Household & Asset Holding Patterns in Goa:Evidence using Census Data 2011 Dr. Manoj S Kamat M . Com ( G o l d M e d al i s t ) , N E T, P G D B A , F D P I I M I n d o re , P h D. ( F i n a n ce ) I I T B om b a y , P o s t D o c t o ral Fel l ow ( E con om i c P o l i c y )
Background A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population Censuses in Egypt are said to have been taken during the early Pharaonic period in 3340 BC The oldest recorded census in India: 300 BC during the reign of the Emperor Chandragupta Maurya under the leadership of Chanakya The next known record: Reign of Akbar the enlightened Mughal Emperor of India
Modern Census The modern Indian census is the largest single source of a variety of statistical information on different characteristics of the people of India and has a history of more than 130 years The responsibility of conducting the decennial Census rests with the Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India under Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Modern Indian census: best conducted census in the world
Spread Spread across 35 states and union territories, the Census covered 640 districts, 5767 talukas, 7742 towns and more than 6 lac villages. 2.7 million officials visited households in 7,935 towns and 6,40,867 villages, classifying the population according to gender, religion, education and occupation. The cost of the exercise was approximately 2,200 crore (US$438.9 million) – this comes to less than $ 0.5 per person, well below the estimated world average of $4.6 per person
Goa Population Highlights… Goa: State Code 30: 3064 enumerators and 509 supervisors As per the report published post Census 2011, the total population of Goa is 14, 57, 723 It is the 25th ranking state among the other Indian states in regards to the total population The population of Goa forms 0.12 percent of India in 2011. In 2001, the figure was 0.13 percent Indian population growth rate is 17.64%, and literacy rate is 74.4% Male to Female Ratio 2011: 968 2001: 961 National: 940 N Goa is 959 S Goa is 980 Liberation time: 1068 females to 1000 males
Population Density Per square km density is 394 National: 382 N Goa is 471 S Goa is 326 Goa forms barely one per cent of the total landmass of India. The population density here is higher than Karnataka and Maharashtra indicating incrementally rising pressure on available land resources.
Urbanisation Urban: Population of 5,000 and above having a population density of 400 persons per sq km. and having at least 75 per cent of male working population engaged in non-agricultural activity were considered. From just 5 recognised census towns in 1961, within 50 years, Goa now boasts 70 census towns 2001 census had found only 45 census towns.
Unprecedented Transition Urban population in Goa is above 62 per cent Around two-third of house structures in urban areas Only 13 municipalities and a single corporation Why are villages transforming willingly into towns? Does Regional Plan 2021 factors urbanisation and identify the fundamental limits of land use? How many people would the town planners cram within just 70-80 thousand hectares of land available for all types of development?
Literacy Rate Literacy is 87.4% Higher than national average of 74% N Goa is 88.85 S Goa is 85.53 Goa has surpassed the target of literacy rate of 85% set by the Planning Commission to be achieved by 2011-2012 Literacy is 92.81 percent among males and 81.84 percent in females.
1. HOUSEHOLD BY OWNERSHIP STATUS (K)2. HOUSEHOLDS BY NUMBER OF DWELLING ROOMS (L) 3. HOUSEHOLD BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE(M) 4. HOUSEHOLDS BY NUMBER OF MARRIED COUPLE (N) 5. HOUSEHOLDS AVAILING BANKING SERVICES (V)6. HOUSEHOLDS BY POSSESSION OF ASSETS (W)
Census House Means a structure commercial / residential / social / religious May be occupied or vacant May be a building, part of building or an independent unit having separate entrance 5,76,582 total census houses, out of which around 4.5 lakh occupied
Census Houses 5,76,582 25% increase in last 10 years 2,04,479 in rural areas and 3,72,103 in urban areas out of the total 5.76 lac, 1,25,503 are found to be vacant houses, while 4,51,079 are occupied. Thus the percentage of occupied houses is 78 per cent in 2011 compared to 83.1 percent in 2001
One in every five house in Goa is vacant The data further points out that the number of vacant houses is more in North Goa (72,527) compared to South Reason for increase in the number of vacant houses could be the absence of the family members in the houses when the enumerators visited them, for they may have gone out on a tour or so, or that the owners are not inhabiting them The previous government had assured that it would levy hefty occupancy tax on second flats or homes whose owners who do not live at the premises. However, the proposal was not implemented.
Occupied census houses used as residence: 3,14,414 out of 5.74 lacs Large no. of occupied residential dwellings in rural areas (contrary to our common understanding) Large no. of unoccupied residential houses in urban areas Average total residents per residential dwelling: 4-5
The percent of occupied locked census houses in Goa is 1.8 This figure is highest among all states in India The national average is 0.4
Condition of Census House 98% of census houses are in Good & Liveable Very insignificant are dilapidated, Dilapidated more in rural areas (-2% than 2001) Dilapidated more in S Goa 5% of rural and 2.5 of urban houses have vulnerable roofs (average -13% than 2001) 20% of rural and 8 of urban houses have vulnerable walls (average -11% than 2001) 30% of rural and 8 of urban houses have mud flooring (average -15% than 2001)
74.3% of households in Goa are made of stones (Pucca houses) compared to national average of 14.1% This figure is largest among other states (Kerala: 56.9 & Lakshadweep (45.5) 43.6% households in Goa have mosaic tiles &/or better, as house flooring compared to national average of 10.8% This figure is largest among other states (Maharashtra: 36.8 & Gujarat (36.2)
Ownership Status/Rooms/ Inmates More per cent of owned houses in North Goa (81.3) compared to S Goa (75.8)
Around 20% of households have 1/no exclusive rooms (-3% compared to 2001) The incidences of 1/no exclusive rooms are more in S Goa than in N Goa Around 2.5% of households have more than 2 married couples (National average is above 4%)
Drinking Water 85% of households use tap water for drinking +16% compared to 2001 Rural :77%, U: 90% 11 % of households use well water for drinking -15% compared to 2001 Rural : 15%, Urban : 8% Well water consumption higher in North Goa
Electricity/ Telephone/Vehicle 97 per cent households in the state are using electricity as main source of lighting Altogether 1,273 houses in Goa are yet to receive electricity connections More incidences of no electricity in S Goa 89 per cent of total houses have either landline telephone or mobile Around 81.5 per cent of them have either a 2 wheeler and /or a car (Largest among all the states) compared to 25.7% national average
Sanitation 16 per cent of household have no facility of even public toilets Situation worst in rural areas
Drainage Just over 43 per cent of the houses in Goa have closed drainage 25 per cent have open drainage 31 per cent houses are without any drainage
Cooking Medium Nearly 21 per cent depend on firewood, besides 4 per cent of them using kerosene for cooking. The percentage of households using traditional cow dung cakes for this purpose is only 0.2 per cent.
Financial Inclusiveness 87 % of households avail Banking Services, compared to national average of 58.7% (next only to A&N Islands & H of around 89%) Rural Goa:85 % , Urban Goa:88 %
Summary The indicators for house listing data for Goa looks very good as compared to rest of the country Indicators of Asset Holding and Financial Inclusiveness are best High Urbanization Unbalanced Growth Sanitation, Drainage, Bathrooms, still a concern