THE AMERICAN JOURNEY
A HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES
Brief Sixth Edition

Chapter

14

The Politics of
Sectionalism
1846-18...
The Politics of Sectionalism
1846-1861
•
•
•
•

Slavery in the Territories
Political Realignment
The Road to Disunion
Conc...
Vivid illustrations accompanied the numerous
editions of Uncle Tom’s Cabin depicting the brutal
realities of slavery and t...
Learning Objectives
• Why was the issue of slavery in the
territories so contentious?
• What factors contributed to the
Re...
Slavery in the Territories

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldfield • Abbott •...
Slavery in the Territories
• From the late 1840s until 1861, northern
and southern leaders attempted to fashion
a solution...
Slavery in the Territories (cont'd)
 Compromise of 1850
- The four-step compromise which admitted
California as a free st...
The Wilmot Proviso
• Proposed by Pennsylvania Democrat
David Wilmot in 1846, the Wilmot Proviso
called for outlawing of sl...
The Wilmot Proviso (cont'd)
 Wilmot Proviso
- The amendment offered by Pennsylvania
Democrat David Wilmot in 1846 which s...
The Election of 1848
• To defuse the slavery issue, Democratic
presidential nominee Lewis Cass
proposed the doctrine of po...
The Election of 1848 (cont’d)
• The Whig nominee Zachary Taylor was
silent on the slavery issue but northern
Whigs bolted ...
The Election of 1848 (cont’d)
• Taylor won the election.
 Popular Sovereignty
- A solution to the slavery crisis suggeste...
Parisian partisans burn royal carriages, February
1848.

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth...
“One of the People’s Saints for the
Calendar of Liberty” 1852.

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brie...
The Gold Rush
• The discovery of gold in California
triggered a rush that brought more than
100,000 people to the territor...
The Compromise of 1850
• When California applied for admission to
the Union, the issue of parity among slave
and free stat...
The Compromise of 1850 (cont’d)
• Henry Clay offered the Compromise of
1850 that was eventually passed when
Illinois Senat...
The Compromise of 1850 (cont’d)
• The major benefit for southerners was a
stronger Fugitive Slave Act.
 Fugitive Slave Ac...
MAP 14–1 The Compromise of 1850

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldfield • Abb...
Response to the Fugitive Slave Act
• Free African Americans in the North
responded to the Fugitive Slave Act by
forming as...
This notice, typical of warnings
posted in northern cities

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Si...
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
• Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel ignited a
firestorm over slavery, moving many
northerner whites to more ...
The Election of 1852
• The Compromise of 1850 had divided the
Whigs.
• Democratic candidate Franklin Pierce won
a landslid...
Political Realignment

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldfield • Abbott • Arge...
Young America’s
Foreign Misadventures
• Franklin Pierce supported the Young
America movement to expand American
influence ...
Young America’s
Foreign Misadventures (cont'd)
• William Walker attempted to gain control
of Nicaragua but failed.
 Osten...
Stephen Douglas’s Railroad Proposal
• Senator Stephen A. Douglas wanted the
transcontinental railroad route to go
through ...
Stephen Douglas’s Railroad Proposal
(cont’d)
• Douglas sought congressional approval to
set up a government in the Nebrask...
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
• Douglas’ Kansas-Nebraska Bill broke the
territory into two territories, Kansas and
Nebraska.
• D...
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
• President Pierce supported the KansasNebraska Bill which became law.
 Kansas-Nebraska Act
- Law...
“Bleeding Kansas”
• Northerners and Southerners rushed to
settle Kansas and gain a majority in the
territory.
• The prosla...
“Bleeding Kansas” (cont'd)
 “Bleeding Kansas”
- Violence between pro- and antislavery forces in
Kansas Territory after th...
MAP 14–2 The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldfiel...
Know-Nothings and Republicans:
Religion and Politics
• Mounting violence polarized the North and
South, widening sectional...
Know-Nothings and Republicans:
Religion and Politics (cont’d)
• Anti-immigration feeling also contributed
to the party rea...
Know-Nothings and Republicans:
Religion and Politics (cont’d)
• The Republican Party was formed in 1854
from a coalition o...
Know-Nothings and Republicans:
Religion and Politics (cont’d)
 Republican Party
- Party headed by Thomas Jefferson that f...
Gangs of New York. Paramilitary political gangs

