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  1. 1. By Brendan McFadden
  2. 2. Adiabatic Temperaturechanges, expansion, andcooling. When air is compressed, the molecules move faster and the temperature increases. When it can expand, the temperature decreases. Every 1,000 meters from the surface the temperature goes down 10 c.
  3. 3. Orographic Lifting Mountains act as barriers to prevent air flow. That is why the leeward is cooler than the windward side. The moisture in the air decreases by the time it gets to the leeward side so it becomes dryer.
  4. 4. Frontal Wedging Hot air and cool air collide causing a Front. The cool air rises over the warm air, acting as a wall, which can prevent storm systems.
  5. 5. Convergence When air comes from multiple directions it must go up. This causes cloud formation and adiabatic temperature changes.
  6. 6. Localized Convective Lifting Unequal heating sometimes causes sections of air be more heated than others. Warmer air rises and is called a thermal. That is the process which causes convective lifting.
  7. 7. Stability(Densitydifferences, stability, and dailyweather). Stable air usually stays in its original position, but unstable air rises. The most stable conditions happen in a temperature inversion, which is when air temperature increases with height. Clouds in unstable air can usually lead to tornados and thunderstorms.
  8. 8. Condensation The air MUST be saturated before it can condense. Condensation nuclei, which contain salt, smoke and dust particles, act as surfaces for water vapor. Water DropletsSalt, Dust , and smoke
  9. 9. Types of clouds Clouds are known by their height and form. There are 3 types of clouds. Cirrus(High white and thin), Cumulus( Flat base and dome), and Stratus( High sheets that cover much of the sky). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cirrus_cloud http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cumulus_clo ud http://urbanext.illinois.edu/kalani/18.cfm
  10. 10. High clouds Cirrus, cirrostratus, and cirrocumulus make up the high clouds. They are white, thin and usually ice crystals. This happens because low quantities of water and low temperatures. http://www.enchantedlearning.co m/subjects/astronomy/planets/ea rth/clouds/
  11. 11. Middle clouds These clouds appear in the 2000 to 6000 meter range are middle clouds. They are larger and denser than high clouds. They can contain light snow and rain. http://scienceprep.org/clouds.htm
  12. 12. Low clouds These clouds are a fog-like layer that sometimes has light precipitation. Most of the clouds are gray and are in the surface to 2000 meter range. http://photos.igougo.com/pictures- photos-p369775-Low_Clouds.html
  13. 13. Clouds of vertical development Some clouds don’t fit in to any of the categories. They are formed in unstable air The result is often thunderstorms and rain. http://www.free-online-private- pilot-ground- school.com/Aviation-Weather- Principles.html
  14. 14. Fog(by cooling andevaporation) Some fog is formed when warm moist air flows over cool currents. Some forms when cold air leaves the water and causes it to evaporate from the water’s surface. http://www.renderplus. com/wk/Volumetric_Fo g_w.htm
  15. 15. Cold cloudprecipitation(Bergeron Process) Water suspended in air does not freeze until -40 c. When the water touches an ice crystal it will supercool. This causes snow and snow crystals
  16. 16. Warm cloud Precipitation Rain is most of the time from clouds above the freezing level. The collision- coalescence process causes larger drops of water to collide with smaller drops. This will make large amounts of smaller drops and they will be slower. https://www.meted.ucar.edu/sign _in.php?go_back_to=http%253A %252F%252Fwww.meted.ucar.e du%252Ftropical%252Ftextbook _2nd_edition%252Fnavmenu.ph p%253Ftab%253D6%2526page %253D3.0.0
  17. 17. Rain and snow Rain is actually small drops of water that fall from clouds that of a diameter of at least .5 mm. Snow, which usually melts before it touches the ground, clumps up with ice crystals and make a heavy moisture content.
  18. 18. Sleet, Glaze, and Hail Sleet is small grains of translucent ice that fall from clouds. A layer of air near the ground must be subfreezing. Glaze is know as freezing rain and must be super cooled below 0 c. Hail begins as small ice pellets but can supercooled and increase in size. http://climate.met.psu .edu/features/Hail/PE MA_hail.php
  19. 19. The End