Slawsky defensetake2

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This is the preliminary presentation for my dissertation defense. There are entirely too many slides and I will need to 'weed' out the unnecessary files.

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Slawsky defensetake2

  1. 1. Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy: An Exploratory Study of Challenges, Solutions/Resources, Reflections, and Suggestions for the Future Melissa M. Slawsky, Ph.D. Candidate Center for Music Education Research, University of South Florida
  2. 2. Introduction Standard teacher-training program- -Educational coursework -Observations of experienced teachers -Fieldwork experience/internships -Supervised student teaching -Mentored when entering the field Induction- 1-3 year years -sensitive and impressionable period -much research exists
  3. 3. Piano Teacher Training A very different framework- -Master-apprentice model -Years of private study -Piano Pedagogy Coursework -Limited support when transitioning to the teaching role
  4. 4. Research problem <ul><li>Much research exists for the pre-service music educator preparing to entering the classroom setting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*Implications drawn for contributing to the success of the beginning music teacher: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservice experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentoring and support systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional development opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However, little is known about the experiences of the beginning piano teacher preparing to enter the studio setting. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Purposes <ul><li>Explore how piano teachers learn to teach from and independent of piano pedagogy coursework, </li></ul><ul><li>- overcome challenges , and </li></ul><ul><li>- continue to add to their pedagogy knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>b. Explore topics that would be most useful in a p i a n o p e d a g o g y course or program </li></ul>
  6. 6. Research Questions <ul><li>How do piano teachers make the transition from student to teacher? </li></ul><ul><li>a. What challenges do they face? </li></ul><ul><li>b. What solutions/resources do they find? </li></ul><ul><li>c. What learning experiences (formal and informal) helped prepare them? </li></ul><ul><li>d. What professional activities (if applicable) served as support in the field? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Research Questions <ul><li>2. What current challenges do piano teachers face? </li></ul><ul><li>a. What solutions/resources do they find to overcome these challenges? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Research Questions <ul><li>3. What do piano teachers suggest for the future of: </li></ul><ul><li>a. piano pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>b. the piano curriculum, in general? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Qualitative Approach <ul><li>Phenomenology </li></ul><ul><li>“… there is an essence or essences to shared experience” (Patton, 2002, p. 106). </li></ul><ul><li>Heuristic Inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; . . In heuristic research the investigator must have had a direct, personal encounter with the phenomenon being investigated. There must have been actual autobiographical connections” (Moustakas, 1990, p. 14) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Qualitative Approach <ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed understanding of the research problem </li></ul><ul><li>-Allowed for probes </li></ul><ul><li>-Interpersonal encounter </li></ul><ul><li>Validate or invalidate issues drawn from the literature </li></ul><ul><li>-Phase 1 & 2- Conducted over the phone </li></ul><ul><li>-Phase 3- Conducted in person </li></ul><ul><li>(more interpersonal encounter) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Closely Aligned Literature <ul><li>Pre-service music educator </li></ul><ul><li>*Colleen Conway (1999) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-interviewed pre-service music teachers during their internship periods (e.g., induction challenges) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Informed practitioners in the field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( Handbook for the Beginning Music Teacher, Conway & Hodgman, 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. The framework for music teacher training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( Great Beginnings for Music Teachers: Mentoring and Supporting New Teachers, Conway & MENC, 2003) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Haddon (2009) <ul><li>The Applied Music Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth Haddon (2009) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-interviewed undergraduate applied music teachers studying in a UK conservatory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implications for applied music teachers in the field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendations for the framework for applied music teacher training </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Methodology <ul><li>Exploratory study which evolved over three phases: </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-structured interviews </li></ul><ul><li>(phases 1 & 2 conducted over the phone, phase 3 in person) </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews transcribed </li></ul><ul><li>Coded using qualitative data analysis techniques (Miles & Huberman, 1994) </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Interview Guide <ul><li>22 questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Piano teachers asked about: </li></ul><ul><li>Demographics & studio set-up </li></ul><ul><li>Transition into the teaching role </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges, Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Current Challenges & Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Reflections & Suggestions for the future </li></ul>
  15. 15. Participants
  16. 16. Synthesizing the Data -Transcripts coded using Nvivo9 as an indexing software (selected passages could be ‘dragged and dropped’ into designated categories. No shorthand notation was necessary) - Resulted in 27 pages of codes, 1240 individual codes, reduced to 11 major themes with corresponding sub-themes
  17. 17. 11 Major Themes
  18. 18. 11 Major Themes
  19. 19. 11 Major Themes
  20. 20. Theme I: Piano teachers are autonomously resourceful when transitioning into the teaching role. <ul><li>No formal teacher training </li></ul><ul><li>-7 began teaching between ages 12 and 16. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Very little guidance when beginning to teach </li></ul><ul><li>-3 sought the guidance of an experienced teacher. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Preparation for the teaching role *Average of 10 yrs. of applied music lessons, begun between 4 and 10 years of age.
