Music therapy is sound medicine


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Presentation given at The First Music & Medicine Conference of the Cincinnati Music & Wellness Coalition. Defines music therapy, reviews recent research in Music Medicine, and describes music therapy program at general hospital.

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Music therapy is sound medicine

  1. 1. Mimi Sinclair, MM, MT-BCFirst Music and Medicine ConferenceCincinnati, OHSeptember 21, 2012
  2. 2. I’m Gonna Sing When the Spirit Says SingI’m Gonna Sing When the Spirit Says SingI’m Gonna Sing When the Spirit Says SingAnd obey the Spirit of the Lord.
  3. 3. Define music therapyIdentify treatment goals for music therapyDescribe difference between RMM and MTIdentify research-based outcomes for variedpopulations
  4. 4. Masters in Music, CCM Violin PerformanceMusic-Therapist- Board CertifiedOwner & Director, Music Therapy Services, LLCFaculty, CCM Preparatory Dept.Faculty, University of Dayton Music Dept.
  5. 5. Completion of an American Music TherapyAssociation (AMTA) approved academic andclinical training program.Completion of a written objective examinationdemonstrating current skills in the profession ofmusic therapy.Recertification every five years through re-examination or successful completion anddocumentation of 100 recertification credits
  6. 6. Clinical and evidence-based use of musicinterventionsto accomplish individualized goalswithin a therapeutic relationshipby a credentialed professional who hascompleted an approved music therapy program
  7. 7. Promote WellnessManage StressAlleviate PainExpress FeelingsEnhance MemoryImprove CommunicationPromote Physical Rehabilitation
  8. 8. supports its effectiveness in many areas such as: overall physical rehabilitation and facilitating movement increasing peoples motivation to become engaged in their treatment providing emotional support for clients and their families providing an outlet for expression of feelings.
  9. 9. Ghetti, C.M. (2011). Active music engagementwith emotional-approach coping to improvewell-being in liver and kidney transplantrecipients. Journal of Music Therapy, 48(4), 463-485.
  10. 10. Active Musical Engagement group experiencedsignificant decrease in pain.Emotional-Approach Coping groupdemonstrated significant increase in positiveaffect.Both groups showed significant decrease innegative affect.
  11. 11. Lim, H.A., Miller, K., Fabian, C. (2011). Theeffects of therapeutic instrumental musicperformance on endurance level, self-perceivedfatigue level, and self-perceived exertion ofinpatients in physical rehabilitation. Journal ofMusic Therapy, 48(2), 124-148.
  12. 12. Compared TIMP to Traditional OccupationalTherapy treatment outcomesNo significant difference in enduranceSignificant difference in perception of fatigueand exertionPossible long-term effects include greatermotivation to take on more demanding andmore frequent tasks, and increased generalsense of well-being
  13. 13. Hunter, B.C., Oliva, R., Sahler, O.J.Z., Gaisser, D.,Salipante, D.M., & Arezina, C.H. (2010). Musictherapy as an adjunctive treatment in themanagement of stress for patients beingweaned from mechanical ventilation. Journal ofMusic Therapy, 47(3), 198-219.
  14. 14. Heart rate and respiratory lowered. Staffassessment strongly agreed patient appearedless anxious. 98% patients reported feeling lessanxious.No significant difference in days to wean.Patient and nurse satisfaction high. Nursesreported reduced stress in caring for patient.100% of patients indicated they wouldparticipate in MT again.
  15. 15. Walworth, D. D. (2010). Effect of live musictherapy for patients undergoing MagneticResonance Imaging. Journal of MusicTherapy, 47(4), 335-350.
  16. 16. 26% of patients receiving live music requiredrepeat scans. 73% of recorded music patientsrepeated.2% of live music patients requested breaks.17.6% of recorded music patients requestedbreaks.Less time required to complete scans with livemusic.Patient perception of MRI significantly betterwith live MT.
  17. 17. Andrew Rossetti with Ira Flatow, Talk of the Nation“Treating Stress, Speech Disorders with Music”December 16, 2011
