SOLAR THERMAL POWER GEEN 4830 – ECEN 50077. Central Receiver Systems      Manuel A. Silva Pérez        silva@esi.us.es
Central Receiver Systems - CRS1              GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Solar Thermal Power Plant.    Basic configuration            Beam irradiance                              Concentrator    ...
Central Receiver System3               GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007               http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/power_towers....
CRS (Gema Solar, Molten salts)4               GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
CRS    (Phoebus, Open air volumetric receiver)5                  GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Collector System (concentrator)6                   GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Heliostat field       The concentrator is the “heliostat field”, a Fresnel        concentrator       Main elements      ...
The heliostat       “an instrument consisting of a mirror mounted on an axis moved        by clockwork by which a sunbeam...
Heliostat                                           Incident ray                                                          ...
Burning mirror, Hoesen (18th century)10                GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Glass – metal heliostat11             GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Heliostat12               GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Glass – metal heliostat13               GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Glass – metal heliostats14               GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Stretched membrane heliostats15              GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Stretched membrane heliostats16                GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Stretched membrane heliostats17                 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Reflectivity        Reflectivity of a new, clean mirror ≈ 0.90 ÷ 0.9418                                 GEEN 4830 – ECEN ...
Mirror quality    Heliostat facets are spherically curved        For large focal distances, a parabolic surface can be a...
Mirror quality                                       D   S   sp   c2                                        2     2...
Distortion    Spherical reflectors generate distortion of the image    Dependent on time (relative position sun-heliosta...
Heliostat field layout        Surround field        North (south) field        Secondary concentration        Secondar...
North field                          1000                          800                          600                       ...
Surrounding field24               GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Geometrical performance of heliostats25              GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Cosine factor                     Yearly average cosine factor for a                     north heliostat field26          ...
Shading and blocking                                    Shading & blocking     Shading     Blocking27                 GEEN...
Air transmittance                                     Air transmittance28               GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007             ...
Spillage29              GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Receiver system    Function    Components    Types of receivers    Working fluids    30                    GEEN 4830 –...
Receiver system31              GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Receiver types32               GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Cavity receivers33                 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Cavity receivers34                 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Molten salt cavity receiver35               GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
External, cylindrical receiver36                GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
External, cylindrical receiver37                GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
External, cylindrical receiver38                GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Tubular receiver (boiler)39                GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Volumetric receivers40              GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Volumetric receivers41              GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Heat transfer characteristics of tubular andvolumetric receivers42               GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Detail of a volumetric absorber (wire mesh)43               GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Detail of a volumetric absorber(ceramic cups)44               GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Working fluids45               GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Working fluids for CRS    Water / steam        Saturated steam        Superheated steam    Molten salts    Air      ...
Comparison of HTF’s47             GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Power conversion system    Rankine cycle (steam turbine)    Brayton cycle (gas turbine)    Combined cycle (gas turbine ...
CRS: pros and cons.    Pros:        Ability to achieve high temperatures        Wide industrial base for most component...
Energy Balance of Central ReceiverSystems50              GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
High concentration concepts    Secondary concentration        Increase flux density on the absorber        Reduce requi...
Secondary concentrators    REFOS Project (DLR)    52                     GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
SCOT (Secondary Concentrator OpticsTower)    Weizmann Institute (Israel)    53                      GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007...
SCOT (Secondary Concentrator OpticsTower)54             GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Beam Down55          GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Solar Furnaces56               GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Solar Furnaces57               GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
CRS projects58   GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
CRS (PS10, sat. steam)59              GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
PS10 and PS20 (Abengoa Solar, Spain)60             GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
CRS (Gema Solar, Molten salts)61               GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Gema Solar (Torresol Energy, Spain)62              GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Gema Solar     Design Data     Total Reflective Area                                               285.200 m2     Number o...
Sierra Solar (e-Solar, USA)64               GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
Unit #1 (100 kW hybrid GT) (Aora Solar,Israel)65              GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007   14/7/10
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Cu stp 07_crs(tower)

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Cu stp 07_crs(tower)

