURNEYTHE AMERICAN JOURNEY A HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATESA HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES Brief Sixth Edition Chapter Imperial Breakdown 1763-1774 5
    2. 2. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Imperial BreakdownImperial Breakdown 1763-17741763-1774 • The Crisis of Imperial Authority • Republican Ideology and Colonial Protest • The Stamp Act Crisis • The Townshend Crisis • Domestic Divisions • The Final Imperial Crisis • Conclusion
    3. 3. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Liberty poles were particularly characteristic of NewLiberty poles were particularly characteristic of New York City, where citizens of all social classesYork City, where citizens of all social classes supported their erection (as in the picture).supported their erection (as in the picture).
    4. 4. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives • What new challenges did the British government face in North America after 1763? • How did Republican ideology inform the colonists’ view of their relationship to Britain? • Why did the Stamp Act spark widespread unrest in the colonies?
    5. 5. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Learning Objectives (cont'd)Learning Objectives (cont'd) • How did the colonists respond to Townshend’s colonial policies? • What issues and interests divided the colonists? • What pushed the colonists from protest to rebellion?
    6. 6. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger The Crisis of Imperial AuthorityThe Crisis of Imperial Authority
    7. 7. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Challenges of Control and FinanceChallenges of Control and Finance • Britain’s empire in 1763 was immense, and its problems correspondingly large. It faced threats from traditional European enemies France and Spain, as well as from new subjects in acquired lands. • Concerns about imperial authority extended to the inhabitants of the existing colonies themselves.
    8. 8. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Challenges of Control andChallenges of Control and Finance(cont'd)Finance(cont'd) • Wartime expenses caused British debt to balloon, and Americans would be asked to shoulder more of the financial burden.
    9. 9. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Native Americans and Frontier ConflictNative Americans and Frontier Conflict • The British government kept a large body of troops in America in peacetime in order to maintain peace with the Indians. • Tensions between the colonists and Indians led to fierce conflict in the Cherokee War and Pontiac’s War.
    10. 10. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Native Americans and FrontierNative Americans and Frontier Conflict(cont'd)Conflict(cont'd) • Ongoing troubles included the Paxton Boys crisis.  Cherokee War - Conflict (1759–1761) on the southern frontier between the Cherokee Indians and colonists from Virginia southward. It caused South Carolina to request the aid of British troops and resulted in the surrender of more Indian land to white colonists.
    11. 11. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Native Americans and FrontierNative Americans and Frontier Conflict(cont'd)Conflict(cont'd)  Pontiac’s War - Indian uprising (1763–1766) led by Pontiac of the Ottawas and Neolin of the Delawares. Fearful of their fate at the hands of the British after the French had been driven out of North America, the Indian nations of the Ohio River Valley and the Great Lakes area united to oust the British from the Ohio-Mississippi Valley. They failed and were forced to make peace in 1766.
    12. 12. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Cunne Shote, one of three Cherokee chiefs whoCunne Shote, one of three Cherokee chiefs who visited London in 1762, had this portrait paintedvisited London in 1762, had this portrait painted there by Francis Parsons.there by Francis Parsons.
    13. 13. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Dealing with the New TerritoriesDealing with the New Territories • The issues raised by Pontiac’s War moved Britain to assert imperial control over the territories it had acquired from France.  Proclamation of 1763 - Royal proclamation setting the boundary known as the Proclamation Line.
    14. 14. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Dealing with the NewDealing with the New Territories(cont'd)Territories(cont'd)  Quartering Acts - Acts of Parliament requiring colonial legislatures to provide supplies and quarters for the troops stationed in America. Americans considered this taxation in disguise and objected. None of these acts passed during the pre-Revolutionary controversy required that soldiers be quartered in an occupied house without the owner’s consent.
    15. 15. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger MAP 5–1 Colonial Settlement and theMAP 5–1 Colonial Settlement and the Proclamation Line of 1763Proclamation Line of 1763
    16. 16. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger The Search for Revenue:The Search for Revenue: The Sugar ActThe Sugar Act • Compounding Britain’s problem of soaring national debt was a postwar recession that struck both it and the colonies. • The Sugar Act was passed to help defray the costs of empire, while also taking aim at smugglers.
