June 15, 2009To Whom It May Concern:This letter is to recommend Ms. Cathleen Rose Jeffers for a teaching position. As a Program Supervisorrepresenting Northeastern University, I worked with Rose during her year-long internship at SnowdenInternational High School.Rose Jeffers’ internship was in a school that presented her with many challenges during the year. Rose turnedthese challenges into opportunities to help her students.In terms of curriculum, Rose faced an ever-changing set of requirements. For example, a Facing Historycomponent was added mid way through the year. Despite being denied the chance to train with the permanentteaching staff, Rose dove into the material. She studied on her own, asked questions and developed lessonsthat asked the students to look inward at themselves to understand how the Holocaust could happen. Shehelped the students to identify the factors that shape individual identity, group membership, and how ideas ofrace have played a role in inclusion and exclusion of people from community and/or national citizenship. Sheconnected all of this to the world her students live in. Through these and other lessons, Rose continuouslymodified her lessons to meet the needs of her students.Rose actively worked with students who were falling behind. She tackled issues of motivation,comprehension and personal problems. Rose gave generously of her time. Intensive afterschool hours werealways posted on the blackboard. Rose stayed for hours each week assisting students who needed helpunderstanding a concept or needed support to make up work. Sometimes she was there for students who justneeded to talk. She talked to students about their goals and aspirations and how to achieve them. Studentswho excelled were also given special attention through extra credit assignments.Rose is hard working, persistent and adaptable. She asks for and listens to advice. This, along with her abilityto self-evaluate has enabled her to continually improve as a professional. Rose is now ready to move on to herfirst full time teaching position. If hired, she can be depended on to work collaboratively with staff andadministration as well as giving her best to the students. It is my pleasure to recommend her to you.Sincerely,Thomas GiancristianoNortheastern University Program SupervisorRetired Superintendent of Schools,Winthrop, MA
Education Philosophy! Relationships lay the I am their teacher therefore,groundwork for a successful instruction and learning comes ﬁrst.classroom. I believe solid There needs to be a balance betweenrelationships make every duty in a having fun and strict policies. If theschool run smoothly. In the classroom classroom is too strict, students couldcontext, I start with relationship resent the teacher, and the studentsbuilding by simple actions like getting wouldn’t be able to expressto know an unexpected artifact about themselves as individuals. Allmy students and making time to talk activities in my classroom can beto each student individually. I learn interpreted as fun, but expectationswhat interests students and try to are key to managing interesting or funincorporate these items into teaching activities because as long as thea lesson or just relating to a student. students understand the expectations,Along with solid curriculum planning, rules, and consequences, the lessonpositive relationships make other and curriculum will run more smoothlyactions, like classroom/behavior and without interruptions for behaviormanagement, in the classroom seem management. In addition, if a studentto fall into place. Students know the needs someone to talk to, he or she isexpectations, and they know I am welcome to come after school. As adedicated to their success. Therefore, teacher, I understand that everyonethey become responsible for has their own battles they are ﬁghting,themselves, and they want to achieve. and that includes my students.We treat each other with respect as Positive relationships foster positivehuman beings. learning experiences, which lead to" Another important relationship strong members of the Americanin education is between the teacher society. I participate in this processand the family. I connect with each by creating a system of education thatstudent’s family either by mail, is inclusive and creates a positivetelephone, and/or in person. I explain attitude towards education andto the guardians what my school, which can then be carried outexpectations are of their child. I into the work place and thedescribe what opportunities are community.available to their student whether it ismy after-school hours or upcomingschool events. I regularly updateeach parent whether the news ispositive or negative. This is importantbecause families are a key link in astudent’s success." There is a ﬁne line inrelationships between students andteachers especially in high school. Iwill make it clear to each student that
Behavior Management Philosophy! My classroom management ! High school can be one ofplan correlates to my education the most stressful times in a youngp h i l o s o p h y. With positive adult’s life. There are pressuresrelationships, classroom from home, school, and in somemanagement should be seamless. cases work. Students need to getStudents will be responsible for ready for the world outside ofthemselves and want to do well school. Some need to apply andduring class. Students will want to prepare for college. Others havelearn. However, this is not always to prepare to start working fullthe case especially when there are time. Either way, students arenumerous outside factors that can becoming legally adults, and thisaffect a high school student’s life can really worry students. I seeksuch as growing from a child to an to provide a stable environment ofadult. clear expectations for students to" I believe my classroom learn and be prepared. I letshould be a community of young students know that I understandadults learning to be successful the pressures they are and will gomembers of society. We will work through. I reserve after schooltogether to learn the necessary time for students to come anditems to become productive discuss troubles they have. If aAmerican citizens. I will set student cannot do an assignmentguidelines to mentor each student because of a certain reason, I tellto make the right decisions in students they need to come afterschool and out of school. school to discuss it. DuringStudents will be able to apply the school, students need to staylessons learned in class to real life focused.situations. " Ultimately, my principle is" My relationship with my that I am strict, but I care for eachstudents will direct them on the student. My classroom is a saferight course to work together space for students to learn andtowards our goals. Students will grow as young adults.learn from me, but they will alsol e a r n f r o m e a c h o t h e r.Furthermore, I will continue mylearning with each class I teachin order to become a bettert e a c h e r. Students willunderstand that every person,no matter what age, race,profession, et cetra, hassomething important to sharewith others.! There will be studentvoice in my classroom, butstudents will also understandauthority. Students won’t becontrolled, and there will bemutual respect betweenstudents and myself. This isimportant to me so studentsunderstand that they are valuedboth as someone who hasimportant opinions and as ahuman being.
