The development of sustainable housing concepts in Denmark


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Description of different experiences with sustainable housing in Denmark

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  • Refrigerator producing company. Customer as white goods shop. Final user as consumer/household. Suppliers as supplier of component, e.g. the material for insulation, including foaming material. Regulation1: manufacturing of insulation etc. RegulationX: manufacturing (painting); labelling of white goods. Developmental network: developing more energy efficient refrigerator, involving better insulation and involving those that sell the refrigerators
  • The development of sustainable housing concepts in Denmark

    1. 1. Sustainable housing - strategies for existing and new buildings based on 25 years of experiences and visions from Denmark   Associate Professor and Science Shop co-ordinator Michael Søgaard Jørgensen Department of Management Engineering Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark E-mail: [email_address]
    2. 2. Overview of presentation <ul><li>Historical overview of Danish strategies for reduction of climate impact from housing </li></ul><ul><li>Renovation of existing houses </li></ul><ul><li>New sustainable housing projects </li></ul><ul><li>Local climate co-operation involving DTU, local city and local NGO </li></ul>
    3. 3. Approaches to sustainable housing in Denmark during the last 35 years <ul><li>Green buildings as energy-saving devices as a strategy after the oil crisis in 1973 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technologies and regulation supporting the implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecological alternatives, often as new rural settlements, emerging from the grassroots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A radical critique of the modern society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subsidized large-scale urban projects as a public drive towards green buildings following the Brundtland report </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Projects under the Danish Urban Renewal Act </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Green buildings in a market approach, where green labels recently have been developed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of sustainable buildings as individual consumer products Not based on public subsidies </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Next step: Planned, substantial efforts <ul><li>Climate plan from Danish Society of Engineers </li></ul><ul><li>2050: 94% reduction of climate impact. 50% reduction of energy consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of renewable energy, energy savings and changes in ways of meeting needs </li></ul><ul><li>Existing buildings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60% reduction of energy for heating and water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% reduction of electricity consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New houses as active houses: energy neutral on annual base </li></ul>
    5. 5. Energy use within EU <ul><li>33% of all energy in EU is used for transport </li></ul><ul><li>26% of all energy in EU is used by industry </li></ul><ul><li>41% of all energy in EU is used by buildings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>66% is used for heating and cooling. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of energy consumption is used in small buildings < 1000 m2 </li></ul></ul>Kilde: J. S. Møller, DTU Byg, 2008
    6. 7. Important definitions and concepts for buildings and energy (1) <ul><li>Climate shell </li></ul><ul><li>Activities i building (persons, equipment) </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure (energy, water, waste, transport etc.) </li></ul>
    7. 8. Important definitions and concepts for buildings and energy (2) <ul><li>New visions for buildings as energy producing, energy storing and energy consuming </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed energy production from solar energy (’active houses’) </li></ul><ul><li>Energy savings from reducing energy consumption, including the need for cooling </li></ul><ul><li>Planning the energy consumption to the production and consumption of others (’smart grid’) </li></ul><ul><li>Energy storage of energy from renewable energy e.g. batteries in electrical cars </li></ul>
    8. 9. The Co-operative Community in Hjortshøj 8 groups of houses established or planned since beginning 1990s Mixture of forms of ownership (private, co-operative renting) Include community houses and local workplaces Long phase of gaining building permits and construction planning. <ul><li>Group 2: </li></ul><ul><li>All the houses incorporate passive solar heating by having en enclosed glass room in connection with the rest of the house. </li></ul><ul><li>The outer walls are covered with red cedar and insulated with granulated paper </li></ul><ul><li>Common walls between the houses are made up of compressed clay bricks from a mixture of the clay dug up from the surrounding area. </li></ul><ul><li>A large wood chip furnace supplies central heating. </li></ul>
    9. 10. During the 1990s: A few demonstration projects in Copenhagen with combination of quality and environmental refurbishment Financed by urban renewal funds Hestestaldskarreen in the Western part of the city center 15 different houses with their own resident board Developed project to gether with municipal adviser Plan. Not all was implemented
    10. 11. Solar cells on some of the walls. Covering a small part of the energy consumption: for the common lighting in the court yard and for the regulation and pumps in the energy and water system Constructing the joint rain water collection tanks. Used for flushing the toilets. Not all houses use the system Common technical system for regulating heat and water
    11. 12. Next step: Planned, substantial efforts <ul><li>Climate plan from Danish Society of Engineers </li></ul><ul><li>2050: 94% reduction of climate impact. 50% reduction of energy consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of renewable energy, energy savings and changes in ways of meeting needs </li></ul><ul><li>Existing buildings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60% reduction of energy for heating and water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% reduction of electricity consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New houses as active houses: energy neutral on annual base </li></ul>
    12. 13. Refurbishment of one-family house from 1970s: Insulation of facade, foundation and loft Renovation of part of the roof Renovation and change of windows and external doors Change of gas boiler Installing ventilation system (with re-use of energy!?) No results yet, but investments are substantial Need to be combined with (planned) renovation Thermography – a new tool in the identification of energy renovation needs Building component companies engage in experiments: looking for new market opportunities
    13. 14. <ul><li>Older houses – also a challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>Quality different: good or bad </li></ul><ul><li>May have aesthetical values that need to be protected </li></ul>
    14. 15. Integration of renewable energy in buildings Thermal solar energy for heating: 50% on houses 50% on heat and power plant buildings
