Sayre2e ch28 integrated_lecture_pp_ts-150669


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Sayre2e ch28 integrated_lecture_pp_ts-150669

  1. 1. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Anonymous. Old Hetton Colliery, Newcastle. ca. 1840.
  2. 2. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Gustave Doré. Orange Court, Drury Lane, from London, A Pilgrimage,1872, by Gustave Doré and Blanchard Jerrold, 1872. 1869.
  3. 3. The Industrial City: Conditions in LondonHow did industrialization shape the nineteenth century?• Water and Housing — Lethal bacteria such as cholera thrived inthe Thames and its principle victims were the poor. London’s rapidgrowth contributed to the problem. The poor crowded into buildingsalready stressed by age and disrepair turning neighborhoods intoslums.• Labor and Family Life — As a result of industrialization, the Britishworkforce became a class of workers who neither owned the meansof production nor controlled their own work. Children of poorfamilies worked as assistants in the factories. Wives were solelyresponsible for domestic life.
  4. 4. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Map: London in 1898: Factories with over 100 workers.
  5. 5. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Map: The growth of London, 1800-1880.
  6. 6. Reformists Respond: Utopian Socialism, Medievalism,and Christian ReformHow did reformers react to industrialization?• Utopian Socialism — Among the critics of free enterprise werethose who envisioned ideal communities, where production wouldbe controlled by society as a whole rather than by individuals.Fourier was a utopian socialist.• A.W.N. Pugin, Architecture, and the Medieval Model — Puginpublished a book called Contrasts comparing medieval and modernbuildings, aiming to show the decay of taste over time. He wascommissioned by the architect Barry to design the interiors andornamentation of London’s new Houses of Parliament.
  7. 7. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.A. W. N. Pugin. Contrasted Residences for the Poor, from Contrasts: or, aParallel Between the Noble Edifices of the Fourteenth and FifteenthCenturies, and similar Buildings of the present Day; showing the PresentDecay of Taste. 1836.
  8. 8. Literary RealismWhat is literary realism?• Dickens’s Hard Times — Nothing exasperated Dickens more thanthe promise of the Industrial Revolution to improve life and its abilityto do just the opposite. He addresses this issue in Hard Times.• French Literary Realism — French realists claimed to examine lifescientifically, without bias. Balzac’s Human Comedy is populated bycharacters from all levels of society and drew them from directobservation. Flaubert’s Madame Bovary is a realist attack onRomantic sensibility.
  9. 9. • Literary Realism in the United States: The Issue of Slavery —American realist writers were haunted by the “terrible truth” ofslavery and were inspired by the abolitionist movement. Narrative ofthe Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave was published in1845, his account of life under slavery. Slave narratives, such asthe Narrative of Sojourner Truth offers evidence of the rhetoricalpersuasiveness of Truth. Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’sCabin became the symbol of the abolitionist movement in America.Mark Twain’s Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is vigorously opposedto slavery, and portrays those who supported it in a uniformlyunflattering light.
  10. 10. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Charles Barry and A.W.N. Pugin. Houses of Parliament, London. 1836-60.Length: 940’.
  11. 11. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.J.M.W. Turner. Rain, Steam and Speed: the Great Western Railway. 1844.33-3/4" × 48”.
  12. 12. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.J. T. Zealy. Renty, Congo. Plantation of B. F. Taylor, Esq. Columbia, SC,March 1850. 1850.
  13. 13. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Portrait of Frederick Douglas. 1847.
  14. 14. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Portrait of Sojourner Truth seated with Knitting. 1864.
  15. 15. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Robert S. Duncanson. Uncle Tom and Little Eva. 1853.27-1/4" × 38-1/4”.
  16. 16. French Painting: The dialogue Between Idealism andRealismWho defined the direction of French painting during the nineteenthcentury?• Theodore Gericault: Rejecting Classicism — Gericault’s TheRaft of the “Medusa” is a rendering of true events and assumes apolitical dimension.• The Aesthetic Expression of Politics: Delacroix versus Ingres— Delacroix exhibited Scenes from the Massacres at Chios at theSalon of 1824 and shows journalistic themes. His Liberty Leadingthe People, is an allegorical representation with realistic details.Ingres showed a deeply royalist work in The Vow of Louis XIII andnever hesitated to adjust the proportions of the body to the overallcomposition as seen in his Grand Odalisque.• Caricature and Illustration: Honore Daumier — Daumier was anartist known for his political satire who regularly submitted cartoondrawings to the newspapers. These were made possible by thenew medium of lithography.