In my classroom, students work on numerous hands-on activities like making Myspace profiles forEnlightenment Thinkers. This creates lessons that are both effective and engaging.
Background or ContextBrief description of Group:First Period, class of 31 junior high school students, school starts at 7:50amThursday before Martin Luther King Jr. DayGeneral Goal(s) / Overall Purpose of Lesson and Relationship to Theme or Unit:Students will understand the importance of Gandhi to the developments in India.Students will understand the concept of passive resistance. Lesson PlanMassachusetts Curriculum Frameworks and Learning Standard(s):Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and Early 20th CenturiesWHII.12 Identify major developments in Indian history in the 19th and early 20th centuries.! A. the rise of Indian nationalism and the inﬂuence and ideas of GandhiSpeciﬁc, Immediate or Short-Term Objectives:Students will listen and watch a clip from a Gandhi documentary.Students will complete a student-centered activity on Gandhi.Students will make the connection between Gandhi and other inﬂuence persons such as Martin Luther King Jr. in small groups.Students will share back their ﬁndings.Materials: • Movie Clip • Student-centered activity sheets • World History II textbook • United States History textbook • Lecture notesMinilesson:! Do Now: Students will ﬁnish the Boston Public School’s social studies “Interactive Notebook” to beturned in today (Thursday). The question is “What were the results of the Sepoy Rebellion?” Studentslearned about aggressive resistance, and they will learn about nonviolent resistance today. Students handin notebooks to be graded.! I will explain the video clip of a documentary on Gandhi. I will show the clip with is 9 minutes long.After the clip, I explain the student-centered activity, and break students into groups of 3 or 4 tocomplete the work.Guided Practice:The group work is to help explain the importance Gandhi had on India and other persons of history! such as MLK.Students will use United States History textbook that have been pre-markedStudents will answer the following questions: 1. Summarize what main ideas King took from Gandhi. 2. Give examples of how King put these beliefs into action.! a. If you can’t, how could King have? 3. Compare the opposition ! against King and Gandhi.Share / Wrap Up:Students will share back 2-3 oftheir observations. Instruction Standard B - Delivers Eﬀectiveand expectations when ndards I. Communicates high staAssessment:Gandhi student-centered activity beginning the lesson. to students.sheets # a) Makes learning objectives clearVerbal questions and answers g and speaking. # b) Communicates clearly in writin new unit of study orBrief Plans for Next Lesson: # c) Uses engaging ways to begin aHomework: Chapter 25, Section 5, lesson.! Questions #4 and 5 # dge and experience.The Great Powers Divide China # d) Builds on students’ prior knowleActivity
Reﬂection" I thought the lesson was very effective and engaging. I saw resultsin many assessments after the lesson. The following week, we had achapter test, and the week after that we had the Boston citywide midtermexaminations. In both tests, numerous students used the topicsdiscussed in the video clip and in class and in their open responseanswers.! I would have changed one minor item that I overlooked before. Ishould have explained what the “untouchables” were before the video.The commentator spoke of the “untouchables” numerous times, and Irealized while watching it with the class that students might notunderstand. After the clip, I asked how many students know who the“untouchables” were. Only a couple pupils raised their hands, and I askone student to explain it to the class. She ended up explaining it betterthat I could have!" The assignment to have students compare Martin Luther King, Jr. toGandhi took more probing that I originally thought it would. Once studentsfound the connection between passive resistance versus active resistance,many we able to compare other groups like the Black Panthers, the KluKlux Klan, and the Sepoy Rebellion.
ability to succeed I believe every student has theng adult. My role, sful you in school and become a succes as the teacher, is to pro vide the student with every ceed. I prove my opportunity to completely suc dents by creating less philosophy everyday to the stu t-centered activities. I stay teacher talk and more studen e explaining anything after school most days until lat a subject to why students from more in-depth teaching ofin order to become need to succeed in high school erican society. exceptional members of the Am Standard D – Promoteffortquity to es E is a key believe thatI. Encourages all students to achievement. ment by all students withoutII. Works to promote achieve exception.
