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  1. 1. By Brianna Shevlin
  2. 2. Adiabatic Temperature Changesand Expansion and Cooling Temperature changes, even without adding or subtracting heat is called adiabatic temperature changes. When air expands, it cools and when compressed, it warms. Moving upward the air expands and cools due to passing regions of low pressure. Cooling generates clouds and precipitation kidsgeo.com Unsaturated air cools at 10 degrees Celsius every 1000 meters upward.
  3. 3. Orographic Lifting Elevated land, like mountains, that blocks air flow proves orographic lifting is occuring. More rain occurs on the windward side. An example is the Great Basin Desert is cut off by the Sierra Nevada Mountains. examiner.com
  4. 4. Frontal Wedging Warm air colliding with cool air produces a front. Cool dense air is a barrier to the warm air that rises. geo.hunter.cuny.edu
  5. 5. Convergence When air in the lower atmosphere flows together, lifting occurs. This is called convergence. Air flows from more then one direction and when it can’t go down, it goes up. Convergence causes clouds and precipitation. ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu
  6. 6. Localized Collective Lifting Unequal heating of Earth’s surface may cause pockets of air to be warmer then the surrounding air. Rising parcels of warm air are called thermals. Process that makes parcels is localized collective lifting. Parcels that rise above condensation richhoffmanclass.com level results in the formation of clouds and possible rain showers.
  7. 7. Stability Stability is when the air is cooler then its surroundings. Air is dense and sinks to original position resisting vertical movement.Difference: presstv.ir Stable air remains in the same position while unstable air rises.Stability and Daily Weather: Stable air is forced upward by other processes Clouds are widespread and have little vertical thickness. Lifting of unstable air results in thunder storms and possible tornados. On overcast, dreary days stable air has been forced up Puffy clouds means unstable air rose.
  8. 8. Condensation Happens when water vapor in the air changes to a liquid. Forms dew, fog, or clouds. Must be at a surface for the water vapor to condense on. Clouds occur when water vapor uses weatherquestions.com condensation nuclei as its surface.
  9. 9. Types of Clouds Clouds are classified based on form and height.Cirrus: High, white, and thin.Cumulus: Rounded and individuals. eo.ucar.eduStratus: Sheets cover most or all of the sky. There are no individual clouds. Three levels of clouds: high, middle, and low.
  10. 10. High Clouds Bases are above 6000 meters. Cirrocumulus:  fluffy. Cirrostratus : eo.ucar.edu  flat layer, thin, white, and made up of ice crystals. Due to low temperature (the higher, the cooler) and the small amount of water vapor there is no rain. High clouds show warning of stormy weather
  11. 11. Middle Clouds Bases are 2000-6000 meters high. Altocumulous:  rounded, large, and dense. Altostratus:  White or gray sheet that covers the sky. Produce light snow drizzle. bigbranch.net
  12. 12. Low Clouds Bases are 2000 meters or below. Stratus:  Foggy layer that covers the sky  Produce occasional precipitation eo.ucar.edu Stratocumulous:  appear in patches  Develop at the bottom of a stratus cloud. Nimbostratus:  They are the most common precipitation makers  They form during stable conditions  It’s a rainy cloud that covers the sky.
  13. 13. Clouds of Vertical Development Some clouds don’t fit into the three categories. Their base is at a low range but extend upward into the middle and higher range. Due to unstable air. One cloud is called cumulonimbus which causes rain and thunderstorms. Cumulus clouds fit in this category. bigbranch.net
  14. 14. brainharmonycenter.comFogFog: Clouds with bases near the ground. Happens due to radiation cooling or movement or air over a cool surface.Cooling: Cools rapidly by radiation on cool, clear nights. A thin layer of air near the ground is cooled below dewpoint. Air cools and becomes dense, draining into low areas.Evaporation: There is a steaming appearance. When cool air is over warm water there may be enough moisture to evaporate and produce saturation Increase in water vapor.
  15. 15. Cold Cloud Precipitation Bergeron process relies on two processes: supercooling and supersaturation. Water below 0 degrees Celcuis is supercooled. Ice crystals grow as cloud droplets do, when they are big enough they will fall. When the surface temperature is rst.gsfc.nasa.gov above 4 degrees Celcuis, snowflakes will melt before reaching the ground.
  16. 16. Warm Cloud Precipitation In warm clouds, the formation of raindrops is called collision-coalescence process. Water absorbing particles remove water vapor from air at relative humiditys less than 100% forming large drops that collide and join with smaller, slower droplets apollo.lsc.vsc.edu
  17. 17. Rain and Snow Rain means drops of water that fall from a cloud. Small drops are called a drizzle. Snow turns to rain before even hitting the ground when the surface roymiller.hubpages.com temperature is above 4 degrees celcuis. At low temperatures, light, fluffy snow made of ice crystals form. At temperatures warmer than 5 degrees celcuis,I ice crystals are larger clumps. itunes.apple.com
  18. 18. wunderground.comSleet, Glaze, and HailSleet: The fall of small particles of clear ice. Forms when a layer of air with temperatures above freezing over lay a subfreezing layer near the ground. sercc.comGlaze: Freezing rain Happens when raindrops become supercooled. Turn solid when impacting objects.Hail: Produces in cumulonimbus clouds. rufinope.comlu.com Small ice pelets grow by collection of supercooeld water droplets as they fall through clouds.
  19. 19. Bri’s Presentation on Clouds and Precipitation! The End!