Cu stp 08_tes+hybrid

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Cu stp 08_tes+hybrid

  1. 1. SOLAR THERMAL POWER! GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007!8. Thermal Storage and Hybridization! Manuel A. Silva Pérez ! silva@esi.us.es !
  2. 2. CSP Markets}  }  }  }  }  } }  13/07/11
  3. 3. CSP Markets}  }  }  }  } } }  13/07/11
  4. 4. Thermal storage and Hybrization}  }  } }  }  }  }  13/07/11
  5. 5. Thermal Storage}  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bxCUYPzHsug 13/07/11
  6. 6. Why Energy Storage?}  Increase operational stability}  Reduce intermittence.}  Increase plant utilization and capacity factor}  Provides “peak-shaving” ability (time-shifted operation)}  Reduce generation cost (as long as storage is cheaper than increasing rated power!) 13/07/11
  7. 7. Profile of the electricity demand 13/07/11
  8. 8. Solar-only electricity generation 13/07/11
  9. 9. Solar + Thermal Storage 13/07/11
  10. 10. Thermal energy storage}  A fraction of the thermal energy produced at the solar field is stored, increasing the internal energy of the storage medium. }  Sensible heat }  Latent heat }  (Thermochemical) 13/07/11
  11. 11. Types of thermal storage}  By utilization }  Short term }  Provide operational stability }  Medium term }  Increase capacity factor }  Shift electrical generation hours}  By type }  Direct (same substance as working fluid, does not require HX) }  Indirect (different substance, requires HX) 13/07/11
  12. 12. Technical Requirements for TES materials}  High energy density (per-unit mass or per-unit volume)}  Good heat conductivity}  Good heat transfer between heat transfer fluid (HTF) and the storage medium}  Mechanical and chemical stability}  Chemical compatibility between HTF, heat exchanger and/or storage medium}  Reversibility for a large number of charging/discharging cycles}  Low thermal losses}  Easy to control 13/07/11
  13. 13. Thermal storage options Solid materials Liquid materials Source: Gil, A. et al. State of the art on high temperature thermal energy storage for power generation. Part 1—Concepts, materials and modellization. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. January 2010 13/07/11
  14. 14. Thermal storage options - PCMSource: Gil, A. et al. State of the art on high temperature thermal energy storage for power generation. Part 1—Concepts, materials and modellization. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. January 2010 13/07/11
  15. 15. Thermal storage past experiences Source: Survey of thermal storage for parabolic trough power plants, Pilkington Solar Int. (2000) 13/07/11
  16. 16. TES – STP commercial installations}  Short term: pressurized water }  PS10 and PS20}  Mid term: Molten salt, 2 tank }  Direct (CRS) – Gema Solar (Solar Tres) }  Indirect (PT) – Andasol I 13/07/11
  17. 17. Short term TES PS10 / PS20}  Pressurized water}  Sliding pressure during discharge}  Pressure vessel     
     13/07/11
  18. 18. Molten salt storage, 2 tank, direct}  Thermal capacity proportional Solar Two (Barstow, CA) to ΔT  }  Hot – cold tank design}  Commercial (salt widely used in process industry)       13/07/11
  19. 19. Molten salt TES}  GEMASOLAR (Torresol Energy) 13/07/11
  20. 20. GEMASOLAR}  Type: 2 tanks, molten salts}  Fluid: NO3 mixture (60% NaNO3 - 40% KNO3)}  Freezing point: 223°C}  Capacity: 640 MWh (~15 h full load operation)}  Tank size: 14 m high, 23 m diameter}  Molten salt mass: 8000 tons approx}  T cold tank: 290° C}  T hot tank: 565°C 13/07/11
  21. 21. Molten salt TES, 2 tanks, indirectANDASOL and other       )  13/07/11
  22. 22. Andasol TES – Technical characterisitics}  Type: 2 tanks, molten salts}  Fluid: NO3 mixture (60% NaNO3 - 40% KNO3)}  Freezing point: 223°C}  Capacity: 1,010 MWh (~7.5 h full load operation)}  Tank size: 14 m high, 37 m diameter}  Molten salt mass: 27,500 tons}  T cold tank: 292° C}  T hot tank: 386°C 13/07/11
  23. 23. ANDASOL 13/07/11
  24. 24. RD Activities. Concrete storageDual medium 13/07/11
  25. 25. RD activities.Thermocline, phase change, sand storage 13/07/11
  26. 26. RD activities. Thermocline}  Single tank system, .}  Hot and cold fluids separated by stratification; the zone between the hot and cold fluids is called the thermocline.}  Usually a filler material is used to help the thermocline effect.}  Sandia National Laboratories identified quartzite rock and silica sands as potential filler materials.}  Depending on the cost of the storage fluid, the thermocline can result in a substantially low cost storage system.}  This system has an additional advantage: most of the storage fluid can be replaced with a low cost filler material, for example, quartzite rock and sand. 13/07/11
  27. 27. Thermocline tank 13/07/11
  28. 28. Latent heat storage (Phase change)}  Isothermal thermal energy storage as the latent heat of phase changephase change materials (PCM).}  Reduced in size compared to single-phase sensible heating systems.}  Heat transfer design and media selection are more difficult,}  Degradation of salts after moderate number of freeze–melt cycles (experience with low-temp salts).}  Phase change materials allow large amounts of energy to be stored in relatively small volumes, resulting in some of the lowest storage media costs of any storage concepts. 13/07/11
  29. 29. RD activities. Phase change.Cascaded LHS 13/07/11
  30. 30. RD activities. Phase change. DISTOR project 13/07/11
  31. 31. RD activities. Sand (fluidised bed) 13/07/11
  32. 32. TES costs and benefits} }  Facilitates Dispatchability}  If adequately designed, can improve }  } } }  }  } }  13/07/11
  33. 33. Hybridization options 13/07/11
  34. 34. SEGS 30 MW 13/07/11
  35. 35. Andasol-type plants(thermal storage and auxiliary boiler) 13/07/11
  36. 36. ISCCS}  3 projects in North Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Egypt) 13/07/11
  37. 37. HybridizationCosts and benefits¢ ¢  Faciltates dispatchability¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢  13/07/11
  38. 38. Simulating operational strategies with EOSClear day, summer 13/07/11
  39. 39. Simulating operational strategies with EOSCloudy day, winter 13/07/11

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