Stage One – Identify Desired ResultsEstablished Goals:Students will understand the Holocaust and Human Behavior through Facing History and OurselvesMassachusetts State Standards: • WHII.21: Describe the rise and goals of totalitarianism in Italy, Germany, and the Soviet Union, and analyze the policies and ideas of Mussolini, Hitler, Lenin, and Stalin. • WHII.24: Summarize the key battles and events of World War II. • WHII.26: Describe the background, course, and consequences of the Holocaust, including its roots in the long tradition of Christian anti-Semitism, 19th century ideas about race and nation, and Nazi dehumanization of the Jews. • WHII.28: Explain the consequences of World War II.Understandings:Students will understand… lum Standard A - Plans Curricu The importance of listening to classmates and diverse viewpoints in order to inform their own thinking and Instruction the relevant Deﬁnitions of old and new words evolve over 1. Draws on content standards of uential units of time like race, racism, nationalism, anti-Semitism, curriculum frameworks to plan seq g activities that study, individual lessons, and learnin universe of obligation, membership ance students’ make learning cumulative and adv The inﬂuence of culture on how they see level of content knowledge. themselves and how others see them Recognize that their own identity is shaped by many factors in their environmentEssential Questions: • How does our identity shape the way we see ourselves in relation to others? • How does our need to belong inﬂuence the decisions we make? • How do we develop our attitudes about others?Students will know… • The major events before, during, and after World War II. • How genocides are developed. • The factors that motivated people in the past to think and act the way they did. • How was this past situation similar to present-day situations. • Why do people create distinctions between us and them.Students will be able to… o Develop deep understanding of history and its relation to students’ lives through an exposure to rich content, stimulating classroom discussions, and thought provoking assignments that enhance historical thinking skills. o Have ethical reﬂection on moral implications of decision making and human behavior embedded in the study of this history o Fully engage in the questions and issues raised in the guide requires students to be emotionally attuned to the past and present lives they read about and discuss in class o Develop a heightened sense of civic responsibility as they move through the unit. They learn to appreciated how their own efforts can contribute to building a civil society locally, nationally, and globally o What can be done to encourage people to make different choices? o What decisions are being made by individuals, groups, and governments that might be helping to resolve this conﬂict? o How might these people be supported? o What can be done to encourage others to make similar choices?
Stage Two – Determine Acceptable EvidencePerformance Tasks:Students write a ﬁnal paper that represents one way they might demonstrate what they havelearned in this unit.As a whole class, ask students to brainstorm all the factors that they think contributed to theHolocaust. Then ask students to circle the factors that are speciﬁc to this particular history. Forexample, Adolf Hitler and Germany’s history of anti-Semitism is speciﬁc to events of the Holocaust.Next ask student to underline the factors that represent universal themes that students see in theworld today. Examples of such themes include “fear to speak out against injustice” or “prejudiceagainst others based on race or religion.” With these lists as guides, students have the option ofanswering one of the following essay questions: • Select one factor from the list of universal themes. Deﬁne this factor or term using examples from material you studied in this unit. Then explain how this factor contributed to the Holocaust, using evidence to defend your argument. Finally, describe where you see this theme in the world today. Suggest what might be done so that something that was contributing factor to the Holocaust does not become a source for violence and injustice today. • Identify a violent or unjust situation in the world today. It could be local, national, or global in nature. Analyze this situation through the lens of human behavior, drawing on the concepts you learned in this unit. Describe how the situation is similar to and different from situations you recently studied. Finally, suggest what might be done to resolve this situation. Here are some guiding questions that may help you analyze this situation: o What choices are being made by individuals, groups, and governments that are contributing to the conﬂict? o What can be done to encourage people to make different choices? o What decisions are being made by individuals, groups, and governments that might be helping to resolve this conﬂict? o How might these people be supported? o What can be done to encourage others to make similar choices? • Global Issues can be produced as a class or individually based on class abilities. Other Evidence: Written assignments, verbal answers, group lum and Standard A - Plans Curricu work, pair share, quizzes, tests, class discussions, debates, informal notes. Instruction informal assessments 2. Draws on results of formal and elopment to identify Student Self-Assessment and Reﬂection: as well as knowledge of human dev ivities appropriate Routine self reﬂection on how should this teaching strategies and learning act of English language to the speciﬁc discipline, age, level history be interpreted and connected to the levels being taught. proﬁciency, and range of cognitive students’ own life – interactive notebooks
