Seminary of L46 June 2010


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Seminary of L46 June 2010

  1. 1. Radioactive waste disposalsclassification, gov. regulations, perspectivesin Poland<br />Michał Skrzycki<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Content<br />Radioactive wastes classification and management,<br />state of art – UE, Poland,<br />VLLW Landfills – locationpolicy, technology, technicalrequirements,<br />2<br />
  3. 3. RA Waste classification - Poland <br />3<br />
  4. 4. RA Waste classification - EU (Fr)<br />4<br />
  5. 5. VeryLowLevel Waste<br />Has radioactivityclose to naturallyoccuringin environment,<br />Lowradiationtype: beta and gamma, alpha - <br />Lowheatemission, <br />Comesfromdismantling of nuclearfacilities and industrial plants, whichinvolvesinproductioncycleusage of naturallyradioactive materials,(thisdefinitionvariesbetween EU and Poland)<br />Standard solution: on-surfacedisposalwith wastes compaction,<br />5<br />
  6. 6. LowLevel Waste - Long Lived(OPNA)<br />Comesfromdismantling first nuclearplants, instalationgearusingisotops,<br />Long-Lived: <br />(PL) : depends on radioactivitylevel (400kBq/kg)<br />(EU): e.g. firedetectors, lighting conductors, graphite-moderatedgas-cooledreactors (dismantling)<br />Standard solution: variesdepending on country.<br />6<br />
  7. 7. 7<br />
  8. 8. IntermediateLevel Waste (ILW, OPSA):<br />Characterized by medium Beta and Gamma-typeradiation, high Alpha-type,<br />Large waste amountcomefromactive NP., shellsfromrecycledfueltanks, equipment,<br />Disposal: currently under study, e.g. France – surfacereinforcedconcretecells,<br />8<br />
  9. 9. High Level Waste<br />High alpha, beta and gamma-typeradiation,<br />High heatemission,<br />Over 80% of HLW isproduced by Nuclear Energy Industry,<br />Due to veryunstableparameters, vulnerable to environment, most commondisposalis „deeptype” (technology mayvary, depend on ground/rock conditions).<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Radioactive Wastes Management<br />10<br />
  11. 11. 11<br />
  12. 12. 12<br />
  13. 13. State of Art: Poland<br />Twonuclearreactors: MARIA and EWA (1st reactor, 1958-1995), locatedin Świerk,<br />One National Radioactive Waste DisposalFacilityin Różan, <br />Disposalismanaged by Zakład Unieszkodliwiania Odpadów Promieniotwórczych <br />13<br />
  14. 14. State of Art: Poland 2<br />First plansof nuclearpower plant was inventedin 80’s, stoppedin 90’s due to public opinion, finances and SovietUn-Stable Technology (Charnobyl), Location: Żarnowiec<br />Currently, „green light” for nuclear energy isgiven by government, <br />„Energeticpolicy of Poland untill 2030” consist a projection of twonuclearpowerplants, <br />Propablylocation of new: Żarnowiec and Klempicz,<br />Consortium of PGE-EDF Energie de France<br />14<br />
  15. 15. State of Art: Poland 3<br />In connection to building of Power Plants, theremust be buildnewdisposalfacilities,<br />In late 70’s thefeasibilitystudy on deepdisposal was started,<br />Therewere many conceptions of waste deposition, <br />15<br />
  16. 16. 16<br /><ul><li>layered salt strata Łeba, cechsztyńskie złoże soli pokładowych, 700m ppt, 200m thick,
  17. 17. Due to hazard of agressivebehaviour of sweet water, project was abandoned,
  18. 18. since 1999 WIPP Project in New Mexicoisrunning,</li></li></ul><li>Non-salt Rocks:<br />In 1978 thefeasibilitystudy was started on deepdisposalfacilityinNon-Salt Rocks, <br />Project consideredlocation of HLW incrystalrocks, about 500-1000m belowgroundlevel.<br />New locations: Land of Białystok, <br />Conceptionusesrocks of crystalground<br />17<br />
  19. 19. 18<br />
  20. 20. Międzyrzecz (MRU)<br />19<br />
  21. 21. Waste DisposalFacilitylocation:<br />Cannot be located on terrainendangeredwith:<br />Oftenfloodswithpropability of wavebiggerthan 500 years,<br />Seismicactivity – natural orinduced by men,<br />Rock beddingmovements,<br />Nearbymetropolies, points of cult, <br />Watersafetyzones,<br />Mining areas,<br />Landfills (on surfacedisposals) cannot be build:<br />Under groundwatertable,<br />Close to therivers (belowrivertable),<br />20<br />
  22. 22. Choose of disposalfacilitylocation:<br />Society and economicalconditionswithspecialconcernesabout:<br />Demography,<br />Ownership,<br />Culturalvalues and estetics,<br />„Economical Bill”,<br />„Index of Emotions”<br />Geographicalconditions:<br />Geologicalstructure and itsevolution,<br />Geomorphology,<br />Hydrogeologicalconditions,<br />21<br />
  23. 23. VLLW Landfill Construction<br />22<br />Consist of single ormultiplechasis for waste deposition, <br />Isprojected (Fr) for usageabout 50-100 years,<br />Large problem withmineralcapcoversettlements and parameterschangesin time (withchangingwatercontent),<br />
  24. 24. Soiltestsrequired for classification:<br />23<br />
  25. 25. Radioactive waste disposalsclassification, gov. regulations, perspectives…<br />Thankyou for attention,from time to time ;)<br />24<br />
  26. 26. Definitions - 1<br />Isotopes – differenttypes of atoms of the same chemical element, withdifferentnumber of neutrons, but having same atomicnumber<br />25<br />
  27. 27. Definitions - 2<br />1 Bq – SI derived unit of radioactivity, itisdefined as a activity of a quantity of radioactive waste materialinwhich one nucleusdecays per second,<br />Previouslyusedderived unit: 1Ci (Kiur)=39E9Bq<br />Types of radiation: <br />ALPHA – cannotpenetratethe skin, can be blocked by a sheet of paper, but isdangerousinthelung,<br />BETA – canpenetrateintothe body but can be blocked by a sheet of alluminiumfoil,<br />GAMMA – can go rightthroughthe body, requiresseveral cm of concrete, or ~1m of water, to blockit<br />26<br />
  28. 28. Bibliography:<br />B. Nielubowicz, Odpady Promieniotwórcze – Wstępne badania i analizy wybory lokalizacji składowiska.<br />Instytut Techniki Budowlanej; Instrukcje, Wytyczne, Poradniki – nr 339/2003: Badania gruntów do budowy przesłon izolacyjnych na składowiskach odpadów, Warszawa 2003.<br />Instytut Techniki Budowlanej; Instrukcje, Wytyczne, Poradniki – nr 411/2005: Badania gruntów i kontrola jakości wykonanych z nich przesłon izolacyjnych na składowiskach odpadów, Warszawa 2005.<br />Instytut Techniki Budowlanej; Instrukcje, Wytyczne, Poradniki – nr 444/2009: Zasady budowy składowisk odpadów.<br />ANDRA Activity report: Fosteringdialogue and outreach, Paris 2008.<br />27<br />