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Intro to lifespan


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Intro to lifespan

  1. 1. Overview of Lifespan Development Theory EDPR 7117/8117
  2. 2. Objectives of Topic <ul><li>Understand the three primary approaches to studies of lifespan development </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the different research methodologies presented </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate and specify the importance of various development processes and influences </li></ul>
  3. 3. Subtopics <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Human development </li></ul><ul><li>Lifespan perspective </li></ul><ul><li>World views </li></ul><ul><li>Influences </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Methods to study development </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Expectations from this course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your opinions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using the information </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Human Development <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>intRAindividual change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change that occurs within one person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not all take place at the same time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., physical and emotional don’t happen simultaneously </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>intERindividual differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change that occurs between people (age groups, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Lifespan Perspective <ul><li>Life course perspective: age specific or age-course focus </li></ul><ul><li>Lifespan perspective: pattern of change that continues throughout the lifespan </li></ul><ul><li>Life Course Perspective Lifespan Perspective </li></ul>
  7. 7. World Views <ul><li>Perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviorist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoanalytical </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Influences <ul><li>Normative influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological and environmental that are similar for an age group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonnormative influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific to an individual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Historical influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9/11 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sociocultural influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age, gender, class, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Context <ul><li>Families </li></ul><ul><li>Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>Religious organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Social organizations </li></ul>
  10. 12. How it was <ul><li>All about child development </li></ul><ul><li>Most important developmental milestones. </li></ul><ul><li>Discrete age periods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Childhood (progress) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adulthood (stability) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>older adulthood (decline) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. How it has changed <ul><li>Life-span perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>change patterns, influences, continuities and/or discontinuities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus began to change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>development in “mature” years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>important childhood developmental patterns not markers in adulthood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>new developmental patterns emerge in adulthood and later adulthood </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Sequences of the lifespan <ul><li>Prenatal </li></ul><ul><li>Infancy & toddlerhood </li></ul><ul><li>Early childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Middle childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Young adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Middle adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Late adulthood </li></ul>
  13. 15. Mixing it up <ul><li>Developmental processes are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multidimensional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multidirectional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multidisciplinary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contextual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Importance of plasticity </li></ul>
  14. 16. Developmental issues <ul><li>Nature vs nurture </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity vs discontinuity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>child learning to talk vs. learning to think abstractly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stability vs change </li></ul>
  15. 17. Research <ul><li>Cross-sectional studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look at groups of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One place in time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for comparisons of cohorts </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Longitudinal studies <ul><li>Study over a period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Same subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Good for looking at change over time </li></ul>
  17. 19. What is a theory? <ul><li>Ideas that help explain things and can be used to make predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Human Development theories represent differing world view or philosophical perspectives of what is important and even what the important questions are in the understanding of humans. </li></ul>
  18. 20. The behavioral perspective <ul><li>Focuses on how people act </li></ul><ul><li>Major theorists: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B.F. Skinner (operant conditioning) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Julian Rotter (social cognitive theory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Albert Bandura (social learning theory) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. The cognitive perspective <ul><li>Focuses on how people think </li></ul><ul><li>Studies how humans process their social, emotional, and physical environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Theorists: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jean Piaget (stages & dissonance) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Len Vygotsky (sociocultural) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. The psychoanalytic perspective <ul><li>Focuses on how people feel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>explaining and understanding one’s emotions and emotional development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major theorists: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sigmund Freud (psychosexual) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erik Erikson (psychosocial) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Assignments <ul><li>Read materials for week from CD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write notes, questions as you go </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You are responsible for materials even if they are not discussed in class! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discussion Board Question(s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required posting no later than 11:59 pm of day noted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can post questions/comments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can answer on the board if you have pertinent information </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Assignments <ul><li>Article presentations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you are the presenter… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read your article </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare your presentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Get to class early to load your PPT if you have one </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you are the audience… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read the article </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare a critique review sheet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Email if you have questions </li></ul>