Stage Three – Learning PlanDay One: Section One - How Are Our Identities Formed? Who am I; what are the various factors that! shape my identity; in what ways is our identity deﬁned by others?Day Two: Membership. What does is mean to be a member of a group; how is it deﬁned;! why do people create a distinction between us and them?Day Three: Identity and Race. What is race? Myths associated with the social construct! of race.Day Four: Race and Membership. Identify common ﬂaws in racial thinking. How have! ideas of race played a role in the inclusion and exclusion of people from community membership! and/or national citizenship?Day Five: Anti-Semitism. Identify examples of anti-Semitism at different points in! German history from 1700 through 1900 in order to analyze how anti-Semitism changed and! remained the same throughout this time.Day Six: Section Two – Nationalism turns Deadly – Armenians in the Ottoman Empire. Watch movie The Armenian Genocide. Recognize that they way a society resolves issues of membership and! deﬁnes its universe of obligation can have life-and-death consequences for the most vulnerable! groups in a nation.Day Seven: The range of choices – Responses to the Armenian Genocide. What is a bystander? How a! genocidal process occurs in steps over time.Day Eight: Hitler’s path to dictator timeline. Students will understand that Hitler became a dictator! through democratic means. What conditions pit democracy at risk?Day Nine: Section Three – Nazis in Power. Recognize policies and practices in Nazi Germany that! created distinctions between “pure” Germans and other people living in Germany. Understand how! minority groups become vulnerable when they lack basic civic rights.Day Ten: Analyzing Propaganda. What is propaganda? How can it shape the decisions people make?! Compare and contrast Nazi propaganda in the 1930s and the manipulations of images in the! media today.Day Eleven: Obedience to Authority. Watch video on Milgram’s study of conformity and obedience. Why good people would cooperate with the Nazi dictatorship.Day Twelve: Section Four – Planning and Executing Mass Murder (Part One). Learn how the Nazis! planned and carried out mass murder across Europe. Process video footage of the Final Solution! on an intellectual, emotional, and ethical level.Day Thirteen: Planning and Executing Mass Murder (Part Two). Bystanders vs. perpetrators.Day Fourteen: Section Five – Justice After the Holocaust. What is justice? How is it achieved after a! horrible event like the Holocaust?Day Fifteen: Be the Change: Upstanders for Human Rights. Understand the factors that motivate! people to “choose to participate.” Understand that we are all capable of choosing to participate.Day Sixteen: Brainstorm ideas for Performance Task. As a class, brainstorm ideas of all the factors that! contributed to the Holocaust and determined which are universal themes. Help students make notes,! gather information, and start writing a paper.Day Seventeen: Rough Draft work. Work on writing.Day Eighteen: Rough Draft work.Day Nineteen: Peer edit and student-teacher conferences. Students peer edit while I conference with! students one-on-one.Day Twenty: Bibliography lesson. With all the information collected, help students, as a class, create a! bibliography. Also, students will further understand what plagiarizing is and how to avoid it. Day Twenty-One: Final paper.
Background or ContextBrief description of Group:First Period, class of 30 high school juniors, school starts at 7:50am.Eight students have liaisons, of those eight students four are failing. Four other studentsare also failing the class. The lowest grade is a 32%, and the highest grade is a 95%.General Goal(s) / Overall Purpose of Lesson and Relationship to Theme or Unit:This is the ﬁrst lesson in the new unit called the Holocaust and Human Behavior wherestudents gain understanding of the events leading up to World War II and the Holocaustthrough the lens of understanding themselves. Students look inward to understand howhuman beings can view others as UN-human.The goal of this lesson is not only to introduce students to issues of identity and conformitythat will reappear throughout the unit but also to provide support for a reﬂective classroomcommunity. Lesson Plan: How Are Our Identities Formed?Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks and Learning Standard(s):WHII.26: Describe the background, course, and consequences of the Holocaust, including! its roots in the long tradition of Christian anti-Semitism, 19th century ideas about race! and nation, and Nazi dehumanization of the Jews.Speciﬁc, Immediate or Short-Term Objectives:This lesson is designed to help students Standard A - Plans • recognize the importance of listening to Curriculum and classmates and to diverse view points in order to Instruction inform their own thinking; lessons with clear objectives • begin to construct working deﬁnitions of the terms 5. Plans and relevant measurable outcomes. identity, conformity, and peer pressure • recognize that their own identity is shaped by many factors in their environment; and • consider the inﬂuence of culture on how they see themselves and how others see them.Materials:Student Interactive Notebooks / Reﬂective Journals“The Bear That Wasn’t,” pp. 1-9 in the resource bookMinilesson:I will start the lesson with the students doing a Do Now to create an Identity Chart forthemselves. I will model this by creating my own Identity Chart for the students tounderstand. Also, there will be a second example on the paper that explains what anIdentity Chart is along with ideas for what to put on it. In next lesson, students will add totheir Identity Charts to include groups that hold membership (both formal-school, sportsteam, etc- and informal-friends, hobbies, etc).
