https://earthscience-in-the-nationalparks.wikispace Orographic Liftings.com/Death+Valley • As elevated terrain act like barrier to air, orographic lifting occurs. • Clouds and precipitation are created when air goes up a terrain, then adiabatic cooling occurs. • when air gets to the leeward side, most of the moisture is gone, if air descend it make condensation and precipitation unlikely.
Frontal wedging• Frontal wedging is when cool air and warm collide• Weather producing fronts have to do with specific storm system such as middle latitude cycloneshttp://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/BRG/ODP/ODP/LEG_SUMM/171A/leg171A.html
Convergence• Convergence is when different air masses collide and forces air to be lifted upward.• Takes place in lower atmosphere.• Convergence leads to adiabatic cooling and clouds forming. http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/gui des/mtr/cld/dvlp/cnvrg.rxml
Localized Convective Lifting• When unequal heating of Earth’s surface causes pockets of air to be warmed more than surrounding air.• Thermal are warmer parcels of air that will rise because they are less dense.• When warm parcels of air rise above condensation clouds form and clouds create mid-day rain .http://santasusana.org/pakelly/ES9CP/ES9%20clouds.htm
Stability• Stable air stays in the same position while unstable air will rise until it reaches an altitude were the surrounding clouds are the same temperature.• Most stable position is temp. inversion• Air temp. increase with height because of radiation cooling off of earths surface http://ocw.usu.edu/Forest__Rang e__and_Wildlife_Sciences/Wildlan d_Fire_Management_and_Plannin g/Unit_7__Atmospheric_Stability_ and_Instability_1.html- skinless_view.html
Condensation• Takes place when water vapor changes to a liquid in the air.• Air must be saturated for condensation to happen.• In forms of dew, fog, or clouds.http://www.weatherquestions.com/What_is_condensation.htm
Types of clouds• Classified by form and height.• Cirrus clouds-thin, white, seen in patches• Stratus- clouds that appear to look like sheets that cover the sky• Cumulus- look like dooms, consist of round independent masses http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/as tronomy/planets/earth/clouds/
High clouds• 6000 meters and higher• Cirrus, cirrostratus, and cirrocumulus• Thin and white and often made up of ice crystalshttp://10.85.0.4:8080/ibreports/ibp/bp.html?fn=Students&fp=1&ip=10.182.1.107&ibip=10.85.0.4&ldu=0&re=0&bu=commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:High_Clouds_seen_from_Maui.JPG&bc=Website%20contains%20prohibited%20Adult%20Oriented%20content.
Middle Clouds• Forms from 2000 to 6000 meters• Types alto cirrus, altostratus, and altocumulus• Altocumulus is larger and denser while altostratus clouds create a uniform of grayish sheets that cover the sky with sunlight seen through. http://www.allstar.fiu.edu/aero/flte nv3.htm
Low Clouds• Forms 2000 meters and below• Types Stratus, Stratocumulus, and Nimbostratus• Cloud are fog like and cover most of the sky, and sometime produce light precipitation http://www.capetownskies.com/clouds-low.htm
Clouds of Vertical Development• Clouds that do not fit into any height range, base is in low height range while everything else is extended upwards.• Clouds are associated with unstable air.• Cumulus clouds may grow upwards and form clouds with great vertical range. http://www.pilotfriend.com/a• End result cumulonimbus v_weather/meteo/clouds.htm clouds with thunderstorms .
Fog http://www.photoshopstar.c om/photo-effects/how- create-fog-effect-• Clouds and fog have similar photoshop/ appearance and structure.• Fog is a cloud that has its base really close to the ground.• Fog forms from the result of radiation cooling, movement of air over a cold surface, and when water vapor is added to bring saturation.
Warm Cloud• Collision-coalescence process form rain droplets in warm clouds• It is when water absorbing particles remove water vapor from the air at relative humidity less than 100% forming large droplets• When the droplets move through clouds they collide with smaller droplets.http://www.capespirit.com/capewestcoastwallpapers.html
Cold Cloud Precipitation• Bergeron process relies on super cooling and super saturated• Super saturation is air that is saturated with the respect to water• Super cooled is when water will not freeze at o degrees Celsius but at 40 degrees Celsius, but it will freeze http://www.liveweatherblogs.co when it hits a solid m/weatherblog/5568/Clouds- Precipitation-as-earth-s- thermostat
Rain and Snow• Rain-drops of water that the diameter is at least 0.5 MM• If the temp. is higher than 4 degrees Celsius, then snow flake will melt and become rain before it hits the ground. http://kohd.com/page/21358• Low temperature snow makes 7 up six side ice crystal while temp. warmer than -5 degrees Celsius will become large heavy lumps.
Sleet, Glaze, and Hail• Sleet forms when a layer of air with temperature of freezing, lay over a subfreezing layer near the ground.• Glaze forms when rain drops are super cooled and fall through subfreezing air near the ground (turn to ice when collides with an object).• Hail starts out as small ice that gets bigger by super cooled water http://weblogs.wgntv.com/chic ago-weather/tom-skilling- droplets as they fall through blog/2005/03/ clouds
Adiabatic cooling• When air is allowed to expand it cools and if it is compressed it cools.• Unsaturated air cools at a constant rate.• As you travel higher , the atmospheric pressure decrease because there http://www.bio.georgiasouthern.edu /bio- are fewer gas molecules. home/harvey/lect/lectures.html?cco de=el&mda=scrn&flnm=abel&ttl=Po pulations%20and%20their%20enviro nment