☻ The French revolution stated in 1789 to
☻ 40,000 people died in the French revolution.
☻ The guillotine was used to kill people who
☻ The guillotine was a killing machine that
beheaded people with a sharp blade that was
dropped onto your neck.
☻ The book “a tale of two cities” by Charles
Dickens was set during the French revolution.
☻ King Louis XVI was nearly not executed but
for a 73 majority vote, 361 voted for the
execution and 288 against.
☻ 10,000 African slaves were freed after the
☻ Thomas Jefferson was U.S. Minister to France
during the French revolution.
☻ Marie Antoinette said “let them eat cake”
because they did not have bread.
☻ Marie Antoinette died at the age of 37.
☻ King Louis xvi died at the age of 38.
☻ King Louis became king when he was 20.
☻ Marie Antoinette was born in Vienna, Austria,
☻ King Louis was born in Versailles, France in
August 23rd 1754.
☻ Napoleon Bonaparte was a ruler during the
☻ Now you cant name a pig napoleon in France.
☻ The French flag stands for liberty equality and
☻ Blue and red are also the time-honoured
colours of Paris.
Mount Vesuvius in Pompeii was an active
The founders of their beautiful city, mostly built
the city near the volcano because the ground was
very fertile and good for planting crops. Which
means, they could sell their goods to other towns
and make lots of money.
It was a very modern city, for its era. They had
aqueducts, sliding doors and modern markets.
When the civilians saw smoke puffing up in the
sky, at first they didn’t think much of it and got
on with their regular busy lives, farming, building
and selling their goods.
We have a picture of the
remains, a recovered body,
and a picture of Mount
Pompeii was an ancient Roman town/city near
Researchers believe that the remains of
Pompeii were founded in the sixth or seventh
century BC. The eruption destroyed the city,
killing its inhabitants and burying them under
tons of ash fro m the volcano.
Pompeii has been a popular tourist attraction
for over 250 years. It get approximately 2.5
million visitors per year.
During the first century AD, Pompeii was
developed into a flourishing city port. It was a
prosperous resort for many wealthy tourists.
It contained many modern villas, an
amphitheatre, two theatres, many temples
An aqueduct is a bridge or viaduct carrying a
waterway over a valley or gap
Pompeii was a very modern city.
(FOR ITS TIME)
The city and people of Pompeii had no idea that
Mount Vesuvius was a volcano as it hadn’t
erupted in 1,800 years.
Pompeii was so well preserved that since the ash
came down from the volcano so quickly we can
now get a glimpse of roman past life.
At the height of 1,281 metres, and being 17,000
years old, Mount Vesuvius has erupted over 50
Before the eruption of 79 AD there was not even
a word for volcano. But after the eruption, people
used the word. Volcano derives from the word
Vulcan- the God of flame and metal forgery.
Mount Vesuvius actually has two craters. One of
which the original crater and the other crater
being caved during a previous eruption.
The eruption in Pompeii spread over 1.5 million
tons of lava per second.
Mount Vesuvius is one of the only active
volcanoes in Europe and is considered one of the
most dangerous in the world.
Mount Vesuvius erupted six times in the 18th
century, eight times in the 19th century, in 1906,
1929 and in 1944. the volcano has not erupted
Then amphitheatre in Pompeii is known to be
one of the oldest of its structure and kind
dating back to 80 BC.
Over 3 million people live in the immediate
area near mount Vesuvius. More people live
dangerously close to it than any other place
in the world.
Across 150- acres, the walled city of Pompeii
is one of the most popular excavation sites in
The queen started to be the Queen when she
QUEEN ELIZEBETH GOT MARRIED ON 20TH OF
NOVEMBER 1947 TO PRINCE PHILLIP.
Queen Elizabeth owns Scotland,Wales,Isle of
Man, Northern Ireland and Britain.
Every morning before work Queen Elizebeth
scans English newspapers.
She was born on the the 21st of april 1926.