To end this activity, I will ask students to answer 2 questions. 1. To what extent do you shape your own identity? 2. To what extent is your identity shaped by others, such as family or friends?Guided Practice:The main activity of this lesson focuses on “The Bear That Wasn’t.” I will ask students totake turns reading aloud the story. As students read, students will underline key worlds thatdescribe aspects of the bear’s identity and to highlight any evidence of conformity as well.Share / Wrap Up:After we read the story together, I will ask students what they saw in terms of power,bureaucracy, conformity, and obedience. I will ask a student to come to the board and as aclass, we will create an identity chart for the bear. • What phrases does the bear use to deﬁne himself?” • What words did others use to deﬁne him? • What distinguishes the bear from all other bears? • From all other workers at the factory? • How does the identity of the bear shift over time?Assessment:Once a week, I will collect the students’ interactive notebooks / reﬂective journals andassess the writing. For this lesson, students will have to answer the following questions: • How have others shaped your identity? How do you deal with it? Were you able to maintain your independence? How difﬁcult was it to do so? • What does the title “The Bear That Wasn’t” mean? Why didn’t factory ofﬁcials recognize the bear for what he was? Why did it become harder and harder for him to maintain his identity as he moved through the bureaucracy of the factory? What is the author, Frank Tashlin, suggesting about the relationship between an individuals and groups shape the identity of those with less power and authority? To what extent do you agree with Tashlin’s interpretation of identity? • What happened when the bear was placed in a new culture? What happened to his identity? What is the relationship between culture and identity? How do the cultures we come from shape our identities? How do cultures we come from shape how we view others – those within our culture and those outside our culture?Brief Plans for Next Lesson:For next lesson, students will be looking at membership. For the Do Now, students will addto their Identity Charts to include the answers to the following four questions: 1. Of what groups are you a member? 2. To what communities do you belong? 3. How do you know when you are a member of a group or a community? 4. How do you know when you are an outsider?
Students will look at: how membership creates a sense of responsibility to your fellow members, how membership creates an “Universe of Obligation,” and how membership creates the distinction between us and them, which can create dire consequences. Adaptations / Modiﬁcations: For my Fifth period class, the students needed more direct question-and-answer instruction. The homework completion percentage was less than 50%. Therefore, I altered my lessons to allow most work be done in the classroom. Students who move more quickly could ﬁnish their work and complete extra credit. Students who needed a lot of attention and aid could complete their work and get credit in class. I was more direct with this class. I cut back on the discussion, and reduced the lesson to 3 or 4 essential items. Most lessons, I had students complete the Do Now, an oral reading, 2 or 3 verbal answers, and 5 written answers. In this way, most students receive full credit on all four assignments. For this lesson, reduced the three bullet point questions to more direct like: • How have others shaped your identity? How do you deal with it? Were you able to maintain your independence? How difﬁcult was it to do so? •What does the title “The Bear That Wasnʼt” mean? Why didnʼt factory ofﬁcials recognize the bear for what he was? Standard A - Plans •What happened when the bear was placed in a new Curriculum an d Instruction culture? What happened to his identity? What is the terials,3. Identiﬁes appropriate reading ma relationship between culture and identity? How do the ies forother resources, and writing activit cultures we come from shape our identities? How do fullpromoting further learning by the cultures we come from shape how we view others – oom.range of students within the classr those within our culture and those outside our culture? Before I started altering my lesson plans, the grades for the 14 students ranged from 8% – 89%. I had 9 students failing, 3 had a C average, and the last 2 had a B average. Now, after three weeks, grades range from 40% – 99%. Three students are failing, 5 students have a C average, 4 have a B average, and one student has a 99%.* The student who had an 8% now has 52%. I believe that for fourth term, if I continue my new instruction method, most of the students will pass with more than 75% for a grade. At that time, I predicted that for fourth term, if I continued my new instruction method, most of the students would pass with more than 75% for a grade. Ultimately, two students were expelled from school for reasons not having to do with my class. One student, who was receiving a C+ average in my class, was transferred to an alternative school because of her failing marks in other classes. Only one student failed my class, and the rest ranged from 70%-99% (4C, 2B, 4A). *One student was suspended shortly after my new instruction. He had a failing grade, but I did not include him in my recordings because he had be absent for over 7 days.