  22. 22. Theme II: Learning by Doing (Experiential Learning) <ul><li>The majority of piano teachers learned to teach simply by: </li></ul><ul><li>Doing it </li></ul><ul><li>Gaining experience </li></ul><ul><li>Trial-and-error </li></ul><ul><li>Filling one’s toolbox or learning ‘tricks of the trade’ </li></ul>
  23. 23. Theme II: Learning by Doing (Experiential Learning) “ I really think [I learned to teach] through experience, you know, just doing it over and over and over… My undergraduate professor used to call performing “diving.” You just have to dive in. I think teaching is very similar. You just go with it and see what happens, and you just have to learn how to respond to things on the spot all the time, and learn through difficult situations and all that stuff…” (Lilly Crumb) Learning on one’s own: “ I had taught myself how to teach” (Susan Liszt). “… Picking it up on my own and learning as I go” (Thomas Chang).
  24. 24. Theme III: Evoking memories when transitioning into the teaching role <ul><li>Piano teachers evoked memories of: </li></ul><ul><li>Former teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Materials played </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences as students </li></ul>*Many indicated that they were highly influenced by their former piano teachers
  25. 25. Theme IV: Piano teachers emulate + a mix of elements in developing their teaching style <ul><li>Piano teachers either chose to emulate, not to emulate, or diverge from: </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Curricular aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Personal traits </li></ul>
  26. 26. Theme IV: Piano teachers emulate + a mix of elements in developing their teaching style “ I feel like I’ve taken or learned what was bad and what was good from my piano teachers. I tried to emulate the things that I’ve learned from a lot and then the things that didn’t help or were counter-productive to my learning I tried to not do” (Thomas Chang). <ul><li>A natural part of developing one’s teaching style </li></ul><ul><li>Specific reasons (e.g., “They’re people I respect and want to be like in my teaching” (Lilly Crumb) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Theme IV: Other aspects of teaching style
  28. 28. Theme V: Overcoming challenges and seeking out resources <ul><li>Piano teachers discussed: </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges faced as beginning piano teachers </li></ul><ul><li>-Resources found in overcoming challenges as beginning piano teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges currently faced </li></ul><ul><li>-Resources found in overcoming challenges currently faced </li></ul>
  29. 29. Theme VI: Formal Learning Experiences <ul><li>Piano teachers discussed: </li></ul><ul><li>Undergraduate study </li></ul><ul><li>Master’s level study </li></ul><ul><li>3. Doctoral study </li></ul><ul><li>4. Piano pedagogy coursework </li></ul>
  30. 30. Theme VII: Partnership of Teaching and Learning (Apprenticeship Models) <ul><li>Piano teachers discussed: </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive-apprenticeship </li></ul><ul><li>-Teaching and learning simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>2. Apprenticeship </li></ul><ul><li>-Formal teaching apprenticeships </li></ul>
  31. 31. Theme VIII: Support in the Field (including the role of professional activities) <ul><li>Piano teachers discussed: </li></ul><ul><li>Professional activities as support in the field (positive and negative aspects) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Guidance from experienced teachers (sought out informally or otherwise) </li></ul><ul><li>3. A forum to discuss issues and ideas (related to communities of practice) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Opportunities to connect to a broader pedagogy community </li></ul>
  32. 32. Theme IX: Teaching Confidence <ul><li>Piano teachers discussed an increased sense of confidence through: </li></ul><ul><li>Participating in professional activities </li></ul><ul><li>2. Strengthening their identity with the teaching role </li></ul><ul><li>-Developing a philosophy of teaching </li></ul><ul><li>-Actively choosing the teaching role </li></ul>
