Adiabatic Temperature Changes
and Expansion and Cooling
Adiabatic temperature changes are temperature
changes that happen even though heat isn’t added or
Wet adiabatic rate is the rate of adiabatic cooling in
saturated air and it is always slower then the dry
Orographic lifting of air occurs when elevated terrains,
such as mountains, act as barriers to air flow, forcing
the air to go otherwise.
The boundary between colliding warm and cold air is a
The process that occurs at a front which cold, dense air
acts as a barrier over warmer, less dense air is frontal
The lifting of air that results from air in the lower
atmosphere flowing together is convergence.
Localized Convective Lifting
When unequal heating of Earth’s surface warms a
pocket of air more than the surrounding air, making
the air pockets density lower is called localized
Stability (Density Differences &
Stability and Daily Weather)
When air temperature increases with height is when
the most stable conditions happen. This is called
When condensation occurs in the air above the
ground, little pieces of a specific matter , called
condensation nuclei, are for surfaces for water-vapor
Types of Clouds
Cirrus clouds are high in the sky, white and thin. These
types of clouds occur as patches or as delicate sheets or
extended wispy fibers that often have a feathery look.
Cirrus also stands for (a curl of hair)
Cumulus clouds are the clouds that consist of rounded
individual cloud masses. They usually have a flat base and
appear as rising towers or domes. Cumulus also stands for
Stratus clouds are the clouds that are described as sheets or
layers that cover a good amount of the sky. Stratus also
stands for (a layer)
3 cloud tpes make up the family of high clouds. Cirrus,
cirrostratus, and cirrocumulus.
Cirrocumulus clouds are fluffy, they have flat layers
and warn any stormy weather.
All high clouds are thin, white and are often made of
Clouds that appear in the middle range (2,000-6,000
Altocumulus clouds are rounded and differ from
These clouds are white and grayish, you also might get
a light snow or drizzle with these clouds.
3 types of low clouds; stratus, stratocumulus, &
Stratus clouds have a fog-like layer that covers much of
the sky. Stratocumulus forms when stratus clouds
develop a scalloped bottom or in broken rounded
patches. Nimbostratus get the name from latin
(nimbus) means rainy and cloudy these form during
Clouds of Vertical Development
Some clouds don’t fit into the 3 categories
When upward movement happens acceleration
happens with clouds with a large vertical range form
Fog (by cooling and by
Fog can form on warm and cool air.
As the night progresses, a thin layer of air in contact
with the ground is cooled below its due point, as it
cools it will become more dense.
Cold Cloud Precipitation (Bergeron
The Bergeron process is a theory that relates the
formation of precipitation to very cold clouds, freezing
nuclei, and the different saturation levels of ice and
Supercooled is when water in the liquid state is below
0 degrees Celcius.
Warm Cloud Precipitation
Supersaturated is when air is saturated (100% realative
humidity) with respect to water. With ice (greater than
Collision-coalescence is a theory of raindrop
formation in warm clouds in which large cloud
droplets collide and join together with smaller
droplets to form a raindrop.
Rain and Snow
Rain means drops of water that fall from a cloud and
have a diameter of at least 0.5 mm.
At temperatures warmer then -5 degrees Celsius, ice
crystals join together making larger clumps.
Snowfalls of larger clumps are heavy and make higher
Sleet, Glaze and Hail
Sleet is the fall of small particles of clear to translucent
Glaze (freezing rain) is when rain drops become
supercooled, fall to the ground, and turn to ice when
they hit objects.
Hail is produced in cumulonimous clouds, they start
as small ice pellets that got bigger by connecting really
cold water droplets as they fall through a cloud.