Reﬂection ! The lesson went well. This was the ﬁrst lesson in the new Holocaust and Human Behavior unit. It had a completely different layout and sequence than what students were used to, so there were a few logistical questions. For example, students were required to copy a diagram into their notebook on the right side and write their response on the left side. I explained that it did not matter what side they wrote on because their notebooks are more like reﬂective journals. I only asked that the assignments be in order, the writing be neat, and they don’t waste paper. Also, many students were looking for the right answer, and I had to explain that there really isn’t a right answer. Students just need to be reﬂective about both themselves and the history being discussed. " After answering many questions, students really responded positively. Many students told me during and after class that they really enjoyed the lesson and how the following lessons sounded like they were going to be. When I read student responses in the notebook, they were more insightful than I predicted. Students gain the foundation to understanding how the Holocaust and other genocides happen.Standard E - Meets Professional Responsibilities6. Reﬂects critically upon his or her teaching experience, identiﬁes areas for further professionaldevelopment as part of a professional development plan that is linked to grade level, school, anddistrict goals, and is receptive to suggestions for growth.
Background or ContextBrief description of Group:First Period, class of 30 junior high school students, school starts at 7:50am, but the schoolallows students until 8:00am without being tardy.Eight students have liaisons, of those eight students four are failing. Four other studentsare also failing the class. The lowest grade is a 32%, and the highest grade is a 95%.General Goal(s) / Overall Purpose of Lesson and Relationship to Theme or Unit:This is the ﬁrst lesson in the new unit called the Holocaust and Human Behavior wherestudents gain understanding of the events leading up to World War II and the Holocaustthrough the lens of understanding themselves. Students look inward to understand howhuman beings can view others as UN-human.The goal of this lesson is to explore the role of obedience in Germans’ decisions toparticipate in unjust acts against the Jews. Lesson Plan: Obedience to AuthorityMassachusetts Curriculum Frameworks and Learning Standard(s):WHII.26: Describe the background, course, and consequences of the Holocaust, including! its roots in the long tradition of Christian anti-Semitism, 19th century ideas about race! and nation, and Nazi dehumanization of the Jews.Speciﬁc, Immediate or Short-Term Objectives:This lesson is designed to help students • understand the concepts of obedience and conformity; • examine how obedience and conformity inﬂuenced the choices made by Germans during the Holocaust; and • consider how the issues of obedience and conformity are relevant to our lives today.Materials: • Video: Obedience: The Milgram Experiment • “A Matter of Obedience,” pp. 210-13 in the resource book, can be used in addition to or in place of video. Standard A - Plans Curriculum and Instruction logy 7. Incorporates appropriate techno and media in lesson planning.
Minilesson:Students will start with a Do Now. They will have to read a short paragraph of StanleyMilgram’s study, “A Matter of Obedience.” It is the beginning excerpt of why good peoplewould cooperate with the Nazi dictatorship, and how Milgram set up the experiment. Then,students will hypothesize for three questions. The excerpt is:" Working with pairs, Milgram designated one volunteer as “teacher” and the other as" “learner.” As the “teacher watched, the “learner” was strapped into a chair with an" electrode attached to each wrist. The “learner” was then told to memorize word pairs" for a test and warned that wrong answers would result in electric shocks. The" “learner” was, in fact, a member of Milgram’s team. The real focus of the experiment" was the “teacher.” Each was taken to a separate room and seated before a “shock" generator” with switches ranging from 15 volts labeled “slight shock” to 450 volts" labeled “danger - severe shock.” Each “teacher” was told to administer a “shock” for" each wrong answer. The shock was to increase by 15 volts every time the “learner”" responded incorrectly. The “teacher” received a practice shock before the test began" to get an idea of the pain involved.The three questions are: • What percentage of volunteer “teachers” do you think will refuse to give the “learner” any electric shocks at all? • What percentage of volunteer “teachers” do you think will refuse to give electric shocks of more than 150 volts? • What percentage of volunteer “teachers” do you think will give shocks up to 450 volts (labeled “danger - severe shock”)?After students made their hypothesizes, we discussed what they thought. Many believedthat less than half would give a shock to people at all, and that very little would give a shockmore that 150 to 450 volts. I will explain that the “learner” is never actually shocked. He isa member of Milgram’s team, and he pretends to be shocked with prerecorded andrehearsed responses. Students will gain more insight through the actual documentation invideo and/or ﬁlm.Guided Practice:For the main activity, I will show a clip from the ﬁlm Obedience: The Milgram Experiment.The clip includes the part when the “teacher” volunteer obeys the instructions of the testadministrator to the most advanced degree (minutes 21:50-35:15). Students should closelyobserve the behavior of the “teacher” and the test administrator. I will provide a note-takingtemplate with the following questions: • What language is used by the experimenter and the “teacher”? • What is the “teacher’s” body language? • How did the teacher act as he administered the shocks? • What did he say? • What pressures were placed on him as the experiment continued?
