Concept stat lecture 1


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Concept stat lecture 1

  1. 1. PHRM 523 Lecture -1Introduction to Biostatistics: an overview of relevant concepts Muhammad Mizanur Rashid Shuvra,MBBS,MPH Email: Phone: 0171-41-33-937
  2. 2. Unwritten Course ObjectiveAt the end of the course PHRM 523, youshould be able to say…… • Biostatistics IS FUN • I can speak in statistical language Muhammad Mizanur Rashid Shuvra
  3. 3. Housekeeping1.Introduction to the syllabus 1.Objective of the course 2.Content 3.Assessment2.Communication process – fill up the email sheet Muhammad Mizanur Rashid Shuvra
  4. 4. at the end of this session you will be able to answer:• What is the process of inquiry leading to research? – the philosophy behind research• How may research questions be answered?• What are the types of inquiry approach ?- The Quantitative and Qualitative research methods• When can the answers be accepted?• What is the role and process of statistics in answering research questions?• What is biostatistics and how is it used in various disciplines? Muhammad Mizanur Rashid Shuvra
  5. 5. Process of inquiry to research• Question – Is there any difference in the drugs produced locally compared to drugs produced internationally?• Answer - ……..• Should I believe you? Why or why not? Muhammad Mizanur Rashid Shuvra
  6. 6. Process of inquiry to research• In ordinary daily life – we ask questions• We seek answers• Trust on the answer depends on several issues; e.g. o The person providing answer – authority o Relationship with the person o Logical statements made o Response with flawless evidence o Scientific process of analyzing the evidence o Any alternative answers or explanation Muhammad Mizanur Rashid Shuvra
  7. 7. Process of inquiry to research• We usually ask the questions beginning with – o Who o When o What o Where o How o Is Muhammad Mizanur Rashid Shuvra
  8. 8. Basic Types of Research Method• Quantitative research: o Data in numerical form o Data analyzed using statistical calculation o Sample size is calculated o Hypothesis tested o Generalization is an objective• Qualitative research: o Data in words and phrases o Data analyzed by subjective perspective o Sample size calculation is not involved o Hypothesis is generated o Transferability is an objective Muhammad Mizanur Rashid Shuvra
  9. 9. How may research questions be answered confidently?• Phrase the question properly: related issues o Literature review o Feasibility of exploring o Measurable (for quantitative research) o Operational definition• Collect data or evidence properly: guaranteed by o Research design o Measurement tool development o Reliability and validity of the data collection procedure Muhammad Mizanur Rashid Shuvra
  10. 10. How may research questions be answered confidently?• Analyze data: o Examine the data o Use appropriate analysis technique(based on)  The nature of the data  The research question• Interpret results appropriately: o Look at outputs from data analysis software o Examine and interpret all the estimates properly to answer the research question Muhammad Mizanur Rashid Shuvra
  11. 11. Basic Types of research questions 1.Descriptive: Any research question that helps to describe the status of something in numbers.E.g. how much does a Paracetamol tablet weigh forcompany A, company B, company C2. Relational/differences: Research questions thatasks about relationship or difference between/amongsome issues.E.g. is there a relationship between the weight ofParacetamol tablet and the onset of its action?E.g. what is the difference between the mean weightof Paracetamol tablets from different companies Muhammad Mizanur Rashid Shuvra
  12. 12. Basic Types of research question3. Causal: Any research question that asksabout issues causing a certain effectE.g. does paracetamol help to relieve feverand reinstate normal body temperature? Any more examples? Muhammad Mizanur Rashid Shuvra
  13. 13. What is the role and process of statistics in research• Statistics analyzes quantified and empirical data to answer research questions.• Most of the time analysis do not require recognizing the disciplines from where data came from.• It only recognizes numbers.• E.g. in data analysis - mean weight of tablets and mean weight of potato sacs make no difference. In statistical analysis the two means are merely numbers Muhammad Mizanur Rashid Shuvra
  14. 14. What is the role and process of statistics in research• So, statistical analysis help answer research questions by analyzing numbers obtained as data• Different disciplines have slightly customized use of statistics, likewise different branches of statistics have been created: (example) o Pharmaceutical statistics o Biostatistics o Agricultural statistics o Business statistics ….etc. Muhammad Mizanur Rashid Shuvra
  15. 15. Pharmaceutical statistics and its role• The branch of statistics that analyzes data from the discipline of Pharmacy• Pharmaceutical Statistics can play a role in o Answering research questions  For developing new drugs  Quality assessment  Consumer Market and practice  Informing policy  Anything else???? Muhammad Mizanur Rashid Shuvra
  16. 16. Why biostatistics?• Biostatistics kind of harbors the element of statistics and applies to any discipline that has something to do with biological entities.• Therefore, aside from some special issues of pharmaceutical statistics (e.g. bioequivalence) it is equivalent to biostatistics.• Common and basic skills from statistics can be applied almost in any branch of statistics.• The trick is to focus on the fundamental elements of statistics and develop capacity to use them in any branch. Muhammad Mizanur Rashid Shuvra
  17. 17. Trying to answer research question: the concept of Population & sample • Population is the whole, everything that you should be able to consider • Sample is any part of the whole e.g. Bangladesh has a population of 160 million = Population 100 People form any part of Bangladesh is a sample (since 100 is a part of this 160 million) Muhammad Mizanur Rashid Shuvra
  18. 18. Pictorial representation of population and samplePopulation Samples Muhammad Mizanur Rashid Shuvra
  19. 19. ExerciseIn the effort to try to develop a new anticancer drug a pharmaceutical called Androidwants to test a drug among cancer patients. 1.What question would you ask to figure out the population? 2.What would be your population? 3.What would be your sample?Another exercise/quiz example? Muhammad Mizanur Rashid Shuvra