Westward Expansion & The Gilded Age

16,002 views

Published on

Presentation following the notepacket for Westward Expansion and the Gilded Age

0 Comments
20 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
16,002
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
7,729
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
54
Comments
0
Likes
20
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Westward Expansion & The Gilded Age

  1. 1. Westward Expansion Section 1 of 2
  2. 2. The Great Plains <ul><li>Native Americans disrupted expansionist dreams of white settlers in the east for decades </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1860s Indian tribes on the Great Plains began disrupting dreams of Manifest Destiny </li></ul><ul><li>As president, Andrew Jackson moved the Cherokees from the SE along the Trail of Tears to reservations in present-Oklahoma </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  3. 3. The Great Plains...Cont’d. <ul><li>Perhaps Jackson didn’t think America would stretch across the plains </li></ul><ul><li>He didn’t address the situation of the Natives roaming free around the Great Plains </li></ul><ul><li>Geographically, the Great Plains stretch from North Dakota to Eastern New Mexico </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  4. 4. The Great Plains...Cont’d. <ul><li>Scientists believe the plains formed 60 million years before 1860 </li></ul><ul><li>The Rockies rose out of the sea, caused the shallow sea to the east to dry up </li></ul><ul><li>Left a bare surface </li></ul><ul><li>Little vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Only roaming animals (grazing) survived well </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  5. 5. Tribes of the Great Plains <ul><li>The Sioux are a great example of tribes on the plains </li></ul><ul><li>Originally from northern Minnesota area </li></ul><ul><li>Crossed MO River in 1760 </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic people—followed the buffalo </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired horses from SW tribes/became skilled riders and warriors </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  6. 6. Tribes of the Great Plains...Cont’d. <ul><li>Claimed the entire plains north of Arkansas River as hunting grounds </li></ul><ul><li>Religion was polytheistic=many gods </li></ul><ul><li>Traded w/French trappers for kettles, blankets, knives, and firearms </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  7. 7. The “Great American Desert” <ul><li>Americans first thought the Great Plains were better off with the Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculturally, Americans thought the land was worth little </li></ul><ul><li>When gold was discovered in California (1840s) Americans wanted a quicker way west </li></ul><ul><li>12,000 wagons traveled to Oregon and California </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  8. 8. The “Great American Desert”...Cont’d. <ul><li>Missouri was called the “Gateway to the West” </li></ul><ul><li>It was the last “civilization” before the plains </li></ul><ul><li>The 1 st wagon train of white travelers left Missouri in 1842 </li></ul><ul><li>Travelers faced natives, little food, vicious weather, tight conditions </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  9. 9. The Railroad <ul><li>After the US gained territory from Mexico (1848) the Trans-Continental RR was built </li></ul><ul><li>The route west was through Indian country, very few towns and little white population </li></ul><ul><li>The Government spent a lot of $ building the lines </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  10. 11. The Railroad...Cont’d. <ul><li>Union Pacific built from Nebraska </li></ul><ul><li>Central Pacific built from further east </li></ul><ul><li>Met at Promontory Point, Utah in 1869 </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1880s, 40,000 miles of track were laid linking California to New Orleans and Kansas City to Minnesota </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 5 million longhorn cattle grazed on Texas ranches </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  11. 12. The Railroad...Cont’d. <ul><li>It was unprofitable to drive them north </li></ul><ul><li>By 1865 the Missouri Pacific RR reached Sedalia </li></ul><ul><li>If ranchers got cattle to Sedalia the cars would move them west </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle was worth $40 in the north and $5 in Texas </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  12. 13. The Homesteaders <ul><li>To convince Americans to move west the US government passed the Homestead Act (1862) </li></ul><ul><li>Granted 160 acres of land to settlers in Kansas </li></ul><ul><li>An attempt to move settlers west </li></ul><ul><li>Moving west was a major decision </li></ul><ul><li>Caused gender shifts </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  13. 14. The Homesteaders...Cont’d. <ul><li>Gender Role -the tasks (jobs), attitudes & actions society believes a man or women should complete or possess </li></ul><ul><li>Women were to cook, clean and raise children </li></ul><ul><li>Men were for manual labor, providing and “thinking” for the family </li></ul><ul><li>Women worked alongside men on the plains </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  14. 15. The Indian Wars <ul><li>The Trans-Continental Railroad spread across the plains </li></ul><ul><li>Ranchers’ lands grew </li></ul><ul><li>Homesteaders settled the plains </li></ul><ul><li>Gold was still dug in California </li></ul><ul><li>Indians faced extinction </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  15. 