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor IS Queen
Elizebth full name
Date of Birth
April 21, 1926
4 children: Charles, Anne, Andrew, Edward
Educated at home
The Queen is so famous because she has
been Queen for so long. She has been
Queen for more than sixty years and she is
even more famous because she has visited
so many countries.
Elizabeth II's coronation was on 2 June 1953.
Rain did not stop thousands of people coming
to London to watch.
The coronation was shown on television. Not
many people had TV. Many families invited
friends to watch the flickering black and white
Despite the occasional call to step aside for
Prince Charles, Elizabeth has remained on
the throne. Some of her duties have been
passed on to her eldest son, but she still
maintains a busy schedule.
Before the famine people were very happy
even though they had no electricity. Then Sir
Walter Raleigh brought the potatoes to
Ireland. Everyone loved them. So the farmers
started planting them everyone started
relining on them to much.
So when the Famine came nobody knew what
to do!!! So people worried and did not know
what to do.
The year: 1845.
What happened: all the potatoes caught a dieses
known as blight.
How it affected us: all Irish people relied on the
potato crop so when it happened nobody knew
what to do.
Where people went: some people went to
Australia, America and new jersey.
When it ended: 1852.
How the population dropped: before the famine
the population was at 8,174,142 and after it was
The potato was the principal source of nutrition for
the vast majority of the poorer classes because this
crop produced more food per acre than wheat and
could also be used to generate income. The practice
of Conacre/Land Division meant that peasants
needed to produce the biggest crop possible. The
most variety of potato was the ‘Aran Banner’ which,
whilst producing high yields also was very susceptible
Many farmers had a few animals; the pig, easily fed
on left-overs and requiring little space, was quite
common. In many cases, however, other crops and
animals were used to pay the rent and were never
regarded as food.
A famine is when there is a very severe shortage
or lack of food for a large number of people.
During a famine, there is hunger, malnutrition,
starvation and often death among the people.
Ireland had its worst famine in 1845 when a
famine called the Great Famine occured. It lasted
until about 1850 but the worst years were
between 1845 and 1849. It is estimated that
almost one million people died and another
million Irish people emigrated by the end of the
famine. Ireland’s population was over 8 million in
1841 but by 1851 it was reduced to about 6 .5
One of the causes of the Great Irish Famine was a
disease called blight which destroyed the potato
crop. The potato was the only food available to
the majority of the people in Ireland at the time.
The poorer people were cottiers and labourers
who did not own their own land. They grew
potatoes on small plots of ground and had no
money to buy any other foods.
The poorest groups suffered most during the
famine because they had no other food to eat
except the potato. When the blight destroyed the
potato crops every year from 1845, the people
faced starvation and death.
What did the government do to help people
during the famine?
Ireland was under English rule at the time of the
famine and the parliament was in London. When
the potato blight ruined the first potato crop in
1845, Sir Robert Peel was the prime minister. He
knew that most Irish people would have nothing
to eat. In 1846, he shipped some Indian corn to
Ireland and arranged for it to be sold in different
parts of the country for a cheap price. This
helped some families, however the poorest
people had no money to buy it.
The corn was also difficult to get to some of
the most remote places where the famine was
worst and where the roads were bad. Another
problem was that people had to cook the corn,
however they often did not know how to cook it
as they had never eaten it before. This corn was
so hard it became known as “Peel’s Brimstone”.
In 1846, the second crop of potatoes failed in
July and August. People who had managed to
survive the first crop failure of 1845 were now in
terrible conditions. A new prime minister called
Lord John Russell took charge of the
government in England. He reduced the sale of
cheap food and thought instead that giving
employment was the best thing to do. Public
works began again in October 1846. The
government thought that this employment would
help the poor to buy food. However, poor people
were often too weak from lack of food to be able
to work very hard and wages were often not paid
In the summer of 1847, the government set up
some soup kitchens to give the starving people
hot soup. A group called the Society of Friend, or
the Quakers, did a lot of work to feed the poor.