    15. 16. Need for tailor-made energy renovation concepts: Energy refurbishment of private semi-detached houses Energy renovation concepts need to fit to the technical and social aspects of the buildings and their infrastructure
    16. 17. Private owned, old row houses - a social and technical challenge <ul><li>Not much space => outdoor changes best </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetically protected </li></ul><ul><li>The municipal administration allows only outdoor changes made collectively, but houses are private owned </li></ul><ul><li>Co-operation between municipal administration, local house owners’ association, researcher, energy company </li></ul><ul><li>=> concepts for cheaper joint refurbishment => too expensive proposals => joint case project stopped => experiences important </li></ul>
    17. 18. Co-operative housing: Also a challenge Limits to rent. Residential democracy. Lack of funding
    18. 19. Kirsten Gram-Hanssen, SBI- AaU Big differences in energy consumption in same type of houses Electricity: The bigger household – the higher total consumption But lower consumption per person Big differences: - Those that like to save - Those that like to consume Heating: Type of house important User habits important Young and elderly persons use the most
    19. 20. Research on new sustainable housing projects <ul><li>A number of new sustainable housing projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although the existing buildings are more important… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What type of actors are initiating this kind of housing projects and why? </li></ul><ul><li>What type of actors and entities are involved in the planning of the houses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactions taking place? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New or existing relations? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What role has standards played in the planning of the houses? </li></ul><ul><li>What issues in relation to resource consumption and environmental impact have been addressed? What strategies were developed for these issues? </li></ul>
    20. 21. Different initiators to new sustainable housing projects: <ul><li>Municipal administrative staff in order to influence future construction of houses in the local area </li></ul><ul><li>Local green intermediary in order to make sustainable houses which may attract ordinary citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Building component company in order to initiate development of new building concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Co-operative housing association to support development of more sustainable housing concepts </li></ul>
    21. 23. One of the types of eco-labelled houses The area where the houses are built or planned to be built
    22. 24. Website organised by the local Agenda21 center which initiated the project
    23. 25. Enrolling actors in housing projects <ul><li>Enrolling politicians </li></ul><ul><li>Enrolling construction companies </li></ul><ul><li>Enrolling citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Shaped by other agendas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attraction of strong citizens to local area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand and supply within the housing market </li></ul></ul>
    24. 26. The role of standards, concepts etc. <ul><li>The new Danish construction guidelines for new houses with stronger demands for the energy consumption and efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>The new Nordic eco-labeling guidelines for family houses </li></ul><ul><li>Local guidelines for housing projects </li></ul><ul><li>Internal company standards for houses: focus on existing suppliers => maybe new solutions </li></ul><ul><li>The passive house concept (‘active house’) </li></ul>
    25. 27. Sustainability focus <ul><li>Mainly energy focus </li></ul><ul><li>Some focus on building materials and their environmental and health impacts (PVC etc.) </li></ul>
    26. 28. Type of innovation <ul><li>Sticking to existing concept that is modified as little as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Enrolling foreign architect in order to get beyond ’the too traditional Danish architects’ </li></ul><ul><li>Need for more research in the mechanisms of innovation and diffusion </li></ul>
    27. 29. What environmental advantages are achieved? <ul><li>Achieving the predicted low energy consumption was difficult in a project </li></ul><ul><li>Another project showed attempts from the construction company to ensure the predicted low energy consumption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing instructions for use and maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need for more detailed studies of the citizens’ actual domestication of new sustainable houses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design-in-use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Description of the developed script for a housing project </li></ul></ul>
    28. 30. Participants in local climate co-operation <ul><li>Local municipal administration where university is located </li></ul><ul><li>Local branch of national environmental NGO </li></ul><ul><li>The Science Shop at the university </li></ul><ul><li>Employees and managers in municipal administration and service </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers at university </li></ul>
    29. 31. Focus of the co-operation <ul><li>The municipal administration as entity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food and transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The municipality as geographic area => including the activities of the citizens and businesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing and businesses </li></ul></ul>
    30. 32. CO2 pyramid for food ingredient choice Lavet af: Philip Giødesen Lund og Lars Krogsgaard Madsen i samarbejde med Videnskabsbutikken, DTU Food items
    31. 33. Assessing 10 recipes for heart healthy menus: often also climate friendly Projekt lavet af Kenneth Barnett, Derek Eggiman, Jesse Sawyer, WPI på DTU
    32. 34. Local businesses’ climate impact <ul><li>Life cycle activities (materials and products) or local activities (energy consumption) </li></ul><ul><li>Survey of knowledge resources </li></ul><ul><li>Survey of practice and interest in networking among different types of businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Civil society up til now only involved via the co-ordination group </li></ul>
    33. 35. The (urban) company in context: Four types of corporate network relations Product chain: The daily flows of information, capital and material resources In the city Maybe also in the city Local network 1: Workforce, supply, local regulation etc. Supplier A Supplier B Customer1 Regulatory network X: Government, civil society organization etc. Regulatory network 1: Government, civil society organization etc. Local network X: Workforce, supply, local regulation etc. Company Developmental network: Here also involving supplier and customer Final user
    34. 36. Mapping municipal staff’s transportation habits <ul><li>On-line questionnaire to staff in municipal administration about transportation to and from work </li></ul><ul><li>No dialogue with staff so far </li></ul>
    35. 37. Civil society protests against the big consumption of coal used for energy in Denmark. Windturbines cover only around 20% of the electricity production Phasing in renewable energy means phasing out non-renewable energy
    36. 38. Smart grid – a new buzz word within energy production and consumption