16. The Indian Wars...Cont’d. <ul><li>Sioux Chief Red Cloud said in 1870: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The white children have surrounded me and left me nothing but an island…When we first had all this land we were strong; now we are all melting like snow on a hillside, while you [white Americans] are grown like spring grass.” </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1870s most Americans agreed Indians should be moved off the plains or concentrated somewhere </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  16. 17. The Reservations <ul><li>Reservations required assimilation to white culture </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation -taking on the attitudes, appearance, and sensibilities of another culture </li></ul><ul><li>South Dakota—Sioux </li></ul><ul><li>Oklahoma—Plains tribes and Choctaws, Cherokees, Chickasaws, Creeks, and Seminoles </li></ul><ul><li>Southwest—Apaches, Navahos, Utes </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  17. 19. The Reservations…Cont’d. <ul><li>Many tribes refused to move onto reservations </li></ul><ul><li>Chief Joseph (Nez Perce) </li></ul><ul><li>Marched his people 1,500 miles from Oregon to Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Apaches fought w/Geronimo in New Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Tribes also fought throughout Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  18. 20. Little Big Horn <ul><li>In 1868, a treaty was made between Sioux and the US government </li></ul><ul><li>Sioux would always own Powder River hunting grounds </li></ul><ul><li>In 1875, US government ordered Sioux to vacate Powder River and move to reservations </li></ul><ul><li>Chief Sitting Bull led Sioux and Cheyenne warriors to the Little Big Horn River, west of the hunting grounds </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  19. 21. Little Big Horn…Cont’d. <ul><li>The US military wanted to force the tribes back to the reservation </li></ul><ul><li>George Custer led the assault of US Cavalry </li></ul><ul><li>He did not know that the Indian warriors outnumbered him w/3 times his strength </li></ul><ul><li>He divided his cavalry into 3 columns each being driven back </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  20. 22. Little Big Horn…Cont’d. <ul><li>Custer faced one of the fiercest Sioux—Crazy Horse </li></ul><ul><li>Custer ordered his men to shoot their horses to make a wall </li></ul><ul><li>Custer and his men were killed before the Indians retreated from approaching reinforcements </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  21. 23. Wounded Knee 1891 <ul><li>In response to the outlawing of native freedom (by the move to reservations) many natives looked to the shaman Wovoka </li></ul><ul><li>Wovoka promised the “Ghost Dance” would bring back dead natives, buffalo would return, new soil would cover the whites and restore the prairie </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  22. 24. Wounded Knee 1891…Cont’d. <ul><li>The Ghost Dance spread to Sioux reservations at Pine Ridge (SD) </li></ul><ul><li>Scared white Indian Agents who called for protection </li></ul><ul><li>Sitting Bull was killed in Canada in December </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  23. 25. Wounded Knee 1891…Cont’d. <ul><li>Chief Big Foot was a target and led his people to the Pine Ridge Reservation </li></ul><ul><li>They camped by Wounded Knee Creek </li></ul><ul><li>While Bigfoot was meeting with the US officers someone fired a shot </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  24. 26. Wounded Knee 1891…Cont’d. <ul><li>The natives scattered as the military poured gunfire into men, women, and children </li></ul><ul><li>25 US soldiers were dead compared with 300 Sioux </li></ul><ul><li>The massacre at Wounded Knee ended the Ghost Dance movement and, for the most part, the Indian Wars </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  25. 27. The gilded Age Section 2 of 2
  26. 28. The “Gilded Age” <ul><li>The Gilded Age followed Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Lasted from 1877-1900 </li></ul><ul><li>Given the name by Missouri author, Mark Twain </li></ul><ul><li>Gilded Age -Society was corrupt and gilded to cover its impurities and imperfections </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by three qualities: Excess , Greed , and Classism </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  27. 29. What’s So Bad About Excess? <ul><li>The Credit Mobilier Scandal (1872) </li></ul><ul><li>A director of the Union Pacific RR created a company (Credit Mobilier) to receive all government building contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Paid $94 mil by Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Only used $44 mil worth </li></ul><ul><li>Sold shares to D.C. movers for half price </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  28. 30. What’s So Bad About Excess?...Cont’d. <ul><li>Central Pacific RR </li></ul><ul><li>Also created companies to gain government monies </li></ul><ul><li>Benefited Leland Stanford of California </li></ul><ul><li>Used the money to establish his famous Univesity </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  29. 31. What’s So Bad About Excess?...Cont’d. <ul><li>Whiskey Ring Scandal </li></ul><ul><li>US Treasury Dept. and President US Grant’s personal secretary defrauded the government </li></ul><ul><li>Millions in taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Represented what was to come </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  30. 