  18. 18. Cost analysis for Echocardiograms (Walworth, 2002)Without MT Staff time per Cost per Total Cost per Procedure Procedure PatientRN 2 hours $55.00Sonographer 1 hour $23.00Medication $9.45 $87.45With MTSonographer 1/3 hour $7.66Music Therapist 1/3 hour $5.55 $13.21
  19. 19. Cost analysis for Echocardiograms (Walworth, 2002)Savings per patient = $74.24Total savings for 92 patients = $6830.00Total RN hours saved = 184 hours @27.50/hr = $5060 saved in staff cost now available for other dutiesTotal Sonographer hours saved = 62 hours @ $23/hr = $1426
  20. 20. Kaplan, R.S., & Steele, A.L. (2005). An analysis ofmusic therapy program goals and outcomes forclients with diagnoses on the autism spectrum.Journal of Music Therapy, 42(1), 2-19.
  21. 21. Goal areas typically addressed by music therapistsinclude: language/communication behavioral/psychosocial cognitive, musical perceptual/motor.
  22. 22. Goal attainment was found to be high withinone yearParents and caregivers surveyed indicatedsubjects generalized skills/responses acquired inmusic therapy to non-music therapyenvironments.
  23. 23. Hilliard, R. E. (2003) The effects of music therapyon the quality of life and length of life of peoplediagnosed with terminal cancer. Journal of MusicTherapy, 40(2), 113-137.
  24. 24. Quality of life was higher for those subjectsreceiving music therapy and quality of lifeincreased over time as they received moremusic therapy sessions.No significant differences on length of life
  25. 25. Gold, C., Heldal, T.O., Dahle, T., Wigram, T.(2005). Music Therapy for Schizophrenia orSchizophrenia-like Illnesses. The CochraneDatabase of Systematic Reviews, 3. Accession:00075320-100000000-03007 PMID: 15846692
  26. 26. Music therapy as an addition to standard carehelps people with schizophrenia to improvetheir global state and may also improve mentalstate and functioning if a sufficient number ofmusic therapy sessions are provided.
  27. 27. Tallahassee Memorial Healthcareas described in Medical Music Therapy: A Model Program forClinical Practice, Education, Training and Research. American MusicTherapy Association (2005).
  28. 28. Multimodal stimulation for neurologicaldevelopmentMusic reinforcement of non-nutritive suckingfor feeding enhancementCounseling for parents to reduce stressLullabies in incubator to mask aversive soundsParent training
  29. 29. To reduce anxiety, decrease need for sedation duringCT scans/echocardiograms, IV sticks, pre-operativepreparationsFamily assistance in dealing with special needsTraining in pain management, relaxationCounseling for coping skillsNormalization of physical and emotional environmentTo elevate mood, improve quality of lifeIncrease fine and gross motor skills
  30. 30. Counseling for coping skillsPain managementMT during chemotherapyFor outpatient surgery to reduce use of post-operative medicine, relieve side effects ofanesthesia
  31. 31. Stress reduction and life managementCounseling for anxiety reductionPain management
  32. 32. Reduce agitationPain managementImprove quality of lifeCounseling for coping skillsFamily assistance with special needsReality orientation for confusion
  33. 33. Preoperative anxiety reductionReduced length of stayPost-operative pain reductionElevate mood, improve quality of life
  34. 34. Reality orientation for those with confusionEnvironmental stimulationIncrease range of motionMemory enhancementCounseling for anxiety reduction/lifemanagement issuesIncrease motor skills pairing music therapy withphysical activity
  35. 35. Cognitive stimulationIncrease communication skillsIncrease physical activity, gait-trainingIncrease or stabilize respirationMemory enhancementPain managementAnxiety reduction
  36. 36. To facilitate difficult or extended laborFor childbirth educationFor relaxation and coping with extendedhospitalization
  37. 37. To calm agitated mental health patientsTo reduce anxietyTo facilitate services to children
  38. 38. Parkinsons Voice ProgramSupport GroupsPediatric RehabilitationAdult Day Services
  39. 39. I’ve got peace like a river.I’ve got joy like a fountain.I’ve got love like the ocean.
  40. 40.