    17. 17. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger The Search for Revenue:The Search for Revenue: The Sugar ActThe Sugar Act • New Englanders predominated those colonists actively opposed to the Sugar Act.  Sugar Act - Law passed in 1764 to raise revenue in the American colonies. It lowered the duty from 6 pence to 3 pence per gallon on foreign molasses imported into the colonies and increased the restrictions on colonial commerce.
    18. 18. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Republican Ideology andRepublican Ideology and Colonial ProtestColonial Protest
    19. 19. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Power versus LibertyPower versus Liberty • The limited government concepts of republicanism and Country (or “Real Whig”) ideology informed the colonists’ understanding of politics. • Civil liberty, participation in government, and vigilance against corruption and excessive power were hallmarks of republican ideology.
    20. 20. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger The British ConstitutionThe British Constitution • Colonists sought a balance between the exercise of power and the protection of liberty, and saw a successful model in Great Britain’s government, based on the British Constitution.  British Constitution - The principles, procedures, and precedents that governed the operation of the British government. These could be found in no single written document.
    21. 21. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Taxation and SovereigntyTaxation and Sovereignty • Colonists who had absorbed republican ideas were especially concerned about the implications of taxation on their independence and liberty.
    22. 22. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Taxation and Sovereignty (cont’d)Taxation and Sovereignty (cont’d) • There were differences between British and colonial understandings of representation and taxation, which were connected to the more fundamental issue of sovereignty.  Sovereignty - The supreme authority of the state, including both the right to take life and to tax.
    23. 23. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger The Stamp Act CrisisThe Stamp Act Crisis
    24. 24. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger The Stamp Act CrisisThe Stamp Act Crisis  Stamp Act - Law passed by Parliament in 1765 to raise revenue in America by requiring taxed, stamped paper for legal documents, publications, and playing cards. Americans opposed it as “taxation without representation” and prevented its enforcement. Parliament repealed it a year after its enactment.
    25. 25. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Colonial Assemblies React to theColonial Assemblies React to the Stamp TaxStamp Tax • Colonial protests arose months before the Stamp Act was to go into effect, and the measure was condemned and opposed through various legislative, social, and economic means.
    26. 26. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Colonial Assemblies React to theColonial Assemblies React to the Stamp Tax (cont’d)Stamp Tax (cont’d) • Some of the opposition went beyond the Stamp Act itself to address broader issues.  Stamp Act Congress - October 1765 meeting of delegates sent by nine colonies, held in New York City, that adopted the Declaration of Rights and Grievances and petitioned against the Stamp Act.
    27. 27. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Colonial Assemblies React to theColonial Assemblies React to the Stamp Tax (cont’d)Stamp Tax (cont’d)  Declaration of Rights and Grievances - Resolves, adopted by the Stamp Act Congress at New York in 1765, asserting that the Stamp Act and other taxes imposed on the colonists without their consent, given through their colonial legislatures, were unconstitutional.
    28. 28. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Colonists Take to the StreetsColonists Take to the Streets • In Boston, a group called the Sons of Liberty organize, launching a series of violent protests that quickly spread to other locations. • Colonial elites were appalled at the violent tactics, while suffering British merchants petitioned Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act.
    29. 29. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Colonists Take to the Streets (cont’d)Colonists Take to the Streets (cont’d)  Sons of Liberty - Secret organizations in the colonies formed to oppose the Stamp Act. From 1765 until independence, they spoke, wrote, and demonstrated against British measures. Their actions often intimidated stamp distributors and British supporters in the colonies.
    30. 30. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Repeal and the Declaratory ActRepeal and the Declaratory Act • A three-part solution was devised that linked repeal of the Stamp Act to an unequivocal assertion of parliamentary sovereignty. • The Stamp Act was repealed, the Declaratory Act was passed, and the Revenue Act of 1766 was also passed.