32. Robber Barons <ul><li>Robber Barons -American businessmen who made their fortunes from the expanding railroads </li></ul><ul><li>Term coined in 1878 at the height of the railroad boom </li></ul><ul><li>Three American capitalists especially earned the name: “Robber Baron” </li></ul><ul><li>J.P. Morgan Sr., John D. Rockefeller, & Andrew Carnegie </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  31. 33. J.P. Morgan Sr. <ul><li>Drafted into Union army after Gettysburg </li></ul><ul><li>(Paid $300 for a filler) </li></ul><ul><li>Purchased obsolete carbine rifles for $3.50/piece </li></ul><ul><li>Sold them to a buyer for $11.00/piece </li></ul><ul><li>Resold them back to the government for $22.00/piece </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  32. 34. J.P. Morgan Sr....Cont’d. <ul><li>When gold prices fluctuated during the CW, he tried to rig the system by shipping gold out of the country </li></ul><ul><li>He was a millionaire banker </li></ul><ul><li>His banking house loaned money to countless banks </li></ul><ul><li>By 1900 he owned half of America’s RR track mileage </li></ul><ul><li>(His friends owned the rest) </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  33. 35. John D. Rockefeller <ul><li>Began an oil operation in Ohio in mid-1860s </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded to form Standard Oil in 1870 </li></ul><ul><li>He didn’t have a monopoly... </li></ul><ul><li>Other smaller oil companies existed </li></ul><ul><li>Received rebates from the RR (lower shipping costs=higher profit) </li></ul><ul><li>Also made secret payments and allowed price-cutting </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  34. 36. John D. Rockefeller...Cont’d. <ul><li>Controlled 90% of nation’s oil-producing capacity by end of 1870s </li></ul><ul><li>Government got involved (feared a monopoly) </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Oil of Ohio could not legally own stock in other oil companies (or conduct business in other states) </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Oil became a trust </li></ul><ul><li>Trust -Caretakers (trustees) manage the money (because they have more power than the corp.) and spread holdings (because of no restrictions on trusts, only corporations) </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  35. 37. Andrew Carnegie <ul><li>Immigrant from Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>Went from telegraph clerk to private secretary of president of Pennsylvania RR </li></ul><ul><li>Played the Stock Market throughout the 1860s—focused on steel in 1873 </li></ul><ul><li>Revolutionized the manufacture of steel </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  36. 38. Andrew Carnegie...Cont’d. <ul><li>Two main ideas: 1. Cut costs (increase profit) & </li></ul><ul><li>2. Vertical integration (control every step in production) </li></ul><ul><li>Profit went into new equipment and the business </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled mines (raw materials), boats (to move ore on rivers), RR (to move to mill), and a sales force (to market goods) </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  37. 39. Consumer to Capital <ul><li>The Gilded Age was characterized by: </li></ul><ul><li>Excess </li></ul><ul><li>Greed </li></ul><ul><li>Classism </li></ul><ul><li>These three qualities revolved around one of the main features of the period: economic success </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  38. 40. Consumer to Capital...Cont’d. <ul><li>Before the Gilded Age, American industry produced consumer goods </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer Goods —goods directly related to agriculture & sold for consumer use </li></ul><ul><li>During and after the Gilded Age, industry produced capital goods </li></ul><ul><li>Capital Goods —goods that added to productive capacity of the economy </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  39. 41. Consumer to Capital...Cont’d. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer Goods—textiles, shoes, paper, furniture </li></ul><ul><li>Capital Goods—railroad track, machinery, construction material (steel) </li></ul><ul><li>American industry relied on vertical integration and innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Embodied in G.F. Swift </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  40. 42. G.F. Swift <ul><li>Chicago cattle dealer; recognized that cattle deteriorated as it went east </li></ul><ul><li>Because of no refrigeration </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to dress it at the Chicago stockyards & ship </li></ul><ul><li>it east </li></ul><ul><li>How? A rolling refrigerator </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a cooling system & a fleet of refrigerated cars </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  41. 43. G.F. Swift...Cont’d. <ul><li>Created refrigerated warehouses </li></ul><ul><li>Wagons distributed meat to local butchers </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities processed what was left from butchering </li></ul><ul><li>Dealt other grocery commodities </li></ul><ul><li>Used vertical integration like Andrew Carnegie </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  42. 44. Mass-Marketing <ul><li>The refrigerated cars worked but the public wasn’t convinced </li></ul><ul><li>Mass-marketing was needed to change their minds—this was the birth of modern advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Brand names & billboards were born in the late 19 th century </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  43. 