  1. 1. SOLAR THERMAL POWER GEEN 4830 – ECEN 50077. Central Receiver Systems Manuel A. Silva Pérez silva@esi.us.es
  2. 2. Central Receiver Systems - CRS1 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  3. 3. Solar Thermal Power Plant. Basic configuration Beam irradiance Concentrator Concentrated irradiance Electricity Receiver Thermal energy Thermal Storage Power conversion Fossil fuel Boiler system Biomass2 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  4. 4. Central Receiver System3 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/power_towers.html 14/7/10
  5. 5. CRS (Gema Solar, Molten salts)4 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  6. 6. CRS (Phoebus, Open air volumetric receiver)5 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  7. 7. Collector System (concentrator)6 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  8. 8. Heliostat field The concentrator is the “heliostat field”, a Fresnel concentrator Main elements  Heliostat  Control System 7 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  9. 9. The heliostat  “an instrument consisting of a mirror mounted on an axis moved by clockwork by which a sunbeam is steadily reflected in one direction”  Basic components  Reflecting surface  Structure and tracking mechanism  Control system  Typology:  Glass - metal  Stretched membrane  Size: 1 m2 to 150 m28 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  10. 10. Heliostat Incident ray Reflected ray Back support structure Elevation drive Reflecting surface Azimuth drive9 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  11. 11. Burning mirror, Hoesen (18th century)10 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  12. 12. Glass – metal heliostat11 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  13. 13. Heliostat12 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  14. 14. Glass – metal heliostat13 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  15. 15. Glass – metal heliostats14 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  16. 16. Stretched membrane heliostats15 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  17. 17. Stretched membrane heliostats16 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  18. 18. Stretched membrane heliostats17 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  19. 19. Reflectivity  Reflectivity of a new, clean mirror ≈ 0.90 ÷ 0.9418 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  20. 20. Mirror quality Heliostat facets are spherically curved  For large focal distances, a parabolic surface can be approximated by an spherical surface of radius r = 2f (f: focal distance). 19 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  21. 21. Mirror quality  D   S   sp   c2 2 2 2 Ideal spherical curvature  D   S   sp   c2 2 2 2 Spherical curvature, with waviness20 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  22. 22. Distortion Spherical reflectors generate distortion of the image Dependent on time (relative position sun-heliostat) Summer solstice, 7:30 a.m. Summer solstice, 7:30 p.m. Summer solstice, noon 21 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  23. 23. Heliostat field layout  Surround field  North (south) field  Secondary concentration  Secondary concentrator optics tower (SCOT)22 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  24. 24. North field 1000 800 600 400 200 0 -600 -400 -200 0 200 400 60023 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  25. 25. Surrounding field24 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  26. 26. Geometrical performance of heliostats25 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  27. 27. Cosine factor Yearly average cosine factor for a north heliostat field26 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  28. 28. Shading and blocking Shading & blocking Shading Blocking27 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  29. 29. Air transmittance Air transmittance28 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  30. 30. Spillage29 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  31. 31. Receiver system Function Components Types of receivers Working fluids 30 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  32. 32. Receiver system31 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  33. 33. Receiver types32 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  34. 34. Cavity receivers33 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  35. 35. Cavity receivers34 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  36. 36. Molten salt cavity receiver35 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  37. 37. External, cylindrical receiver36 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  38. 38. External, cylindrical receiver37 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  39. 39. External, cylindrical receiver38 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  40. 40. Tubular receiver (boiler)39 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  41. 41. Volumetric receivers40 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  42. 42. Volumetric receivers41 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  43. 43. Heat transfer characteristics of tubular andvolumetric receivers42 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  44. 44. Detail of a volumetric absorber (wire mesh)43 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  45. 45. Detail of a volumetric absorber(ceramic cups)44 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  46. 46. Working fluids45 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  47. 47. Working fluids for CRS Water / steam  Saturated steam  Superheated steam Molten salts Air  Pressurized  Atmospheric Sodium Thermal oils 46 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  48. 48. Comparison of HTF’s47 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  49. 49. Power conversion system Rankine cycle (steam turbine) Brayton cycle (gas turbine) Combined cycle (gas turbine + steam turbine) Stirling engines (MHD) 48 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  50. 50. CRS: pros and cons. Pros:  Ability to achieve high temperatures  Wide industrial base for most components  Multiple technological options  Technologically proven  Multiple thermal energy storage options  High potential for improved effciency or cost reduction Cons.:  Complexity  Short commercial record  Best technology still undefined 49 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  51. 51. Energy Balance of Central ReceiverSystems50 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  52. 52. High concentration concepts Secondary concentration  Increase flux density on the absorber  Reduce requirements for primary concentrator (heliostats) Secondary Concentrator Optics Tower  The receiver can be placed at the ground level Solar Furnaces  Very high concentration ratios  Combine a field of flat heliostats and a parabolic concentrator  Not for electricity generation 51 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  53. 53. Secondary concentrators REFOS Project (DLR) 52 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  54. 54. SCOT (Secondary Concentrator OpticsTower) Weizmann Institute (Israel) 53 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  55. 55. SCOT (Secondary Concentrator OpticsTower)54 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  56. 56. Beam Down55 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  57. 57. Solar Furnaces56 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  58. 58. Solar Furnaces57 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  59. 59. CRS projects58 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  60. 60. CRS (PS10, sat. steam)59 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  61. 61. PS10 and PS20 (Abengoa Solar, Spain)60 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  62. 62. CRS (Gema Solar, Molten salts)61 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  63. 63. Gema Solar (Torresol Energy, Spain)62 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  64. 64. Gema Solar Design Data Total Reflective Area 285.200 m2 Number of heliostats 2480 Total Area covered by Heliostat Field 142.31 Ha Thermal output of the Receiver 120 MWt Tower height 120 m Heat Storage Capacity (equivalent to turbine operation) 15 hours Steam Turbine power 17 MWe Natural Gas Thermal Power 16 MWt Projected Operative Figures Direct solar radiation over Heliostats 2062 kWh/m2 Annual Energy sales 96.400 MWhe Contribution of Natural Gas 15% Capacity utilization 65 % CO2 savings 23.000 – 85.000 t/y63 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  65. 65. Sierra Solar (e-Solar, USA)64 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10
  66. 66. Unit #1 (100 kW hybrid GT) (Aora Solar,Israel)65 GEEN 4830 – ECEN 5007 14/7/10

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