Share / Wrap Up:After the video clip, I will ask students for their comments and reactions. I willshare with them that Milgram predicted that most volunteers would refuse to giveelectric shocks of more than 150 volts. On the contrary, sixty-ﬁve percent of thevolunteers gave the “learner” the full 450 volts.Assessment:Students verbal responses will be informally graded along with their notebookresponses. The homework assignment will be for students to relate the results ofthe Milgram’s experiment with what they have learned about Germany in the1920s and 1930s.Brief Plans for Next Lesson:The next lesson will focus back on how the Nazis. We will talk about how theNazis planned and carried out mass murder across Europe. The students willprocess video footage of the Final Solution on an intellectual, emotional, andethical level.Adaptations / Modiﬁcations:One modiﬁcation in the lesson is the use of “A Matter of Obedience” text insteadof the video footage. Students may read this instead of watching the clip if thetechnology is not available. This requires more class discussion and hypothesizesof how people reacted.
Reﬂection ! One major modiﬁcation I did in the lesson was the use of the “A Matter of Obedience” text instead of the video clip. I did not have access to the video: Obedience: The Milgram Experiment. Instead, I spent more time discussing how people easily fall into obedience and conformity. I discussed events like The Third Wave, when a teacher experimented with creating a distinct classroom. Another was the Prison Experiment, where experimenters created a “prison” with “guards” and “prisoners.” In both experiments, people began to feel superior to others, which led to violence. Then, one of the most current events was the “Strip Search Prank Call Scam,” in 2004. These incidents involved a man calling a restaurant or grocery store, claiming to be a police detective, and convincing managers to conduct strip searches of female employees or perform other unusual acts on behalf of the police. ! Students had a hard time imagining these events happening, However, when I pushed them to relate it to themselves, some confessed that they could see themselves falling victim to such events. Furthermore, some students said that they have gone along with their friends when they knew they should have protested. I ended the class by stressing the idea of thinking for one’s self. I said to not be disrespectful to authority or teachers, but to question things especially if it doesn’t feel right. There are numerous times people conform to bad ideals because of the need to belong, the need to get a good grade, or a good job. Standard E - Meets Professional Responsibilities3. Maintains interest in current theory, research, and developments in the academicdiscipline and exercises judgment in accepting implications or ﬁndings as valid forapplication in classroom practice.
These are student notebook samples answering questions about how theiridentity is shaped! These two studentsreally excelled in this unit because they were able to really understandthemselves in order to understand the world around them!
These are more student notebook samples! The top left sample is responses to a documentary the class watched on the Armenian Genocide! The other two samples have to do withunjust situations " the student included the questions I provided!
These two samples are responses to a James Berry poem named #What Do We Do With Variation!$ The top sample has the Berry poem% and she wrote her own poem to respond! The bottom is another poem as a response!
The unit before the Holocaust and Human Behavior unit was about World War I. I started my takeover near the end of this unit. To concluded the World War I unit, I created a list of projects that studentscould produce. Students had to chose one of the following options to write an essay and create a poster.Students first created a rough draft, then they peer edited, and had a student-teacher conference. Thestudents presented their final product to the class. 1. Draw a map of Europe in 1914 and superimpose on it the boundary changes of 1919, which resulted from World War I. Label these areas and explain in an oral report what these changes are. 2. Research the role of African-Americans in World War I. Why do some people say that WWI was “a turning point in black American history”. 3. Prepare two charts, the first of which lists the Fourteen Point of Woodrow Wilson, and the second, which gives the terms of the Versailles Treaty. Point out where they are dissimilar and explain why. 4. Do a report that compares the evolution and effectiveness of the rifle, machine gun, and artillery pieces used by England, France, and Germany in World War I. 5. Create a collage of pictures of the political leaders of the countries, which participated in World War I. Give a summary of the role and fate of each. 6. Create a collage of pictures of the military men who commanded in World War I. Give a summary of their roles and their subsequent fate. 7. Find 4 examples of poetry written in reaction to World War I. Distribute to the class and explain the significance of each piece. 8. Analyze the role of women in European society indicating any changes that took place in their social, political, and economic situations after World War I. 9. How did the “rules” of war change after 1918? Discuss any treaties or conferences, which tried to limit the horrors of war. 10. Create a poster demonstrating the use of propaganda by various countries in World War I. Explain the intended and actual effect it had on the people of the country and people outside the country. Explain how propaganda was distributed and spread. 11. Extra Credit: Create a collage, which reflects the changes in men’s and women’s clothing from 1910 to 1920.Requirements: • Your project must have a thesis and a theme Standard B - Delivers Effective • All papers are to be between three (3) to five (5) pages in Instruction length IV. Communicates high standards and • Use graphs, charts, political cartoons, and pictures. expectations when evaluating student However, do not include any graphic without an learning. explanation. # a) Accurately measures student • Cite your sources!! Any paper or text that infringes # achievement of, and progress # toward, the learning objectives copyright laws, meaning it is copied word for word, # with a variety of formal and #informal even a sentence, off the Internet or any other source # assessments, and uses results to plan will receive a failing mark # further instruction.Due Dates: # b) Translates evaluations of studentFriday, February 13 th – pick topic for project # work into records that accurately # convey the level of studentMonday, February 23rd – completed rough draft of project report # achievement to students, parents # or guardians, and school personnel.Wednesday, February 25th – completed, edited project reportFriday, February 27th – completed project posterWeek of March 2nd – 6th – presentations
This is a peer edit checklist that I found online and provide to the students! After each student wrote their rough draft% they switched with a classmate and performeda peer edit! To guide each student%I provided this checklist for them!