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition...
The Election of 1856
• The election of 1856 was approached by a
fragmented political party system.
• The Know-Nothing and ...
The Election of 1856 (cont’d)
• The Democrats were divided and
nominated James Buchanan who won the
election.

The America...
Activists display a representation of the Ten
Commandments

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Si...
One of Thomas Nast’s vitriolic
comments on the separation between
Church (i.e., the Roman Catholic
Church) and State.

The...
The Dred Scott Case
• Dred Scott sued for his freedom and the
case eventually reached the Supreme
Court.
• Chief Justice R...
The Dred Scott Case (cont'd)
• African Americans strongly responded to
the Dred Scott decision.
• Outrage over the Dred Sc...
The Dred Scott Case (cont'd)
 Dred Scott decision
- Supreme Court ruling, in a lawsuit brought by
Dred Scott, a slave dem...
Dred Scott and his wife, Harriet,
are portrayed here with their
children as an average middleclass family

The American Jo...
The Lecompton Constitution
• Violence had subsided in Kansas but
passage of the proslavery Lecompton
Constitution failed t...
The Lecompton Constitution (cont’d)
• The Democratic administration did nothing
to alleviate the worsening economic
condit...
The Lecompton Constitution (cont’d)
 Lecompton Constitution
- Proslavery draft written in 1857 by Kansas
territorial dele...
The Religious Revival of 1857–1858
• In the midst of economic depression and
sectional controversy, a religious revival
sw...
The Lincoln-Douglas Debates
• The Lincoln-Douglas debates pitted the
incumbent Democratic senator against
former Whig cong...
The Lincoln-Douglas Debates (cont'd)
• Douglas won the election.
 Lincoln-Douglas debates
- Series of debates in the 1858...
Abraham Lincoln making a point at Coles County
(Illinois) Fairgrounds, 1858

The American Journey: A History of the United...
The Road to Disunion

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldfield • Abbott • Arger...
North-South Differences
• Ideological divisions were not the only
differences dividing North and South.
• The North was in...
North-South Differences (cont'd)
• Other differences included more violent
tendencies among Southerners, a
stronger inclin...
MAP 14–3 Railroads in the United States, 1860

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
G...
South and North Compared in 1860

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldfield • Ab...
John Brown’s Raid
• John Brown had become a celebrity in
New England intellectual and antislavery
circles.
• In 1859, Brow...
John Brown’s Raid (cont'd)
• John Brown’s raid raised the worst fears of
southerners.
 John Brown’s Raid
- New England ab...
The John Brown mural in the Kansas State House

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
...
The Election of 1860
• Northern Democrats were united behind
Stephen A. Douglas but southern
extremists disrupted the conv...
The Election of 1860 (cont’d)
• Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln
and Whigs from the Upper South formed
the Constituti...
The Election of 1860 (cont’d)
 Constitutional Union party
- National party formed in 1860, mainly by former
Whigs, that e...
MAP 14–4 The Election of 1860

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldfield • Abbot...
“Dividing the National Map”

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldfield • Abbott ...
Secession and Slavery
• Abraham Lincoln’s victory prompted the
secession of six southern states.
• Mississippi, Florida, A...
MAP 14–5 The Course of Secession

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldfield • Ab...
Presidential Inaction
 A lame-duck president whose southern
dominated cabinet had left Washington,
Buchanan did little to...
Peace Proposals
• Kentucky Senator John J. Crittenden tried
to package a series of constitutional
amendments to solve the ...
Lincoln’s Views on Secession
• Lincoln did not support compromise
measures on secession.
• Lincoln counted on Unionist sen...
The Emerging Sectional Crisis