45. Mass-Marketing...Cont’d. <ul><li>By 1900 companies spent $90 million/year for space in newspapers & magazines </li></ul><ul><li>Adverts urged readers to bathe with Pears’ soap, eat Uneeda biscuits, sew on a Singer machine, snap pictures w/a Kodak camera </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  44. 46. Women to Work <ul><li>During the Industrial Revolution immigrants made up a large # of the urban workforce </li></ul><ul><li>This was the same during the Gilded Age </li></ul><ul><li>Women began working in urban jobs during this period as well </li></ul><ul><li>Over 4 million women worked for wages in 1900 </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  45. 47. Women to Work...Cont’d. <ul><li>Wives were not supposed to work outside the home (especially in middle-class or wealthy families) </li></ul><ul><li>Older women working outside the home signaled problems (widowed, divorced, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s work fell into 3 categories: </li></ul><ul><li>-1. Maids/domestic servants </li></ul><ul><li>-2. Teaching, nursing, sales, office work </li></ul><ul><li>-3. Industry (garment trades/textile mills) </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  46. 48. The Common Worker During the Gilded Age <ul><li>Excess, greed, and classism benefited the wealthy like Morgan, Rockefeller, and Carnegie </li></ul><ul><li>How did the Gilded Age effect the everyday worker? What did they want? </li></ul><ul><li>An egalitarian society in which every citizen might hope to become economically independent </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  47. 49. The Knights of Labor <ul><li>This desire led to the formation of the Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Founded in 1869 as a secret society of garment workers in Philadelphia </li></ul><ul><li>Spread to other cities by 1878 like the Masons of IOOF </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  48. 50. The Knights of Labor...Cont’d. <ul><li>Their big idea: establish factories and shops owned/run by the employees </li></ul><ul><li>Public “education” was their main outcome </li></ul><ul><li>KOL, like trade unions, were favorite causes of radical political parties </li></ul><ul><li>Communism & Anarchism </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  49. 51. Haymarket Square Riot <ul><li>Anarchy —a stateless/anti-government society </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago anarchists held public meetings like the fateful meeting in Haymarket Square </li></ul><ul><li>Large #’s of anarchists/trade unionists, mostly German immigrants, met at Haymarket Square </li></ul><ul><li>Police moved in to break up the rally... </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  50. 52. Haymarket Square Riot...Cont’d. <ul><li>Someone threw a bomb into the crowd of police, killing and wounded several </li></ul><ul><li>A small group of anarchists were tried, found guilty, and executed </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Union hysteria broke out after Haymarket Square </li></ul><ul><li>Broke strikes through force, compiled blacklists, & outlawed union activity </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  51. 54. The Homestead Strike <ul><li>Homestead, Penn. Was the site of one of Carnegie’s steel mills </li></ul><ul><li>Carnegie had always said that workers had the right to organize and it’s wrong to bring in strikebreakers </li></ul><ul><li>He also believed in making money and believed skilled workers could be replaced by advanced machinery </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  52. 55. The Homestead Strike...Cont’d. <ul><li>Mill was fortified w/tall wooden fence topped w/barbed wire to keep strikebreakers out </li></ul><ul><li>2 barges w/armed guards headed up the river toward Homestead to take control of the steelworks </li></ul><ul><li>Strikers fought back and the Pennsylvania milita was called in </li></ul><ul><li>Union leaders were arrested on charges of riot, murder, & treason </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  53. 56. The Pullman Strike <ul><li>Pullman, Illinois was a model factory town built by George Pullman, inventor of the sleeping car </li></ul><ul><li>Panic of 1893 (economic recession) motivated Pullman to cut wages for his workers but not rent </li></ul><ul><li>A worker’s committee issued a complaint </li></ul><ul><li>Pullman responded: it’s not my responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>He then fired the committee </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  54. 57. The Pullman Strike...Cont’d. <ul><li>Pullman workers refused to operate, repair, or maintain the cars </li></ul><ul><li>RR companies were losing money and attached US Mail cars to every train hauling Pullman cars </li></ul><ul><li>When strikers stopped the trains the companies appealed to the government </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  55. 58. The Pullman Strike...Cont’d. <ul><li>The federal government said the mail could not be obstructed </li></ul><ul><li>The leaders of the strike were charged and sentenced w/prison terms </li></ul><ul><li>The strike fell apart from no leadership </li></ul><ul><li>It also indicated the ideology of government: </li></ul><ul><li>The federal government will side w/big business </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: www.livingamericanhistory.blogspot.com
  56. 59. The Wizard of Oz as Populism Crazy Theory, Half Truth, or Right On?