  33. 33. Theme X: Reflective Practice <ul><li>Piano teachers alluded to reflective practice when discussing: </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking about their teaching </li></ul><ul><li>2. The importance of self-critique </li></ul><ul><li>3. Through the process of overcoming challenges </li></ul><ul><li>4. Teaching helped performance, and vise versa </li></ul><ul><li>5. Teaching and learning is a cyclical process </li></ul><ul><li>6. Toward the attainment of expert teaching </li></ul>
  34. 34. Theme XI: Reflections and Suggestions for the Future <ul><li>Piano teachers discussed: </li></ul><ul><li>Reflections on higher education and: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Preparation for the teaching role </li></ul><ul><li>b. Ability to make a viable living </li></ul><ul><li>2. Recommendations for: </li></ul><ul><li>a. The future of piano pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>b. The piano curriculum, in general </li></ul>
  35. 35. Answers pertaining to research questions: 1. How do piano teachers make the transition from student to teacher?
  36. 36. Answers pertaining to research questions: 1. How do piano teachers make the transition from student to teacher? <ul><li>The master-apprentice model provided: </li></ul><ul><li>Pianistic and musicianship skills </li></ul><ul><li>A bank of memories for which to evoke (former teachers, materials played, experiences as students) </li></ul><ul><li>c. Primary models of teaching for which to emulate (i.e., archetypes for the teaching role) </li></ul>
  37. 37. Answers pertaining to research questions: 1. How do piano teachers make the transition from student to teacher? <ul><li>As pianists were autonomous in their transition into the teaching role, experiential learning factored just as prominently as the master-apprentice model: </li></ul><ul><li>Learning by doing (gaining experience, trial-and-error) </li></ul><ul><li>Overcoming challenges* (considered a productive aspect of their teaching) </li></ul><ul><li>c. Seeking out resources </li></ul>
  38. 38. Answers pertaining to research questions: 1. How do piano teachers make the transition from student to teacher? <ul><li>Additionally, two facilitative modes of learning to teach included: </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive-apprenticeship (e.g., piano pedagogy coursework combining formal learning w/ hands-on teaching) </li></ul><ul><li>Apprenticeship (formal or informal learning opportunities, teaching internships, etc.) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Answers pertaining to research questions: 1. How do piano teachers make the transition from student to teacher?
  40. 40. Answers pertaining to research questions: 1a. What challenges do they face when making this transition?
  41. 41. Answers pertaining to research questions: 1b. What resources do they find when making this transition?
  42. 42. Answers pertaining to research questions: 1c. What learning experiences (formal and informal) helped prepare them?
  43. 43. Answers pertaining to research questions: 1d. What professional activities (if applicable) served as support in the field?
  44. 44. Answers pertaining to research questions: 2. What current challenges do piano teachers face?
  45. 45. Answers pertaining to research questions: 2a. What solutions and/or resources do they find to overcome current challenges?
  46. 46. Answers pertaining to research questions: 3. What do piano teachers suggest for the future of piano pedagogy and the piano curriculum in general?
  47. 47. Summary The iron plate or harp of the piano is utilized to display a summary of research findings. -Known as the “backbone” of the piano, it must provide the rigidity to keep the framework together, -However, it must remain pliant enough so the framework does not crack and can endure through changing conditions.
