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  2. 2. SUMMARY OF THEORY• Behaviorism – “the prediction and control of human behavior in which introspection and/or independent thinking play no essential part of its teaching methods”• Operates on principle of stimulus response• All behavior is caused by external stimuli or operant conditioning• A view that assumes a learner is passive that responds to environmental stimuli• Behavior is shaped through positive or negative reinforcement• Learning is defined as a change in behavior in the learner
  3. 3. SUMMARY OF THEORY• According to a behaviorist, human learning is an objective and experimental branch of science• There is no internal cognitive processing of information• Believes there is no difference in the way a human and a dog thinks
  4. 4. IVAN PAVLOV • Became famous for his behavioral experiments with dogs • Won the Nobel Prize in Physiology in 1904 • Used the method of classic conditioning which is when the natural reflex occurs in response to a stimulus • Some believe this technique had human application
  5. 5. B.F. SKINNER • Focuses on another type of conditioning known as operant conditioning which states “learning is controlled and results in shaping behavior through the reinforcement of stimulus-response patterns” • Conducted experiments with pigeons • Believed that people shape their behavior based on the rewards or positive reinforcement they receive
  6. 6. B.F. SKINNER• Discovered that reinforcement is a powerful motivator• Found that when a desirable behavior is produced and rewarded it will be repeated• Classroom management techniques are based on these principles “Education is what survives when what has been learned has been forgotten.” -B.F. Skinner
  7. 7. ALBERT BANDURA • Famous for the development of the Social Cognitive Theory which he based off his ideas on social learning • Focuses on motivational factors instead of environment mechanisms • Believes that people acquire behaviors through observation of others, then, they imitate what they have observed
  8. 8. ALBERT BANDURA• Focused his work on the concept of self-efficacy (a personal observation about one’s perceived ability to feel, think, and motivate oneself to learn)• Analyzed people’s personality through the interaction of the environment, the behavior, and the person’s psychological processes• Started to consider a person’s ability to retain information through images in the mind known as imagery• Called the father of the cognitive movement• Theory has been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation
  9. 9. CLASSROOM IMPLICATIONS• Teachers under this theory reward the students when the students perform desirable actions like answering a question correctly or helping another student with a problem• Teachers under this theory also discipline the students when they don’t perform desirable action like when a students hits another student• Teachers can also discipline by giving the student a bad grade in order for the student to associate bad behavior with bad grades• Also, when the student is on a computer based instruction and the student gets the answer correct the program provides positive reinforcement
  10. 10. CLASSROOM IMPLICATIONS• Students under this theory perform actions that are either positive or negative• Students then receive reinforcement by the teacher either positive or negative depending on their actions• When students receive positive reinforcement they most likely will repeat the action again• When students receive negative reinforcement they will most likely not repeat the action again• When on a program, students answer questions and receive positive reinforcement with animations when they answer a question correctly
  11. 11. THOUGHTS ABOUT THEORY• I personally like this theory a lot• I would use this theory in my classroom• I think this theory works in teaching the students the desirable and undesirable actions by providing reinforcement• This theory teaches students to associate bad behavior or wrong answers with negative reinforcement and good behavior or correct answers with positive reinforcement
  12. 12. CREDITS•• x.htm• Google images• Integrating Technology and Digital Media in the Classroom