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldfield • Abbot...
The Emerging Sectional Crisis

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldfield • Abbot...
Fort Sumter: The Tug Comes
• Lincoln vowed to uphold federal law and
was conciliatory, but southerners wanted
concessions....
Fort Sumter: The Tug Comes (cont'd)
• The surrender of Fort Sumter began the
Civil War.
 Fort Sumter
- Begun in the late ...
Conclusion

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • D...
Conclusion
• The Wilmot Proviso began the process
that ended with the outbreak of the Civil
War.
• Political conflict over...
Conclusion (cont'd)
• By 1861, neither national political and
other organizations could mute sectional
animosities.

The A...
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  • Vivid illustrations accompanied the numerous editions of Uncle Tom’s Cabin depicting the brutal realities of slavery and the unmerited suffering of the slave. These images sharpened the tragedy of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s story. Here, Tom dies following a savage beating.
    ® New-York Historical Society, New York, USA/Bridgeman Art Library International.
  • Parisian partisans burn royal carriages, February 1848.The excesses of the insurgents and the brutal retaliation of the authorities disheartened many Americans.
    The Art Archive/Musée Carnavalet Paris/Gianni Dagli Orti
  • “One of the People’s Saints for the Calendar of Liberty” 1852.The failure of the European revolutions of 1848 deeply disappointed and concerned many Americans. Here, Hungarian patriot Lajos Kossuth attempts in vain to aid a fallen Liberty, vanquished by a three-headed monster representing the Vatican, Austria and its ally, Russia.
  • MAP 14–1 The Compromise of 1850
    Given the unlikely prospect that any of the western territories would opt for slavery, the compromise sealed the South’s minority status in the Union.
  • Free blacks in the North, despite their marginal status, embraced the nation’s founding ideals. The Fugitive Slave Act threatened to reverse and even end their journey toward equality. This notice, typical of warnings posted in northern cities, urged Boston’s African American population to take precautions.
  • MAP 14–2 The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854
    The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, which divided the Nebraska Territory in two and repealed the Missouri Compromise, reopened the incendiary issue of slavery in the territories.
  • Gangs of New York. Paramilitary political gangs were not an invention of the Reconstruction era South. Throughout (mostly northern) cities, groups of street gangs affiliated with rival political parties and divided by religious differences, clashed. On July 4, 1857, the “Bowery Bhoys” supporters of the Know Nothings, fought a pitched battle with their Irish Catholic adversaries, the “Dead Rabbits”, who favored the city’s Democratic mayor, Fernando Wood. The frequency of political and sectarian violence in the nation’s growing cities troubled many Americans in the 1850s.
  • Activists display a representation of the Ten Commandments October 2003 during a rally at the West Lawn of the U.S. Capitol in Washington, DC. Christian activists gathered on Capitol Hill as the last stop of a five-state rally tour.
  • One of Thomas Nast’s vitriolic comments on the separation between Church (i.e., the Roman Catholic Church) and State.
  • Dred Scott and his wife, Harriet, are portrayed here with their children as an average middle-class family, an image that fueled northern opposition to the Supreme Court’s 1857 decision that denied Scott’s freedom and citizenship.
  • Abraham Lincoln making a point at Coles County (Illinois) Fairgrounds, 1858.His U.S. Senate opponent, Stephen A. Douglas, sitting at Lincoln’s right, waits his turn. The Lincoln-Douglas debates captivated Illinois voters and articulated two separate journeys for the nation, one with and one without slavery.
  • MAP 14–3 Railroads in the United States, 1860
    A vast network of railroads honeycombed the North and West by 1860.While the South made considerable progress in railroad construction during the 1850s, its lines had many different gauges, and it lacked suitable connections to the West.
  • The John Brown mural in the Kansas State House demonstrates the connection between history and memory as much as artistic license. The artist depicts Brown as a crazed patriarch with a rifle in one hand and a Bible in the other while standing on slain corpses. In the background, Confederate and Union troops battle. In reality, The Kansas Brown was clean-shaven and the Civil War began more than a year after Brown’s death. The artist makes the dubious claim that the civil war in Kansas led directly to the larger conflict.
    Kansas State Historical Societys, Copy and Reuse Restrictions apply.
  • MAP 14–4 The Election of 1860
    The election returns from 1860 vividly illustrate the geography of sectionalism.
  • “Dividing the National Map” Reflecting the sectional nature of the campaign, three of the four candidates in the 1860 presidential election tear the fabric of national unity. Lincoln and Douglas yank at the North and West and Breckinridge pulls at the South, while the fourth candidate, John Bell of the Constitutional Union party makes a futile attempt to glue the pieces back together.
  • MAP 14–5 The Course of Secession
    Before the firing on Fort Sumter in April 1861, the Confederacy consisted primarily of states in the Lower South. After Sumter, and after President Lincoln called upon them for troops, the Upper South states of Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas seceded.
  • The Politics of Sectionalism Slideshow Chapter 14