  17. 17. • Realist Painting: The Worker as Subject — Daumier openlylampooned the idealism of both Neoclassical and Romantic art.What mattered was the truth of everyday experience such as isdepicted in The Third-Class Carriage. By focusing on laborers thepainting is implicitly political.• Gustave Courbet: Against Idealism — Courbet rejected thetraditional political and moral dimensions of realism in favor of amore subjective and apolitical approach to art exemplified by TheStonebreakers and A Burial at Ornans.How does Realism change the role and identity of the painter?
  18. 18. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Théodore Géricault. The Raft of the "Medusa.” First oil sketch. 1818.16’ 1" × 23’ 6”.
  19. 19.  Closer Look: Théodore Géricault, Raft of the“Medusa”MyArtsLabChapter 28 – Industry and the Working Class: a New Realism
  20. 20. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Eugène Delacroix. Scenes from the Massacres at Chios. 1824.165" × 139-1/4”.
  21. 21. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. The Vow of Louis XIII. 1824.165-3/4" × 103-1/8”.
  22. 22. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. La Grande Odalisque. 1814.35-7/8" × 63”.
  23. 23. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Eugène Delacroix. Odalisque. 1845-50.14-7/8" × 18-1/4”.
  24. 24. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. Closer Look: Orientalism and IngressTurkish Bath: The Valpinçon Bather. 1808.57-1/2" × 38-1/4”.
  25. 25. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. Closer Look: Orientalism and IngressTurkish Bath: The Turkish Bath. 1862.Diameter: 42-1/2”.
  26. 26. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Eugène Delacroix. Liberty Leading the People. 1830.86" × 107”.
  27. 27. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Honoré Daumier. Gargantua. 1831.10-3/8" × 12”.
  28. 28. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Honoré Daumier. Rue Transnonain, April 15, 1834. 1834.11-1/2" × 17-5/8”.
  29. 29. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Materials & Techniques: Lithography (black and white diagram).
  30. 30.  Studio Technique Video: LithographyMyArtsLabChapter 28 – Industry and the Working Class: a New Realism
  31. 31. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Honoré Daumier. The Third-Class Carriage. ca. 1862.25-3/4" × 35-1/2”.
  32. 32. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Jean-François Millet. The Sower. 1850.40" × 32-1/2”.
  33. 33. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Gustave Courbet. The Stonebreakers. Salon of 1850-51. Destroyed 1945.1849.5’ 3" × 8’ 6”.
  34. 34. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Gustave Courbet. A Burial at Ornans. Salon of 1850-51. 1849-50.10’ 3-1/2" × 21’ 9”.
  35. 35.  Closer Look: Courbet’s A Burial at OrnansMyArtsLabChapter 28 – Industry and the Working Class: a New Realism
  36. 36. Photography: Realism’s Pencil of LightWhat is photography’s role in the rise of a realist art?• Some painters understood the potential of photography to seizepainting’s historical role of representing the world. The new mediummade personalized pictures available not only to the wealthy but tothe middle- and working classes. The public’s taste for views of theworld’s architectural and scenic wonders gave rise to the practice ofcommercial photography.
  37. 37. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.William Henry Fox Talbot. Wrack. 1839.8-11/16" × 8-7/8”.
  38. 38. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre. Le Boulevard du Temple. 1839.
  39. 39. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Charles Richard Meade. Portrait of Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre. 1848.6-3/16" × 4-1/2”.
  40. 40. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.William Henry Fox Talbot. The Open Door. 1843.5-5/8" × 7-5/8”.
  41. 41. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Maxine Du Camp. Westernmost Colossus of the Temple of Re, AbuSimbel, from Du Camps Egypte, Nubia, Palestine et Syrie (Paris, 1852),plate 107. 1850.8-7/8" × 6-5/16”.
  42. 42. Charles Darwin: The Science of Objective ObservationWhat is The Origin of the Species?• The emphasis on direct observation and the objective reporting ofreal conditions is reflected in the science of the nineteenth century.In Origin of Species, Darwin argued that through the process ofnatural selection, certain organisms are able to increase rapidly overtime by retaining traits conducive to their survival and eliminatingthose that are less favorable to survival.Given Darwin’s objective observations and conclusions, why were hisconclusions so controversial?
  43. 43. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Conrad Martens. The Beagle Laid Ashore for Repairs, from CharlesDarwin, Journal of Researches into the Geology and Natural History of theVarious Countries Visited by H. M. S. Beagle (London, 1839). 1833-34.
  44. 44. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Roger Fenton. The Valley of the Shadow of Death. 1855.10-7/8" × 13-3/4”.