  48. 48. Implications <ul><li>Transition into the teaching role and early development of teaching navigated independent of the higher education setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences in higher education did not serve as piano teacher preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Underscores the need for teacher-training experiences at the undergraduate level. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Implications <ul><li>Piano teachers demonstrated several progressions from undergraduate to graduate study: </li></ul><ul><li>-Identification with the teaching role (similar to Gray, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>-Consulting of written resources and research </li></ul><ul><li>-Participation in professional activities </li></ul><ul><li>-Propensity to engage in reflective practice </li></ul>
  50. 50. Implications <ul><li>Pedagogical coursework and teacher-training experiences were considered facilitative modes of learning to teach. </li></ul><ul><li>-Importance of observing experienced piano teachers </li></ul><ul><li>-Opportunities to gain authentic hands-on teaching experiences </li></ul><ul><li>(to immediately apply what is being learned to one’s own teaching) </li></ul><ul><li>-”Cradle to grave” model for a variety of learners </li></ul><ul><li>-Business skills for all pianists </li></ul>
  51. 51. Implications <ul><li>Similar implications have been drawn for the applied musician: </li></ul><ul><li>-Challenges faced (Haddon, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>-Requisite skills for sustainable practice (Bennett, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>-Thus, applied musicians may benefit from pedagogical coursework inclusive to all musicians (i.e., ‘private lesson pedagogy’) </li></ul>
  52. 52. Implications <ul><li>Tremendous personal initiative and incredible resourcefulness in transitioning into the teaching role </li></ul><ul><li>-overcoming challenges </li></ul><ul><li>and seeking out resources </li></ul><ul><li>-finding measures to continually refine their teaching </li></ul>
  53. 53. Implications <ul><li>Thus, for some piano teachers, the meticulous processes (e.g., critical listening, reflecting on action, problem-solving, etc.) involved in the pursuit of perfection for consummate piano performance may also reflect the continual refinement of one’s teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>It is proposed that through research, collaboration, and pioneering leaders in the field, similar implications can be drawn for raising the standards and quality of the profession and the framework for piano teacher training for preparing the next generation to enter the workforce as piano teachers. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Limitations <ul><li>Research methods </li></ul><ul><li>-Interviews vs. anthropological observations </li></ul><ul><li>External validity </li></ul><ul><li>-Small sample size </li></ul><ul><li>Internal validity </li></ul><ul><li>-Evolving nature of the interview guide, sampling selection, and interviewing skills of the researcher. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Measures to Ensure Quality and Rigor of Research <ul><li>Member checking (Johnson & Christensen, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-coder reliability agreement (Tinsley & Weiss, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>- .9475, .9238, and .9385 , respectively </li></ul><ul><li>Peer debriefing with experienced researchers </li></ul><ul><li>(Lincoln & Guba, 1985) </li></ul>
  56. 56. Ongoing Research <ul><li>Presented at the 2010 GP3 Group Piano & Piano Pedagogy Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Presented at the 2011 FMEA Clinic-Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Will be presenting at the 2011 National Conference on Keyboard Pedagogy </li></ul>
  57. 57. Future Research <ul><li>Large scale survey </li></ul><ul><li>(To validate or invalidate research findings) </li></ul><ul><li>Present at the National Conference on Keyboard Pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>(Learning to teach: The facilitative role of piano pedagogy coursework in piano teacher preparation ) </li></ul>
  58. 58. Future Research <ul><li>Develop the Handbook for the Beginning Piano Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Start a Journal of Research in Piano Pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>Promote the value of pedagogical coursework and the need for consistent educational standards. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Future Research <ul><li>New Directions for Research: </li></ul><ul><li>The reflective piano teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Training interventions for younger individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Best practices (i.e., expert teaching) </li></ul><ul><li>Identity construction of the piano teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Core competencies , curriculum design, etc. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Validated Issues from the Literature <ul><li>Pianists demonstrate a progression in identification with the teaching role from undergraduate to graduate study (Gray, 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>Applied instrumentalists, including pianists, develop their teaching skills through instinct and experience rather than formal training (Haddon, 2009). </li></ul><ul><li>Applied instrumentalists, including pianists, tend to rely on memories of former teachers and materials and are unaware of professional development opportunities (Haddon, 2009). </li></ul><ul><li>Current coursework and experiences in piano pedagogy need to be improved in the higher education setting (MTNA, 1999, cited in Fu, 2007; Schons, 2005; Sumpter, 2008). </li></ul>

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