They bought huge boilers in which to cook the
soup. By August 1847, about 3 million people
were being fed each day in total. However, in the
Autumn of 1847, the government shut down the
soup kitchens. They expected that the next crop
of potatoes might be good and told poor people
that they could go to the workhouses for help.
Workhouses were places where the very poor,
known as paupers, could go to live. Once
they entered the workhouse, people had to
wear a uniform and were given a very basic
diet. The main food they were given was
called stirabout, which was similar to a weak
oatmeal porridge. Families were split up once
inside. Men, women, girls and boys were all
forced to stay in different parts of the
There were strict rules in the workhouse such
as keeping silence at certain times. Inmates
were not allowed to play cards, disobey
orders or try to escape from the workhouse.
People were often ill when
they entered the workhouse
and this meant that many
inmates died of diseases,
which spread quickly in the
workhouses. The main
diseases were typhus,
A Union Workhouse
The Irish workhouses for the poor first began when a
law was passed in the parliament in London in 1838.
The law said that the workhouses should be built as
places to keepBy August 1846, there were about 128
workhouses built. When the famine occurred, and
especially by 1847, the workhouses were
overcrowded and could not keep all the poor people
who came looking for help. For example, a work
house in Fermoy, County Cork built for 800 people,
actually kept 1,800 people in very bad conditions.
Diseases spread very quickly in overcrowded spaces.
By the end of the famine, there were 163 workhouses
in Ireland. very poor people who applied for help.
When tenants could not pay their rent, they were
usually evicted. Some landlords tried their best to
help their tenants and did not charge them rent.
A number of these landlords went broke because
of this. However, huge numbers of people were
also evicted from their homes by their landlords
during the famine.
Eviction scenes in Crossmolina. Battering
Large numbers of Irish people emigrated to
countries such as England, America, Canada
and Australia because of the famine. From
1845 to 1850, about one and a half million
people left Ireland.
People have estimated that about a million people died during the worst
famine years between 1845 and 1849.
About a million people emigrated to America , Canada , Australia or Britain .
People continued to leave Ireland in large numbers for many years after the
The Irish language began to die out. Many of those who died or emigrated
were from the western parts of Ireland and had spoken Irish.
Some people were very angry that the English government had not done
more to prevent the famine. This caused a lot of anger against Britain and
lasted for a long time.
A group called the Young Ireland party, or Young Irelanders, wanted Ireland
to have its own government. They began a small rebellion in 1848. However,
this rising failed because it happened in the middle of the Great Famine.
Today, there are many memorials in Ireland
to the people who emigrated and died during
famine. In the dockland area of Dublin along
the quay, you can see sculptures of very thin
people in memory of all the emigrants who
left Ireland from Dublin port during the
famine years. The sculptures seem to show
people walking towards the ships along the
The Olympics was first on in Olympia Greece.
Some of the sports in the olympics were
running jumping wrestling and javelin
The Olympic fire symbolises the theft of fire by the
greek god Zeus by Rrometheus. The fire was
introduced at the 1928 Summer Olympics in
Amsterdam and has been part of it ever since.
American swimmer Michael Phelps was
nicknamed the Flying Fish because of his
amazing ability to cut through the water.
Legendary swimmer Mark Spitz once stated
about him, “It goes to show you that not only is
this guy the greatest swimmer of all time and the
greatest Olympian of all time, he’s maybe the
greatest athlete of all time.” Phelps is the winner
of the highest number of medals in Olympic
history with his 22 Olympic medals. He won 6
gold medals and 2 Bronze medals while setting 2
world records at 2004 Summer Olympics in
Former Soviet gymnast Larisa Latynina is
widely regarded as the best gymnast the
world has ever seen. Her contribution to the
development of gymnastics successfully
established Soviet Union as a dominant force
in Olympic. She won a total of 18 medals in
her Olympic career which includes her still
undefeated Olympic record of 14 medals in
the individual event. She won 4 gold medals,
1 Silver medal and 1 Bronze medal in 1956
Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt is widely
regarded as the fastest man in history. He
was nicknamed “Lightning Bolt” for his
amazing sprint of 100 meters within a world
record of 9.58 seconds in Berlin 2009. After
being amazingly successful in junior world
championships, he started to participate in
Olympics from 2008. He won 3 gold medals
in 2008 Beijing Olympic and also won 3 more
gold medals in 2012 London Olympic.