    1. 1. THE AMERICAN JOURNEY A HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES Brief Sixth Edition Chapter 14 The Politics of Sectionalism 1846-1861 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    2. 2. The Politics of Sectionalism 1846-1861 • • • • Slavery in the Territories Political Realignment The Road to Disunion Conclusion The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    3. 3. Vivid illustrations accompanied the numerous editions of Uncle Tom’s Cabin depicting the brutal realities of slavery and the unmerited suffering of the slave The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    4. 4. Learning Objectives • Why was the issue of slavery in the territories so contentious? • What factors contributed to the Republicans’ rise to political prominence? • Why were Southerners so alarmed by the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860? The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    5. 5. Slavery in the Territories The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    6. 6. Slavery in the Territories • From the late 1840s until 1861, northern and southern leaders attempted to fashion a solution to the problem of slavery in the territories. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    7. 7. Slavery in the Territories (cont'd)  Compromise of 1850 - The four-step compromise which admitted California as a free state, allowed the residents of the New Mexico and Utah territories to decide the slavery issue for themselves, ended the slave trade in the District of Columbia, and passed a new fugitive slave law to enforce the constitutional provision stating that a slave escaping into a free state shall be delivered back to the owner. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    8. 8. The Wilmot Proviso • Proposed by Pennsylvania Democrat David Wilmot in 1846, the Wilmot Proviso called for outlawing of slavery in any territories acquired from Mexico. • The debate over the proviso aroused distrust and suspicion between Northerners and Southerners as Congress divided along sectional lines. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    9. 9. The Wilmot Proviso (cont'd)  Wilmot Proviso - The amendment offered by Pennsylvania Democrat David Wilmot in 1846 which stipulated that “as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any territory from the Republic of Mexico . . . neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory.” The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    10. 10. The Election of 1848 • To defuse the slavery issue, Democratic presidential nominee Lewis Cass proposed the doctrine of popular sovereignty that let the people decide on whether slavery would be permitted or not. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    11. 11. The Election of 1848 (cont’d) • The Whig nominee Zachary Taylor was silent on the slavery issue but northern Whigs bolted the party and formed the Free-Soil Party with a platform of “free soil, free speech, free labor, free men.” The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    12. 12. The Election of 1848 (cont’d) • Taylor won the election.  Popular Sovereignty - A solution to the slavery crisis suggested by Michigan senator Lewis Cass by which territorial residents, not Congress, would decide slavery’s fate. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    13. 13. Parisian partisans burn royal carriages, February 1848. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    14. 14. “One of the People’s Saints for the Calendar of Liberty” 1852. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    15. 15. The Gold Rush • The discovery of gold in California triggered a rush that brought more than 100,000 people to the territory. • San Francisco was transformed from a small port to a bustling metropolis. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    16. 16. The Compromise of 1850 • When California applied for admission to the Union, the issue of parity among slave and free states arose. • President Taylor supported a version of popular sovereignty. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    17. 17. The Compromise of 1850 (cont’d) • Henry Clay offered the Compromise of 1850 that was eventually passed when Illinois Senator Stephen A. Douglas offered the proposals as separate initiatives. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    18. 18. The Compromise of 1850 (cont’d) • The major benefit for southerners was a stronger Fugitive Slave Act.  Fugitive Slave Act - Law, part of the Compromise of 1850 that required authorities in the North to assist southern slave catchers and return runaway slaves to their owners. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    19. 19. MAP 14–1 The Compromise of 1850 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    20. 20. Response to the Fugitive Slave Act • Free African Americans in the North responded to the Fugitive Slave Act by forming associations for protection and resistance. • Frederick Douglass convened the National Black Convention in 1853 to establish a national council but it failed. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    21. 21. This notice, typical of warnings posted in northern cities The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    22. 22. Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel ignited a firestorm over slavery, moving many northerner whites to more active antislavery participation. • Southerners condemned Uncle Tom’s Cabin. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    23. 23. The Election of 1852 • The Compromise of 1850 had divided the Whigs. • Democratic candidate Franklin Pierce won a landslide over Whig candidate General Winfield Scott. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    24. 24. Political Realignment The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    25. 25. Young America’s Foreign Misadventures • Franklin Pierce supported the Young America movement to expand American influence into the Caribbean and Latin America. • The Ostend Manifesto called for the United States to buy Cuba and aroused an uproar in the United States and other nations. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    26. 26. Young America’s Foreign Misadventures (cont'd) • William Walker attempted to gain control of Nicaragua but failed.  Ostend Manifesto - Message sent by U.S. envoys to President Pierce from Ostend, Belgium, in 1854, stating that the United States had a “divine right” to wrest Cuba from Spain. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    27. 27. Stephen Douglas’s Railroad Proposal • Senator Stephen A. Douglas wanted the transcontinental railroad route to go through Chicago and Indian-occupied Nebraska Territory. • President Pierce forced the Native Americans to cede land for the railroad in 1853. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    28. 28. Stephen Douglas’s Railroad Proposal (cont’d) • Douglas sought congressional approval to set up a government in the Nebraska Territory. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    29. 29. The Kansas-Nebraska Act • Douglas’ Kansas-Nebraska Bill broke the territory into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska. • Douglas supported popular sovereignty. • Northerners were outraged because the Bill repealed the Missouri Compromise and showed the South’s determination to spread slavery. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    30. 30. The Kansas-Nebraska Act • President Pierce supported the KansasNebraska Bill which became law.  Kansas-Nebraska Act - Law passed in 1854 creating the Kansas and Nebraska Territories but leaving the question of slavery open to residents, thereby repealing the Missouri Compromise. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    31. 31. “Bleeding Kansas” • Northerners and Southerners rushed to settle Kansas and gain a majority in the territory. • The proslavery forces fraudulently elected a legislature and passed laws supporting slavery. • Sporadic violence erupted leading journalists to call the conflict “Bleeding Kansas.” The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    32. 32. “Bleeding Kansas” (cont'd)  “Bleeding Kansas” - Violence between pro- and antislavery forces in Kansas Territory after the passage of the KansasNebraska Act in 1854. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    33. 33. MAP 14–2 The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    34. 34. Know-Nothings and Republicans: Religion and Politics • Mounting violence polarized the North and South, widening sectional conflicts within political parties. • Between 1854 and 1856, Northerners moved into new political parties that changed the national political scene and intensified the sectional conflict. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    35. 35. Know-Nothings and Republicans: Religion and Politics (cont’d) • Anti-immigration feeling also contributed to the party realignment. The Democrats tried to appeal to the Irish immigrants but nativists formed the anti-immigrant, antiCatholic Know Nothing Party. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    36. 36. Know-Nothings and Republicans: Religion and Politics (cont’d) • The Republican Party was formed in 1854 from a coalition of antislavery Whigs and Democrats.  Know-Nothing Party - Anti-immigrant party formed from the wreckage of the Whig Party and some disaffected northern Democrats in 1854. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    37. 37. Know-Nothings and Republicans: Religion and Politics (cont’d)  Republican Party - Party headed by Thomas Jefferson that formed in opposition to the financial and diplomatic policies of the Federalist Party; favored limiting the powers of the national government and placing the interests of farmers and planters over those of financial and commercial groups; supported the cause of the French Revolution. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    38. 38. Gangs of New York. Paramilitary political gangs The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    39. 