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  1. 1. Clouds and Precipitation PowerPoint By, Brittani Swavely
  2. 2. Adiabatic Temperature Changes and Expansion and Cooling• Adiabatic temperature changes are temperature changes that even happen even though the heat isn’t added or subtracted.• Dry adiabatic rate is the cooling or heating in unsaturated air.• Wet adiabatic rate is the rate of adiabatic cooling in saturated air and always slower then the dry adiabatic rate.
  3. 3. Orographic Lifting• The air occurs when there are elevated terrains, such as mountains, they act like barriers to air flow, which forces the air to ascend.
  4. 4. Frontal Wedging• Fronts are boundaries between colliding masses of the warm and cold air.• Frontal Wedging is a process which occurs at a front which is cold, dense air that acts as a barrier which is warmer, less dense air rises.
  5. 5. Convergence• It’s the lifting of the air that results from the air in the lower atmosphere flowing together. https://www.mete d.ucar.edu/sign_in. php?go_back_to=h ttp%253A%252F% 252Fwww.meted.u car.edu%252Ffire% 252Fs290%252Funi t6%252Fprint_2.ht m
  6. 6. Localized Convective Lifting• Occurs when there is unequal heating of the Earth’s warms a pocket of the air more then surrounding air, hen lowering the air pocket’s density.
  7. 7. Stability (Density Differences & Stability and Daily Weather)• When there are most stable conditions happen when the air temperature actually increases with the height , is called temperature inversion.
  8. 8. Condensation• Condensation nuclei occurs in the air above ground, with tiny bits of particulate matter.• The surfaces serve as water-vapor condensation.• Examples: fog, dew or clouds.
  9. 9. Types of Clouds• One type of cloud is Cirrus which are clouds high, white and thin. These clouds can occur in patches or in like sheets or extended wispy fibers often have a feathery appearance.• Another type of cloud is Cumulus which are clouds that consist of a rounded individual cloud masses. They usually have a flat base and a appearance of rising domes or towers.• The third type of cloud is Stratus which is when these clouds are described as sheets or layers that cover most if not all of the sky. Can be minor breaks but, no distinct individual cloud units.
  10. 10. High Clouds• Three types of clouds that make up the family, the three types are cirrus, cirrostratus, and cirrocumulus.• All of these types are thin, white and often made up of ice crystals.• Not considered precipitation makers.
  11. 11. Middle Clouds• They appear in the middle range from about 2000-6000 meters.• Altocumulus clouds are formed from rounded masses that are different from cirrocumulus http://braindanceis awayoflife.blogspot. com/2009/04/cloud spotters-guide.html
  12. 12. Low Clouds• There are three members in this family and they are stratus, stratocumulus, and nimbostratus.• These clouds can produce light precipitation.• Nimbostratus clouds form during good conditions. http://www.atmos.illinois. edu/earths_atmosphere/c louds.html
  13. 13. Clouds of Vertical Development• Some clouds don’t fit into any category.• They are all basically related to each other.• Cumulonimbus clouds can produce rain showers or thunderstorms.http://www.pilotfriend.com/av_weather/meteo/clouds.htm
  14. 14. Fog(by cooling and by evaporation)• There is nothing different from a cloud an fog.• The appearance between a cloud and fog are the same.• Fog can sometimes form on cool, clear , calm nights when the Earth’s surface cools a lot by radiation. http://epod.usra.edu/bl og/2006/03/advection- fog-in-new- hampshire.html
  15. 15. Cold Cloud Precipitation(Bergeron process)• Water that is in the liquid state below 0 degrees celeuis is told to be supercooled.• Water that is supercooled will rapidly freeze if it does touch a solid object. http://photoblog.statesman. com/author/rbarrera
  16. 16. Warm Cloud Precipitation (collision- coalescence process)• When the air is saturated which means 100% relative humidity , respects to be water is supersaturated with respect of the ice which is greater then 100% humidity.• Collision-coalescence is the theory of the raindrop formation in warm clouds, which has larger cloud droplets. http://quizlet.com/1781977 /chp-18moisture-clouds- and-precipitation-flash- cards/
  17. 17. Rain and Snow• The term rain mean drops of water that falls from a clod.• Snow is made up of individual ice crystals that have six sides.• The snowflakes are heavy and has high moisture. http://zahiym5tlc.e dublogs.org/
  18. 18. Sleet , Glaze and Hail• Sleet is small particles of ice.• Hail produces from cumulonimbus clouds.• Glaze can be known as freezing rain. http://weathersavvy.co m/A-Winter.html
  19. 19. The end