  57. 60. What was Populism? <ul><li>Populism —political ideology supporting the rights and power of the people in their struggle against the elite (worker against tycoon) </li></ul><ul><li>Populists were largely Midwestern agriculturalists who sided with the Democratic party </li></ul><ul><li>One major element of the Populist movement was their desire to use silver to equalize the nation’s currency </li></ul><ul><li>Republicans wanted to keep the gold standard (which we have today) </li></ul>
  58. 61. What was Populism…Cont’d. <ul><li>The depression of the 1890s reeked havoc on American workers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farm prices bottomed out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Union militancy rose among the urban working class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Americans wanted a change </li></ul><ul><li>That change was found in the 1896 election between Republican candidate William McKinley and Populist-Democrat William Jennings Bryan </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Cross of Gold” </li></ul><ul><li>L. Frank Baum (author of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz ) was a Populist who supported Bryan </li></ul>
  59. 62. Populism and Oz: the Symbolism <ul><li>Although some debate exists on the accuracy of the Populism/Oz comparison, the symbolism is certainly evident: </li></ul><ul><li>Every major character and location can be traced to an element of the Populist movement </li></ul>
  60. 63. Populism and Oz: the Symbolism…Cont’d. <ul><li>The word “Oz” is the abbreviation of ounce—as in ounce (oz) of gold (the Republican position) </li></ul><ul><li>Dorothy —represents “everyman” (symbolic of the commoner) </li></ul><ul><li>Innocent </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to recognize Oz for its tricks </li></ul><ul><li>Midwestern (home of Populism) </li></ul>
  61. 64. Populism and Oz: the Symbolism…Cont’d. <ul><li>Munchkins —represent the “little man” </li></ul><ul><li>Common laborers </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled by the Wicked Witch of the EAST (we’ll get to that shortly) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Lollipop Guild” </li></ul><ul><li>Guilds were an early form of unionism </li></ul>
  62. 65. Populism and Oz: the Symbolism…Cont’d. <ul><li>Scarecrow -the farmer, naïve to the tricks of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Muted and dumb by the Wicked Witch of the EAST </li></ul><ul><li>One of the wisest of the traveling companions along the Yellow Brick Road </li></ul>
  63. 66. Populism and Oz: the Symbolism…Cont’d. <ul><li>Tin Man -the dehumanized industrial worker </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes mechanical (like industry) </li></ul><ul><li>Loses his skilled trade </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to love (his work?) </li></ul><ul><li>Needs constant oil </li></ul><ul><li>Needs Standard Oil </li></ul>
  64. 67. Populism and Oz: the Symbolism…Cont’d. <ul><li>Cowardly Lion -represents William Jennings Bryan </li></ul><ul><li>Had a “loud roar” </li></ul><ul><li>Had a good platform </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to back it up though </li></ul><ul><li>Parades as a humble king figure </li></ul>
  65. 68. Populism and Oz: the Symbolism…Cont’d. <ul><li>Wicked Witch of the West —western industrial influence </li></ul><ul><li>The loss of the common farmer in the west </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of industry/urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed by water=pure nature </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of machinery </li></ul>
  66. 69. Populism and Oz: the Symbolism…Cont’d. <ul><li>Wicked Witch of the East —represents eastern industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>Birth of the problem for Populists </li></ul><ul><li>Killed/destroyed by the innocent farmer’s daughter’s house from the Midwest </li></ul>
  67. 70. Populism and Oz: the Symbolism…Cont’d. <ul><li>Yellow Brick Road -the gold standard </li></ul><ul><li>A road paved with gold goes nowhere </li></ul><ul><li>The Republican platform with their reliance on the gold standard keeps the status quo in Oz </li></ul>
  68. 71. Populism and Oz: the Symbolism…Cont’d. <ul><li>The Silver Slippers —silver standard (bimetallism) </li></ul><ul><li>MGM made the slippers red to showcase Technicolor </li></ul><ul><li>In the original book, published in 1900, the slippers were made of silver </li></ul>
  69. 72. Populism and Oz: the Symbolism…Cont’d. <ul><li>Winged Monkeys —used in cartoons of the time to ridicule politicians </li></ul><ul><li>May have represented police/private detective agencies/strike-breakers </li></ul><ul><li>Wizard of Oz —the president </li></ul><ul><li>McKinley was often called a wizard of politics </li></ul>

×