39. The Election of 1856 • The election of 1856 was approached by a fragmented political party system. • The Know-Nothing and Republican parties each nominated candidates. John C. Frémont was the Republican candidate. The Know-Nothings split in northern and southern factions. Millard Fillmore represented the southern Know-Nothings while the northern group supported Frémont. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    40. 40. The Election of 1856 (cont’d) • The Democrats were divided and nominated James Buchanan who won the election. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    41. 41. Activists display a representation of the Ten Commandments The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    42. 42. One of Thomas Nast’s vitriolic comments on the separation between Church (i.e., the Roman Catholic Church) and State. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    43. 43. The Dred Scott Case • Dred Scott sued for his freedom and the case eventually reached the Supreme Court. • Chief Justice Roger B. Taney dismissed Scott’s case and his opinion argued African Americans in the northern states were not citizens and so could not initiate a lawsuit. He also ruled the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    44. 44. The Dred Scott Case (cont'd) • African Americans strongly responded to the Dred Scott decision. • Outrage over the Dred Scott decision boosted Republican fortunes in the North. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    45. 45. The Dred Scott Case (cont'd)  Dred Scott decision - Supreme Court ruling, in a lawsuit brought by Dred Scott, a slave demanding his freedom based on his residence in a free state and a free territory with his master, that slaves could not be U.S. citizens and that Congress had no jurisdiction over slavery in the territories. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    46. 46. Dred Scott and his wife, Harriet, are portrayed here with their children as an average middleclass family The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    47. 47. The Lecompton Constitution • Violence had subsided in Kansas but passage of the proslavery Lecompton Constitution failed to pass in the Senate. • The Panic of 1857 was a severe economic recession that continued into the election year of 1858. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    48. 48. The Lecompton Constitution (cont’d) • The Democratic administration did nothing to alleviate the worsening economic conditions while the Republicans claimed legislation they sponsored could have prevented the Panic. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    49. 49. The Lecompton Constitution (cont’d)  Lecompton Constitution - Proslavery draft written in 1857 by Kansas territorial delegates elected under questionable circumstances; it was rejected by two governors, supported by President Buchanan, and decisively defeated by Congress.  Panic of 1857 - Banking crisis that caused a credit crunch in the North; it was less severe in the South, where high cotton prices spurred a quick recovery. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    50. 50. The Religious Revival of 1857–1858 • In the midst of economic depression and sectional controversy, a religious revival swept across the nation’s cities in the winter of 1857–1858. • Its long-range impact was significant not only culturally, but politically, as emerging issues took on a deeper moral dimension. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    51. 51. The Lincoln-Douglas Debates • The Lincoln-Douglas debates pitted the incumbent Democratic senator against former Whig congressman Abraham Lincoln. • The debates were held throughout Illinois and highlighted the differences between Democrats and Republicans and North and South. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    52. 52. The Lincoln-Douglas Debates (cont'd) • Douglas won the election.  Lincoln-Douglas debates - Series of debates in the 1858 Illinois senatorial campaign during which Democrat Stephen A. Douglas and Republican Abraham Lincoln staked out their differing opinions on the issue of slavery in the territories. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    53. 53. Abraham Lincoln making a point at Coles County (Illinois) Fairgrounds, 1858 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    54. 54. The Road to Disunion The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    55. 55. North-South Differences • Ideological divisions were not the only differences dividing North and South. • The North was increasingly urban and industrial while the South remained rural and agricultural. • The rate of urban and industrial growth in the North was greater than anywhere else in the world in the early 1800s. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    56. 56. North-South Differences (cont'd) • Other differences included more violent tendencies among Southerners, a stronger inclination to serve in the military, and a higher illiteracy rate. • Slavery accounted for many of the differences between North and South. