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  1. 1. Clouds and Precipitation Project By: Matt Schaffer
  2. 2. Adiabatic temperatures changes and expansion and cooling• When air is cool it expands and when air is warm it compresses• The rate of cooling or heating of unsaturated air is called dry adiabatic rate• The wet adiabatic rate is the slower rate of cooling when latent heat is added http://hyperphysics.phy- astr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/a diab.html
  3. 3. Orographic lifting• Orographic lifting is when air flow is blocked• Many of the rainiest places on Earth are on the windward side of mountain slopes• When air reaches the leeward side of a mountain the air has lost much of its moisture http://05lovesgeog raphy.blogspot.co m/2011/04/types- of-rainfall.html
  4. 4. Frontal Wedging• In central America when masses of warm air and cool air collide it produce a front• Warmer air is less dense and raises• Colder air is more dense and produces a barrier over warmer air http://www.erh.noaa.gov/rnk/N ewsletter/Spring_2008/climate. htm
  5. 5. Convergence• Convergence occurs when air in the lower atmosphere flows together• Air flowing from more then one direction goes up• The Florida Peninsula is an example of convergence http://apollo.lsc.vsc.edu/classes/met 130/notes/chapter6/lift_converge.ht ml
  6. 6. Localized Convective Lifting• Unequal heating of Earth causes rising parcels of warmer air called thermals• Localized convective lifting is the process that produces rising thermals• Pockets of air that are warmer then surrounding air are less dense will move upward https://www.meted.ucar.edu/sign_in.php?go_ back_to=http%253A%252F%252Fwww.meted. ucar.edu%252Fnorlat%252Fsnow%252Flake_ef fect%252Fprint_whole.htm
  7. 7. Stability• The temperatures of that atmosphere at various heights determines the air stability• Stable air produces clouds that are widespread, have little vertical thickness compared to their horizontal dimension, and precipitation is light to moderate, if any• Stable air resists vertical http://keithrogershome.com/Chap6Stab movement and air stays in ilityInstability.html its positions and unstable air rises
  8. 8. Condensation• The air must be saturated for condensation to occur(water vapor changes to liquid)• Condensation nuclei are the surface for water vapor condensation in the air http://keep3.sjfc.edu/students/kes008• Their must be a surface for 98/e- condensation to occur port/condensation%20page%20for%2 0unit.html
  9. 9. Types of clouds• The three basic forms of clouds are cirrus, cumulus, and stratus• All clouds show properties of one of the three basic cloud forms or a mixture of them http://eo.ucar.edu/webweather/cloud3.html• Clouds are classified on their height and form
  10. 10. High Clouds• High clouds are made up of cirrus, cirrostratus, cirr ocumulus clouds• High clouds are thin and white http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)• High clouds are not /guides/mtr/cld/cldtyp/hgh/crs.rxml considered precipitation makers
  11. 11. Middle clouds• Middle clouds are 2000 to 6000 meter high• Have the prefix alto as part of their name• Altocumulus clouds are larger and denser then cirrocumulus http://www.ifimages.com/public/im age/139051/view.html clouds
  12. 12. Low Clouds• Low clouds are made up of stratus, stratocumulus, and nimbostratus clouds• Stratus clouds mostly cover much of the sky• Nimbostratus clouds http://www.cepolina.com/photo/str come from a Latin atus_cumulus.htm word that means rainy cloud
  13. 13. Clouds of vertical Development• Clouds that don’t fit into the three height ranges are associated with unstable air• When a upward motion is triggered it will produce clouds with vertical form http://www.free- online-private-pilot- ground- school.com/Aviation -Weather- Principles.html
  14. 14. Fog (by cooling and by evaporation)• Fog can be caused by cooling or evaporation• Fog is produced when warm air moves over cold air• When cool air moves over warm air it http://photoshoptutorials.ws/photoshop- tutorials/photo-effects/fog.html condenses and rising making fog that looks like steam
  15. 15. Cold Cloud Precipitation• Formed by the Bergeron process• Supercooled water is when water is in a liquid state and below 0 degrees Celsius• Supersaturated air has 100% saturated air for http://www.srh.noaa.gov/lzk/?n=mar water and above 100% 2011.htm saturated for ice
  16. 16. Warm Cloud Precipitation• The collision- coalescence process forms rain drops in warm clouds• Larger droplets join together with smaller https://www.meted.ucar.edu/sign_in.p droplets as they move hp?go_back_to=http%253A%252F%252 Fwww.meted.ucar.edu%252Ftropical%2 through the cloud 52Ftextbook_2nd_edition%252Fprint_5 .htm
  17. 17. Rain and snow• Rain is a drop of water that falls from a cloud and has a diameter of .5 mm• Light snow occurs when there is a small amount of water vapor in the air• Heavy snow occurs when http://www.mapsofworld.com/world- temperatures are warmer maps/precipitation-rain-and-snow- than -5 degrees Celsius enlarge-map.html
  18. 18. Sleet, Glaze and Hail• Small particles of clear ice are called sleet• Freezing rain is commonly known as glaze http://www.theweatherprediction.com/severe• Cumulonimbus /gianthail/ clouds produce hail
  19. 19. The End