    31. 31. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Repeal and the Declaratory Act (cont'd)Repeal and the Declaratory Act (cont'd) • Parliament had saved face and calmed the merchant community, while the colonies rejoiced.  Declaratory Act - Law passed in 1766 to accompany repeal of the Stamp Act that stated that Parliament had the authority to legislate for the colonies “in all cases whatsoever.” Whether “legislate” meant tax was not clear to Americans.
    32. 32. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Samuel Adams, the leader of the BostonSamuel Adams, the leader of the Boston radicals, as he appeared to John Singletonradicals, as he appeared to John Singleton Copley in the early 1770s.Copley in the early 1770s.
    33. 33. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger The Townshend CrisisThe Townshend Crisis
    34. 34. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Townshend’s PlanTownshend’s Plan • The goal of the Townshend Duty Act was help pay the costs of government by imposing new duties, or external taxes, in the colonies that Townshend believed the colonists would accept. • The duties were on regular colonial imports such as tea, paper, paint, lead, and glass.
    35. 35. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Townshend’s Plan (cont'd)Townshend’s Plan (cont'd) • A new board of customs commissioners headquartered in Boston was to ensure collection of the duties. • Colonists feared the Townshend Act was the first step toward greater British interference in colonial affairs.
    36. 36. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger A satirical British engraving from 1766 showingA satirical British engraving from 1766 showing English politicians burying the Stamp Act, “bornEnglish politicians burying the Stamp Act, “born 1765 died 1766.”1765 died 1766.”
    37. 37. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Townshend’s Plan (cont’d)Townshend’s Plan (cont’d)  Townshend Duty Act of 1967 - Act of Parliament, passed in 1767, imposing duties on colonial tea, lead, paint, paper, and glass. Designed to take advantage of the supposed American distinction between internal and external taxes, the Townshend duties were to help support government in America. The act prompted a successful colonial nonimportation movement.
    38. 38. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Renewed ResistanceRenewed Resistance • The Townshend duties provoked resistance throughout the colonies. John Dickinson stated a tax was a tax and other colonists complained the Act threatened to undermine the authority of the colonial authority.
    39. 39. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Renewed Resistance (cont’d)Renewed Resistance (cont’d) • Americans organized an effective nonimportation movement that forged a sense of common purpose among colonists that created a sense of belonging to a larger community.
    40. 40. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Renewed Resistance (cont’d)Renewed Resistance (cont’d)  Nonimportation movement - A tactical means of putting economic pressure on Britain by refusing to buy its exports to the colonies. Initiated in response to the taxes imposed by the Sugar and Stamp Acts, it was used again against the Townshend duties and the Coercive Acts. The nonimportation movement popularized resistance to British measures and deepened the commitment of many ordinary people to a larger American community.
    41. 41. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger FIGURE 5–1 Value of American Exports to andFIGURE 5–1 Value of American Exports to and Imports from England, 1763–1776Imports from England, 1763–1776
    42. 42. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger The Boston MassacreThe Boston Massacre • Growing tensions between British soldiers and Boston townspeople erupted into violence that resulted in five deaths.  Boston Massacre - After months of increasing friction between townspeople and the British troops stationed in the city, on March 5,1770, British troops fired on American civilians in Boston.
    43. 43. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Partial Repeal and Its ConsequencesPartial Repeal and Its Consequences • For the colonists, the partial repeal of the Townshend duties was an incomplete victory, and recent events, especially the Boston Massacre, seriously undermined their trust in British authority.
    44. 44. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Partial Repeal and Its ConsequencesPartial Repeal and Its Consequences (cont'd)(cont'd) • Various incidents led colonial leaders to resolve to keep one another informed about British actions and to try and anticipate what Parliament’s next move might be.  Committees of Correspondence - Committees formed in Massachusetts and other colonies in the pre-Revolutionary period to keep Americans informed about British measures that would affect the colonies.
    45. 45. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Domestic DivisionsDomestic Divisions
    46. 46. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Regulator MovementsRegulator Movements • In response to marauding gangs of outlaws roaming backcountry South Carolina, aggrieved farmers organized vigilante companies. • The outlaws’ threat to property and order was symptomatic of the larger problem of political representation.
