The Revolutions of 1848: From the Streets of Paris toVienna and BeyondWhat events did Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels foresee in theirCommunist Manifesto?• Marxism — the view that the conditions in which one earns a livingdetermines all other aspects of life. Capitalism must be eliminatedbecause of its inherent unfairness. In the Communist Manifesto,Marx and Engels call for “the forcible overthrow of all existing socialconditions.”• The Streets of Paris — In 1848 rioters overthrew Louis-Philippe.• The June Days in Paris: Worker Defeat and Rise of Louis-Napoleon — the rioting mob demanded the “right to work.” Thearmy overcame the street fighters many of whom were deported toAlgiers. An almost paranoid distrust of the working class grippedFrance. Louis-Napoleon was elected leading the capitalists topower. He later was proclaimed Emperor Napoleon III.
• The Haussmannization of Paris — Baron Haussmann was chosento plan and supervise the modernization of Paris by destroying theold city and rebuilding it anew. Napoleon III and Haussman sharedthe desire to transform Paris into the most beautiful city in the world.Reforms included improved housing, sanitation, and increasedtraffic flow. Streets were widened, great public parks weredeveloped. But these reforms also involved the wholesaledestruction of working-class neighborhoods throughout Paris.• Revolution across Europe: The Rise of Nationalism — TheParis uprising of 1848 triggered a string of successive revolts inAustria, many of the lesser German states, and throughout Italy.One of the most important factors contributing to revolution wasnationalism, the exaltation of one’s home territory. The Slavicpeople, for example, attempted to throw off the rule of the AustrianHabsburgs.Discussion Question: Was Marxism a cause or an effect of therevolutionary fervor in Europe in the 1830s and 1840s?
The American Civil WarHow did the American Civil War affect popular attitudes towardwarfare?• Romanticizing Slavery in Antebellum American Art and Music — Manyin Europe and across the globe had a romanticized view of slavery due in nosmall part to the depiction of slavery in art and music. Johnsons Negro Lifein the South is a prime example though its meaning is ambiguous. Theminstrel show is a theatrical event that presented black American melodies,jokes, and impersonations, usually performed by white performers inblackface. These shows were a popular representation of AfricanAmericans before the Civil War. Stephen Foster wrote a new kind of musicin an attempt to humanize the characters.• Representing the War — After the beginning of the war the images ofcontented slaves disappeared. Johnson’s A Ride for Liberty: The FugitiveSlaves is entirely different in mood from his earlier painting. “Special artists”were sent to battlegrounds to picture events. Winslow Homer created warillustrations for Harper’s Weekly. Matthew Brady captured the mechanisticnature of modern warfare with a camera on the battlefield of Antietam andthe Battle of Gettysburg.Discussion Question: Is “propaganda” an appropriate term to apply toHomer’s illustrations and Gardner’s and O’Sullivan’s photographs of war?
The British in China and IndiaWhat is imperialism?• China and the Opium War — China had long held strict controls onshipping. The East India Company began to selling large quantitiesof opium from India to the Chinese. Opium addiction grew rapidlyand the Chinese moved to ban the drug. “Might makes right” cansummarize the ensuing British course of action. They declared warand subsequently crushed China.• Indentured Labor and Mass Migration — Many Chinese weredriven to emigrate due to the worsening economic conditions. Manywent to California after gold was discovered and they were animportant source of labor for the railroad. They were technicallyindentured workers—laborers working under contract to pay off theprice of their passage. East Indian indentured workers facedsimilarly harsh conditions.• Company School Painting in India —The British East IndiaCompany employed Indian artists as draftspersons, instructing themin European techniques. In art schools, Indians began to study andcopy European prints.
The Rise and Fall of EgyptHow did imperialism affect Egypt?• Mehmet Ali, an Ottoman Turk, consolidated Ottoman authority andestablished himself as the country’s titular viceroy, though heeffectively ruled the country on his own. Cotton became Egypt’schief cash crop. The Suez Canal was opened in 1869 and Ali’sgrandson built an opera house and commissioned an opera, Aida.He proclaimed that Egypt was now part of Europe. He accruedhuge debts, was forced to abdicate, and the British purchased theEgyptian share in the canal.
The Opening of JapanWhat is Japonisme?• Industrialization: The Shifting Climate of Society — Japaninitially focused on closing the technology gap between its army andnavy and Western military powers. New rulers were determined todecrease the influence of the previous shogun’s clan, the regionalprovincial leaders and warlords, and the samurai class. Exports oftraditional Japanese products financed the industrialization process.Railway lines were developed. Eiichi Shibusawa was the founderof the National Bank of Japan and in charge of nationalindustrialization until 1873.• Japanese Printmaking — By the late nineteenth century, theJapanese economy was booming, as was the art of woodblockprinting, a tradition that had developed steadily since 1603. Theexport trade in prints was a vital part of the economy. The first andmost prominent of the artists was Suzuki Harunobu. His printsdepicted daily life and the life of the most beautiful poet of the Heiancourt. Woodblock prints were mass-produced and thus affordableto artisans, merchants, and other city dwellers. Another leadingartist was Kitagawa Utamaro and Katsushika Hokusai producedprobably the most famous series of Japanese prints in Thirty-SixViews of Mount Fuji.