Spanish ii terms glossary, parts of speech


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Spanish ii terms glossary, parts of speech

  1. 1. Spanish II Terms Glossary<br />Terms used when learning any language, with examples of Spanish counterparts.<br />
  2. 2. Article (only goes before nouns)<br />Definite:<br />Goes before something specific.<br />“The”<br />“I don’t just want any chair, I want the good one.”<br />“El, La, Los, Las” <br />Indefinite:<br />Goes before a general term.<br />“A, an, some”<br />“I need a chair.”<br />“Un, Una, Unos, Unas”<br />
  3. 3. Nouns<br />People, places, things<br />Spanish nouns  <br />Masculine or Feminine<br />Singular or Plural<br />
  4. 4. Adjectives/Adverbs<br />Adjectives describe nouns.<br /><ul><li>Old, new, big, small, smart, silly, easy, difficult, fast, slow, colors, etc.</li></ul>Adverbs describe verbs.<br />Quietly, softly, quickly, perfectly, continually, etc.<br />
  5. 5. Possessive adjectives<br />Describewho owns the noun.<br />“My, your, his/her, our, their”<br />“Mi, tu, su/sus, nuestro (a)(s), su(s)”<br />
  6. 6. Prepositions<br />Show relation or place.<br />Over the river and through the woods, to grandmother’s house we go.<br />To, from, of, around, between, next to, above, below, close, far, through, in, inside, etc.<br />
  7. 7. Verb: Infinitive<br />The most basic form of any verb, does not tell who/when. Always has “to” in front of it in English.<br />“To run, to be, to go, to sneeze, to sleep”<br />“Correr, Ser, Ir, Estornudar, Dormir”<br />I want to sleep.<br />
  8. 8. Verb: Conjugation<br />Changing the verb to fit the subject<br />The conjugation of the infinitive “To be” is:<br />I am, you are, he is<br />Conjugation in Spanish usually requires you to find the “stem” of the verb, then add certain endings. <br />Infinitive: Estornudar<br />Yoestornudo, túestornudas, nosotrosestornudamos, etc.<br />
  9. 9. Subjects<br />Tell who or what does the action.<br />To easily find which word is the subject: first find the VERB and then see who/what is the one doing that.<br />“Marie reads the book.”<br />“The book has 400 pages.”<br />
  10. 10. Subject Pronouns<br />Replace subjects if you don’t want to say names over and over.<br />“Marie reads the book.”<br />Subject = Marie<br />“She has been reading it for a long time.<br />Subject pronoun = She<br />English subject pronouns: <br /><ul><li>I, you, he, she, one, we, they, you all</li></ul>Spanish subject pronouns:<br />Yo, tú, él, ella, usted, nosotro(a)s, ellos, ellas, ustedes<br />
  11. 11. Direct Objects<br />Directly receive the action of the verb.<br />“John reads the book.”<br />Can also be replaced by pronouns. Which ones?<br />Me, you, him/her, us, them<br />Me, te, lo/la, nos, los/las<br />John reads the book.<br />John reads it.<br />“It” is the direct object pronoun that refers to “the book”<br />
  12. 12. Indirect Objects<br />Nouns that indirectly receive the action of the verb.<br />“I throw the ball.”<br />“I throw the ball to Sara.”<br />“I throw the ball to her.”<br />Usually will have a preposition in front of it: to, for, around, from, next to, etc.<br />
  13. 13. Reflexives<br />Verbs that only relate action done to oneself.<br />Test to tell: Are the subjects and objects the same?<br />“I bathe.”<br />Reflexive, because “I” am doing the action, and I am also the one being cleaned.<br />“I bathe my dog.”<br />NOT reflexive. I’m doing the work, but the dog is getting clean.<br />Reflexives in Spanish always have “se” at the end of the infinitive.<br />Acostarse, lavarse, levantarse, etc.<br />When conjugating, take “se” off infinitive and add reflexive pronouns in FRONT.<br />Yomelavo, Tute lavas, Ella se lava, Nosotrosnoslavamos, Ellosselavan.<br />
  14. 14. In-notes practice:<br />Copy the sentences in your notes, then draw arrows and label each one.<br />I like to study after school.<br />Cuzco is the oldest city in South America.<br />My friend told me (that) she is happy.<br />