    47. 47. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Regulator Movements (cont'd)Regulator Movements (cont'd) - Regulators • Vigilante groups active in the 1760s and 1770s in the western parts of North and South Carolina. The South Carolina Regulators attempted to rid the area of outlaws; the North Carolina Regulators sought to protect themselves against excessively high taxes and court costs. In both cases, westerners lacked sufficient representation in the legislature to obtain immediate redress of their grievances. The South Carolina government eventually made concessions; the North Carolina government suppressed its Regulator movement by force.
    48. 48. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger This depiction of Governor William Tryon’sThis depiction of Governor William Tryon’s confrontation with the North Carolina Regulatorsconfrontation with the North Carolina Regulators during May 1771during May 1771
    49. 49. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger The Beginnings of AntislaveryThe Beginnings of Antislavery • Slavery was legal in all thirteen colonies, but amid a time of protests and fervent speeches on behalf of liberty, some colonists began to question the legitimacy of slavery. • The first significant attacks on slavery were generated by religious concerns.
    50. 50. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger The Final Imperial CrisisThe Final Imperial Crisis
    51. 51. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger The Boston Tea PartyThe Boston Tea Party • The possible bankruptcy of the British East India Company prompted Lord North to issue the Tea Act of 1773. • In most cities, the Sons of Liberty threatened violence and convinced captains to return their ships and cargoes to England.
    52. 52. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger The Boston Tea Party (cont'd)The Boston Tea Party (cont'd) • The Boston Sons of Liberty incited the Boston Tea Party.  Tea Act of 1773 - Act of Parliament that permitted the East India Company to sell tea through agents in America without paying the duty customarily collected in Britain, thus reducing the retail price. Americans, who saw the act as an attempt to induce them to pay the Townshend duty still imposed in the colonies, resisted this act through the Boston Tea Party and other measures.
    53. 53. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger The Boston Tea Party (cont'd)The Boston Tea Party (cont'd)  Boston Tea Party - Incident that occurred on December 16, 1773, in which Bostonians, disguised as Indians, destroyed £9,000 worth of tea belonging to the British East India Company in order to prevent payment of the duty on it.
    54. 54. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger The Intolerable ActsThe Intolerable Acts • The British responded to the Boston Tea Party by passing the Coercive Acts, known as the Intolerable Acts in the colonies.
    55. 55. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger The Intolerable Acts (cont'd)The Intolerable Acts (cont'd) • The Coercive Acts closed the port of Boston, offered lenient treatment to government officials who killed a colonist while performing their duties, drastically changed the Massachusetts colonial charter, and allowed British troops to be lodged in any uninhabited building.
    56. 56. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger The Intolerable Acts (cont'd)The Intolerable Acts (cont'd) • The Quebec Act changed the administration and boundaries of that colony, enlarged the privileges of the Catholic Church, and also provided for the trial of civil cases without a jury.  Coercive Acts - Legislation passed by Parliament in 1774; included the Boston Port Act, the Massachusetts Government Act, the Administration of Justice Act, and the Quartering Act of 1774.
    57. 57. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger The Intolerable Acts (cont'd)The Intolerable Acts (cont'd)  Quebec Act - Law passed by Parliament in 1774 that provided an appointed government for Canada, enlarged the boundaries of Quebec southward to the Ohio River, and confirmed the privileges of the Catholic Church. Alarmed Americans termed this act and the Coercive Acts the Intolerable Acts.  Intolerable Acts - American term for the Coercive Acts and the Quebec Act.
    58. 58. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger MAP 5–2 The Quebec Act of 1774MAP 5–2 The Quebec Act of 1774
    59. 59. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger The Americans’ ReactionThe Americans’ Reaction • Americans saw the Intolerable Acts as threatening their expansion, the status of some religions, and the power and authority of colonial legislatures.