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    57. 57. MAP 14–3 Railroads in the United States, 1860 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    58. 58. South and North Compared in 1860 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    59. 59. John Brown’s Raid • John Brown had become a celebrity in New England intellectual and antislavery circles. • In 1859, Brown recruited a small “army” and attacked the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry hoping to trigger a slave uprising. • Troops under Colonel Robert E. Lee captured Brown and his followers. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    60. 60. John Brown’s Raid (cont'd) • John Brown’s raid raised the worst fears of southerners.  John Brown’s Raid - New England abolitionist John Brown’s ill-fated attempt to free Virginia’s slaves with a raid on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in 1859. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    61. 61. The John Brown mural in the Kansas State House The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    62. 62. The Election of 1860 • Northern Democrats were united behind Stephen A. Douglas but southern extremists disrupted the convention hoping to combine a Republican victory with secession. • Northern Democrats nominated Douglas while southern Democrats nominated John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    63. 63. The Election of 1860 (cont’d) • Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln and Whigs from the Upper South formed the Constitutional Union Party to nominate John Bell of Tennessee. • Lincoln won the election. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    64. 64. The Election of 1860 (cont’d)  Constitutional Union party - National party formed in 1860, mainly by former Whigs, that emphasized allegiance to the Union and strict enforcement of all national legislation.  Wide Awakes - Group of red-shirted, black-caped young men who paraded through city streets in the North extolling the virtues of the Republican Party during the 1860 presidential election campaign. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    65. 65. MAP 14–4 The Election of 1860 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    66. 66. “Dividing the National Map” The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    67. 67. Secession and Slavery • Abraham Lincoln’s victory prompted the secession of six southern states. • Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas formed the Confederate States of America.  Confederate States of America - Nation proclaimed in Montgomery, Alabama, in February 1861 after the seven states of the Lower South seceded from the United States. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    68. 68. MAP 14–5 The Course of Secession The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    69. 69. Presidential Inaction  A lame-duck president whose southern dominated cabinet had left Washington, Buchanan did little to more than condemn secession. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    70. 70. Peace Proposals • Kentucky Senator John J. Crittenden tried to package a series of constitutional amendments to solve the sectional dispute but this effort failed. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    71. 71. Lincoln’s Views on Secession • Lincoln did not support compromise measures on secession. • Lincoln counted on Unionist sentiment to keep the Upper South from seceding. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    72. 72. The Emerging Sectional Crisis The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    73. 73. The Emerging Sectional Crisis The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    74. 74. Fort Sumter: The Tug Comes • Lincoln vowed to uphold federal law and was conciliatory, but southerners wanted concessions. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    75. 75. Fort Sumter: The Tug Comes (cont'd) • The surrender of Fort Sumter began the Civil War.  Fort Sumter - Begun in the late 1820s to protect Charleston, South Carolina, it became the center of national attention in April 1861 when President Lincoln attempted to provision federal troops at the fort, triggering a hostile response from on-shore Confederate forces, opening the Civil War. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    76. 76. Conclusion The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    77. 77. Conclusion • The Wilmot Proviso began the process that ended with the outbreak of the Civil War. • Political conflict over slavery eventually focused on northern efforts to stop southern expansion and southern to maintain their power and influence in the federal government by expanding slavery in the western territories. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    78. 78. Conclusion (cont'd) • By 1861, neither national political and other organizations could mute sectional animosities. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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