Carl Lewis is the world record holder of
indoor long jump, and his record has still
remained unbeaten since 1984. He achieved
below 10 second benchmark 15 times in 100
meters event, and achieved 20 seconds
benchmark 10 times in 200 meters event
during his career. He won 4 gold medals in
1984 Los Angeles Olympic.
The original thoughts as to the meaning of
the Olympic rings on the flag of the Olympic
Games is the symbolism of the five different
colored rings, all interlinked together. These
five multicolored Olympic rings stand for the
five continents where the athletes traveled
from to take part
Michelangelo was a famous artist during the renaissance. He painted the ceiling
of the Sistine Chapel while lying on his back. With wet paint dripping on his face
and lying down for so long he got terrible backaches.
There were lots of sculptures in the Renaissance period. This is one of David
sculpted by Michelangelo.
Medici FamilyThe Medici family controlled Florence during the Renaissance. They also owned
the biggest bank in Europe at the time.
Mona LisaThe Mona Lisa is one of the most famous paintings in the world. It was painted
by Leonardo Da Vinci during the Renaissance.
This is Michelangelo's tomb in the Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence.
This is a picture of Galileo drawn in crayon by famous Renaissance sculptor
Where did Romans come
The Roman empire covered much of Europe,North Africa and the
middle east. One day,some years before Jesus Christ was born,the
Romans came to Britan.
The Romans in Britain
The Romans came to Britain nearly 2000 years
ago and changed the country. Even today,
Evidence of the romans being here, can be see
in the ruin of Roman buildings,
Forts and baths can be found all over Britain.
Where did the Romans live???
The Romans lived in Rome, A city in the centre of the country of
The Roman Empire from the first
Two thousand years ago, The world was ruled by Rome.
From England to Africa and from Syria to Spain, one in every
four people on earth lived and died under Roman law.
When did the
In August 55 b.c the roman general , Emperor Julius Caessar
invaded Britain. He took with him two roman legions. After
winning several battles against the celtic tribes [britons] in
south-east England he returned to France.
Facts on the
At its peak, The Roman Empire comprised only 12% of
the worlds population.
The Roman Empire was not the largest empire in
history. It was only the 28th largest.
The wars between Romans and Persians lasted about
721 years, the longest conflict in human history.
Ancient Romans celebrated “saturnalia” , A festival in
which slaves and their masters would switch places.
What clothes did men
wear in Roman times?
Men wore a knee-length tunic [chilton], either
sleeveless or short-sleeved. Roman men wore
a cloak over their tunic , which was like a
wide shawl that was draped over the shoulder
and carefully wrapped around the body.
Important romans dressed in a long robe
called a toga.
Roman Gods and Relgion
Religion was an important part of Roman daily life. The Romans
believed in many different gods and goddesses. If the gods were
angry, terrible things could happen. To keep the gods happy,
animals were sacrifised [killed] as offerings.
Romans sacrificed animals such as bulls, sheep and pigs.
People worshipped the gods in temples where they made sacrifices of animals
and precious things. The Romans believed that blood sacrifices were the best way
to communicate with the gods. Sheep were often sacrificed to jupiter.
Sometimes a temple was built to only worship one of the gods. A temple to all god
was known as a pantheon.
A family of Gods
The Romans thought that their Gods were all part of a family
and people told stories or myths about them.
The most important gods to the Romans were the Greek
Gods from mount Olympus. The Greek Gods were given
Roman names, for example, Zeus became Jupitar.
Their gods included:
King ofthe gods,
God of the sky,
Sons of uranus,
Father of Jupitar,Neptune and Pluto,
Husband of Juno,who looked after