    60. 60. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger The Americans’ Reaction (cont'd)The Americans’ Reaction (cont'd)  Suffolk Resolves - Militant resolves adopted in September 1774 in response to the Coercive Acts by representatives from the towns in Suffolk County, Massachusetts, including Boston. They termed the Coercive Acts unconstitutional, advised the people to arm, and called for economic sanctions against Britain. The First Continental Congress endorsed these resolves.
    61. 61. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger This engraving shows colonists dressed like IndiansThis engraving shows colonists dressed like Indians destroying British tea in December 1773 in protestdestroying British tea in December 1773 in protest against the Tea Act.against the Tea Act.
    62. 62. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger This participant at the Tea Party convention, held inThis participant at the Tea Party convention, held in Nashville in February 2010, donned aNashville in February 2010, donned a Revolutionary-era costumeRevolutionary-era costume
    63. 63. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Mifflin of Philadelphia.Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Mifflin of Philadelphia.
    64. 64. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger The First Continental CongressThe First Continental Congress • Fifty-five delegates met in Philadelphia where the Suffolk Resolves were passed. • The Suffolk Resolves denounced the Coercive Acts as unconstitutional, advised the people to arm, and called for economic sanctions against Britain.
    65. 65. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger The First Continental Congress (cont'd)The First Continental Congress (cont'd)  First Continental Congress - Meeting of delegates from most of the colonies held in 1774 in response to the Coercive Acts. The Congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, adopted the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, and agreed to establish the Continental Association to put economic pressure on Britain to repeal its objectionable measures. The Congress also wrote addresses to the king, the people of Britain, and the American people.
    66. 66. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger The Continental AssociationThe Continental Association • Colonial unity was fragile and Congress needed an enforcement mechanism to ensure its measures were followed. It created the Continental Association.  Continental Association - Agreement, adopted by the First Continental Congress in 1774 in response to the Coercive Acts, to cut off trade with Britain until the objectionable measures were repealed. Local committees were established to enforce the provisions of the association.
    67. 67. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger New Restraints and BurdensNew Restraints and Burdens on Americans, 1763–1774on Americans, 1763–1774
    68. 68. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger New Restraints and BurdensNew Restraints and Burdens on Americans, 1763–1774on Americans, 1763–1774
    69. 69. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Political PolarizationPolitical Polarization • Even well-known radicals were not advocating independence. Most hoped and expected Britain would change its policy toward America. • Americans were divided over what the extent of Parliament’s authority should be and how far they could legitimately go in challenging Parliament’s power.
    70. 70. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Political Polarization (cont'd)Political Polarization (cont'd) • Advocates of colonial rights called themselves Whigs and called their opponents Tories.
    71. 71. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Political Polarization (cont'd)Political Polarization (cont'd)  Whigs - The name used by advocates of colonial resistance to British measures during the 1760s and 1770s. The Whig party in England unsuccessfully attempted to exclude the Catholic duke of York from succession to the throne as James II; victorious in the Glorious Revolution, the Whigs later stood for religious toleration and the supremacy of Parliament over the crown.
    72. 72. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Political Polarization (cont'd)Political Polarization (cont'd)  Tories - A derisive term applied to loyalists in America who supported the king and Parliament just before and during the American Revolution. The term derived from late-seventeenth-century English politics when the Tory party supported the duke of York’s succession to the throne as James II. Later the Tory party favored the Church of England and the crown over dissenting denominations and Parliament.
    73. 73. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger This image shows John Malcolm, an unpopularThis image shows John Malcolm, an unpopular customs commissioner, being tarred andcustoms commissioner, being tarred and feathered in Boston.feathered in Boston.
    74. 74. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger ConclusionConclusion
    75. 75. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger ConclusionConclusion • British attempts to tighten the bonds of empire went terribly awry, as colonists saw British reforms as infringements on their rights. • Years of often violent political turmoil inspired colonists to think more systematically about their rights than they had ever done before.
    76. 76. Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Conclusion (cont'd)Conclusion (cont'd) • However, while they had surely rebelled, Americans differed on the path of resistance to the British, and had not yet launched a revolution.

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