These are the two rubrics that I created to grade the students on their reports and their posters and presentations! The reportrubric is straight"forward! The poster& presentation rubric included two very important elements! The first was #use of class time$ that I added because numerous studentsneeded to understand the importance of allocated time! The second point was the most important " in my mind! It was #respect of peers!$ I included this therefore the respect level in the classroom rose! Studentslisten and asked thoughtful questions to their peers!
The next four slides includestudent samples from their World War One reports! Some are final copies like the two on this page% andothers are rough drafts next to final copies!
Standard B - Delivers Eﬀective InstructionIII. Communicates high standards and expectations whenextending and completing the lesson.# a) Assigns homework or practice that furthers# student learning and checks it.# b) Provides regular and frequent feedback to# students on their progress.# c) Provides many and varied opportunities for# students to achieve competence.
World War One ProjectsThis page and the next have student postersamples from the WWI projects!
Holocaust Unit Final ProjectWorld History IIMs. JeffersYou will write a final paper that represents one way you might demonstrate what you havelearned in this unit.Brainstorm all the factors that you think contributed to the Holocaust. For example, Adolf Hitlerand Germany’s history of anti-Semitism is specific to events of the Holocaust. Next, underlinethe factors that represent universal themes that students see in the world today. Examples ofsuch themes include “fear to speak out against injustice” or “prejudice against others based onrace or religion.” With these lists as guides, you have the option of answering one of thefollowing essay questions: • Select one factor from the list of universal themes. Define this factor or term using examples from material you studied in this unit. Then explain how this factor contributed to the Holocaust, using evidence to defend your argument. Finally, describe where you see this theme in the world today. Suggest what might be done so that something that was contributing factor to the Holocaust does not become a source for violence and injustice today. OR • Identify a violent or unjust situation in the world today. It could be local, national, or global in nature. Analyze this situation through the lens of human behavior, drawing on the concepts you learned in this unit. Describe how the situation is similar to and different from situations you recently studied. Finally, suggest what might be done to resolve this situation. Here are some guiding questions that may help you analyze this situation: o What choices are being made by individuals, groups, and governments that are contributing to the conflict? o What can be done to encourage people to make different choices? o What decisions are being made by individuals, groups, and governments that might be helping to resolve this conflict? o How might these people be supported? o What can be done to encourage others to make similar choices?Requirements: • All papers are to be between three (3) to five (5) typed pages in length • Cite your sources!! Any paper or text that infringes copyright laws, meaning it is copied word for word, even a sentence, off the Internet or any other source will receive a failing mark.
This is a student sample of the Holocaust and Human Behavior unit performance task. The first sample to the right is the brainstorm of factors that contributed to the Holocaust. The bottom left paper is thestudent’s rough draft, and the last sample is her final draft.
The next two pages include fiveother students’ final drafts of their Holocaust research essay.Like with the previous WWI essay, the class went throughbrainstorming, rough draft, revision & editing with peers and myself, then the final paper. This time the focus was on the research part so there was no poster and presentation.We had a bibliography class wherestudents learned how to cite their sources.
After School Hours One of the most essential actions a teacher can do isprovide time before and after school for students. By providingthese ‘extra’ hours for the students, not only is there more timefor students to work, but a teacher can gain insight and fosterwonderful relationships. I make it clear that I am there to helpmy students in any way that I am able to. I post my after school hours at the beginning of each week.I verbally remind students about my hours at various pointsduring my class time. I also ask certain students to stay after (orcome in early) if their grade has dropped. I love being in the classroom, but some of my greatestmemories and accomplishments have happened outside of myclass time. Furthermore, when I do hold after school hours, thenumber of students that attend is outstanding. It shows me thededication and respect that the students have for my class.