Mercury is a very small planet. It is the closest planet
to the sun. This small planet is extremely hot during
day time, but at night time the planet is freezing.
Mercury no air or water so no living beings can survive.
When Mercury was a young planet it was bombarded
with asteroids, the planet was battered. Still the planet
Venus if the closest planet to earth. These two planets
are thought of sisters or twins. However, they are
completely different. Poisonous clouds trap the sun’s
heat, making Venus the hottest of all the planets.
Deadly acid rain falls on a surface covered with
mountains, volcanoes and lava. Venus is also different
because it spins backwards. A day on Venus lasts for
243 Earth days.
Earth is the only planet in the solar system known to have life on it.
That is because on Earth there is water so the living beings can
survive. If earth was closer to the sun the water would boil away. If
the earth was further away, the water would freeze. While scientists
search for another planet with life, Earth has different forms like
animals, people and even smaller things like germs. Earth has four
layers, crust, mantle, outer core and inner core. Earth is full of larva.
That’s how volcanoes irrupt.
Mars is sometimes called the red planet because of
colour of the rocks and soil is reddish-brown. Mars
is much colder than Earth and wind storms which
turn the sky pink. Special rocket called space probes
have flown to Mars and taken photographs. We
now know that much of Mars is a dry rocky dessert.
There used to be rivers but now the water has frozen
Jupiter is the king of planets. This planet is the first
and largest of the giant
planets made of gas. It is a huge globe of
gas clouds with no
solid surface. Jupiter is beautifully colours with
many streaks and swirls caused my wind storms.
The GREAT RED SPOT is a gigantic
whirlwind which has been blowing for more
than 100 years. Jupiter has 16 moons. One of the,
Ganymede, is the largest moon in the solar system.
Saturn is known as the ring world. Saturn’s rings
are bright unlike rings on other planets. Saturn is the
second largest planet, like Jupiter, a gas giant with
a rocky centre about the size of earth. Saturn has
more moons than any other planet. So far 18 moons
have been discovered. The largest moon is Titan, is
covered in orange clouds and would be like a young
Uranus is a bluey – green ball made out of gas and
water, with molten rock in its centre. Uranus was
discovered in 1781. Unlike other planets Uranus
orbits round the Sun tipped on the other side. It may
have knocked by an asteroid, (meteoroids) of a
planet. It was in 1986 when the narrow rings made
of rock and black ice around Uranus were first
Neptune was discovered in 1846. Neptune is the
smallest of the gas giants. Like Uranus, Neptune has
very dark rings. It is a blue ball, with many white
clouds, which are blown by the strongest winds in the
Solar System. A storm, larger tan Earth, is called the
GREAT DARK SPOT. Neptune has eight moons.
Triton is the biggest and strangest because it orbits
Neptune in the opposite direction to the other moons.
After Neptune was discovered, astronauts began to search for
another planet. It took many years till Pluto was discovered, in
1930. Pluto is the dwarf planet. This dwarf planet in the Solar
System behaves very oddly. Pluto is usually the furthest from the
Sun but its orbit take sit closer than Neptune for part of its
journey. Astronomers know very little about Pluto because it’s
so far away but it is thought to be made of ice, gas and rock. In
1978 a moon called Charon was discovered. This moon was half
the size of Pluto. If it was possible to fly to Pluto it would take
Scientists believe that millions of
comets orbit the Sun at the edge
of the Solar System. Comets are
made of chunks of icy rock and
giant rocks that
space. When they
hit planets they
make large holes
The Asteroid Belt
Asteroids are giant
rocks that come in
many shapes and
sizes. Some asteroids
may be left over
pieces of planets.