Clouds and Precipitation Project
By: Matt Schaffer
Adiabatic temperatures changes and
expansion and cooling
• When air is cool it expands and when air is warm it
compresses
...
Orographic lifting
• Orographic lifting is when air flow is blocked
• Many of the rainiest places on Earth are on the
wind...
Frontal Wedging
• In central America when masses of warm
air and cool air collide it produce a front
• Warmer air is less ...
Convergence
• Convergence occurs when air in the lower
atmosphere flows together
• Air flowing from more then one directio...
Localized Convective Lifting
• Unequal heating of Earth causes rising parcels of
warmer air called thermals
• Localized co...
Stability
• The temperatures of that
atmosphere at various
heights determines the air
stability
• Stable air produces clou...
Condensation
• The air must be saturated
for condensation to
occur(water vapor changes
to liquid)
• Condensation nuclei ar...
Types of clouds
• The three basic forms
of clouds are cirrus,
cumulus, and stratus
• All clouds show
properties of one of
...
High Clouds
• High clouds are made
up of cirrus,
cirrostratus,
cirrocumulus clouds
• High clouds are thin
and white
• High...
Middle clouds
• Middle clouds are
2000 to 6000 meter
high
• Have the prefix alto
as part of their name
• Altocumulus cloud...
Low Clouds
• Low clouds are made
up of stratus,
stratocumulus, and
nimbostratus clouds
• Stratus clouds mostly
cover much ...
Clouds of vertical Development
• Clouds that don’t fit into the three height
ranges are associated with unstable air
• Whe...
Fog (by cooling and by evaporation)
• Fog can be caused by
cooling or evaporation
• Fog is produced when
warm air moves ov...
Cold Cloud Precipitation
• Formed by the
Bergeron process
• Supercooled water is
when water is in a
liquid state and below...
Warm Cloud Precipitation
• The collision-
coalescence process
forms rain drops in
warm clouds
• Larger droplets join
toget...
Rain and snow
• Rain is a drop of water
that falls from a cloud
and has a diameter of .5
mm
• Light snow occurs when
there...
Sleet, Glaze and Hail
• Small particles of
clear ice are called
sleet
• Freezing rain is
commonly known as
glaze
• Cumulon...
The End
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  1. 1. Clouds and Precipitation Project By: Matt Schaffer
  2. 2. Adiabatic temperatures changes and expansion and cooling • When air is cool it expands and when air is warm it compresses • The rate of cooling or heating of unsaturated air is called dry adiabatic rate • The wet adiabatic rate is the slower rate of cooling when latent heat is added http://hyperphysics.phy- astr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/a diab.html
  3. 3. Orographic lifting • Orographic lifting is when air flow is blocked • Many of the rainiest places on Earth are on the windward side of mountain slopes • When air reaches the leeward side of a mountain the air has lost much of its moisture http://05lovesgeog raphy.blogspot.co m/2011/04/types- of-rainfall.html
  4. 4. Frontal Wedging • In central America when masses of warm air and cool air collide it produce a front • Warmer air is less dense and raises • Colder air is more dense and produces a barrier over warmer air http://www.erh.noaa.gov/rnk/N ewsletter/Spring_2008/climate. htm
  5. 5. Convergence • Convergence occurs when air in the lower atmosphere flows together • Air flowing from more then one direction goes up • The Florida Peninsula is an example of convergence http://apollo.lsc.vsc.edu/classes/met 130/notes/chapter6/lift_converge.ht ml
  6. 6. Localized Convective Lifting • Unequal heating of Earth causes rising parcels of warmer air called thermals • Localized convective lifting is the process that produces rising thermals • Pockets of air that are warmer then surrounding air are less dense will move upward https://www.meted.ucar.edu/sign_in.php?go_ back_to=http%253A%252F%252Fwww.meted. ucar.edu%252Fnorlat%252Fsnow%252Flake_ef fect%252Fprint_whole.htm
  7. 7. Stability • The temperatures of that atmosphere at various heights determines the air stability • Stable air produces clouds that are widespread, have little vertical thickness compared to their horizontal dimension, and precipitation is light to moderate, if any • Stable air resists vertical movement and air stays in its positions and unstable air rises http://keithrogershome.com/Chap6Stab ilityInstability.html
  8. 8. Condensation • The air must be saturated for condensation to occur(water vapor changes to liquid) • Condensation nuclei are the surface for water vapor condensation in the air • Their must be a surface for condensation to occur http://keep3.sjfc.edu/students/kes008 98/e- port/condensation%20page%20for%2 0unit.html
  9. 9. Types of clouds • The three basic forms of clouds are cirrus, cumulus, and stratus • All clouds show properties of one of the three basic cloud forms or a mixture of them • Clouds are classified on their height and form http://eo.ucar.edu/webweather/cloud3.html
  10. 10. High Clouds • High clouds are made up of cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus clouds • High clouds are thin and white • High clouds are not considered precipitation makers http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh) /guides/mtr/cld/cldtyp/hgh/crs.rxml
  11. 11. Middle clouds • Middle clouds are 2000 to 6000 meter high • Have the prefix alto as part of their name • Altocumulus clouds are larger and denser then cirrocumulus clouds http://www.ifimages.com/public/im age/139051/view.html
  12. 12. Low Clouds • Low clouds are made up of stratus, stratocumulus, and nimbostratus clouds • Stratus clouds mostly cover much of the sky • Nimbostratus clouds come from a Latin word that means rainy cloud http://www.cepolina.com/photo/str atus_cumulus.htm
  13. 13. Clouds of vertical Development • Clouds that don’t fit into the three height ranges are associated with unstable air • When a upward motion is triggered it will produce clouds with vertical form http://www.free- online-private-pilot- ground- school.com/Aviation -Weather- Principles.html
  14. 14. Fog (by cooling and by evaporation) • Fog can be caused by cooling or evaporation • Fog is produced when warm air moves over cold air • When cool air moves over warm air it condenses and rising making fog that looks like steam http://photoshoptutorials.ws/photoshop- tutorials/photo-effects/fog.html
  15. 15. Cold Cloud Precipitation • Formed by the Bergeron process • Supercooled water is when water is in a liquid state and below 0 degrees Celsius • Supersaturated air has 100% saturated air for water and above 100% saturated for ice http://www.srh.noaa.gov/lzk/?n=mar 2011.htm
  16. 16. Warm Cloud Precipitation • The collision- coalescence process forms rain drops in warm clouds • Larger droplets join together with smaller droplets as they move through the cloud https://www.meted.ucar.edu/sign_in.p hp?go_back_to=http%253A%252F%252 Fwww.meted.ucar.edu%252Ftropical%2 52Ftextbook_2nd_edition%252Fprint_5 .htm
  17. 17. Rain and snow • Rain is a drop of water that falls from a cloud and has a diameter of .5 mm • Light snow occurs when there is a small amount of water vapor in the air • Heavy snow occurs when temperatures are warmer than -5 degrees Celsius http://www.mapsofworld.com/world- maps/precipitation-rain-and-snow- enlarge-map.html
  18. 18. Sleet, Glaze and Hail • Small particles of clear ice are called sleet • Freezing rain is commonly known as glaze • Cumulonimbus clouds produce hail http://www.theweatherprediction.com/severe /gianthail/
  19. 19. The End

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