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  1. 1. Reconstruction
  2. 2. What is Reconstruction? <ul><li>Reconstruction —The period between 1865-1877 in which the Confederate states rejoined the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>It is divided into 3 distinct stages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Presidential Reconstruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Radical Reconstruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. End of Reconstruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We’ll look at each stage separately </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  3. 3. But, First a Little Background <ul><li>The war was fought to free slaves, right? </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong! Slavery was a part of it but most northerners had little desire in freeing slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln (and much of the north) wanted to keep the Union together </li></ul><ul><li>That desire stuck with Lincoln from before the war into the Reconstruction period </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  4. 4. <ul><li>Took effect in 1863 </li></ul><ul><li>Only freed slaves living in the 11 official Confederate states </li></ul><ul><li>But not in Union controlled areas of Louisiana, for example </li></ul><ul><li>Not in Missouri or other border states </li></ul>The Emancipation Proclamation This Presentation is Available Online at:
  5. 5. The Defeat of the CSA <ul><li>If the Confederacy won the Civil War it would exist as a separate country </li></ul><ul><li>However, if the Union won the war the north and south would reunite </li></ul><ul><li>The defeat of the CSA required Reconstruction </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  6. 6. The “Lost Cause” <ul><li>The accepted reasons that forced the south to lose the war </li></ul><ul><li>Superior northern $ and industry </li></ul><ul><li>Lee’s incompetent commanders </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery had nothing to do with the war </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves enjoyed their conditions </li></ul><ul><li>These are called the “Lost Cause” </li></ul><ul><li>Confederates in the Attic </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  7. 7. <ul><li>Following US victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg (1863) Lincoln created a plan to “reconstruct” the northern and southern states at the war’s conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>His goal was reconciliation </li></ul><ul><li>Granted forgiveness to southerners and rallied northern support for the war </li></ul><ul><li>Actions he hoped would cause battle-weary CS troops to surrender </li></ul>Lincoln’s Reconstruction This Presentation is Available Online at:
  8. 8. Lincoln’s “10% Plan” <ul><li>10% of voting population from 1860 voter rolls swore an oath of allegiance (Loyalty Oath) to the Federal government </li></ul><ul><li>A requirement for southern states’ readmission to the Union </li></ul><ul><li>New state constitutions and governments would then be written and elected </li></ul><ul><li>All southerners except high-ranking CS officers and CSA government officials would be pardoned </li></ul><ul><li>In response, Lincoln promised protection of personal property—but, not slaves </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  9. 9. Louisiana’s Example <ul><li>White southerners in Union-occupied Louisiana met in 1864 to draft a new constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Promised free schooling, labor improvements, public works projects </li></ul><ul><li>Abolished slavery but refused to grant black suffrage </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln accepted—Congress refused (thought it was too lenient) </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  10. 10. “ Radical Republicans” <ul><li>Believed in harsh treatment against the south (for starting the war) </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in total and instant emancipation </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to control the Reconstruction process—transform southern society, disband the planter aristocracy, redistribute land, develop industry, and grant civil rights to former slaves </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  11. 11. “ Radical Republicans”...Cont’d. <ul><li>Passed the Wade-Davis Bill </li></ul><ul><li>A state could only enter Union if 50% of registered voters swore the “Iron-Clad” oath </li></ul><ul><li>Established certain black civil liberties </li></ul><ul><li>Did NOT give freed slaves voting rights </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln vetoed the bill </li></ul>Most southerners took the Iron Clad Oath about as serious as this… This Presentation is Available Online at:
  12. 12. Lincoln’s Assassination <ul><li>The President was shot on April 14, 1865 </li></ul><ul><li>At Ford’s Theater in DC </li></ul><ul><li>John Wilkes Booth left his horse with a stagehand outside and entered the theater at around 9:30 </li></ul><ul><li>At 10:00 he went to the Presidential box and shot Lincoln </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  13. 13. Lincoln’s Assassination...Cont’d. <ul><li>He leapt to the stage yelling “Sic Semper Tyrannis” catching his spur in a flag causing him to land awkwardly breaking his left leg </li></ul><ul><li>He stopped at a tavern in Surrattsville, Maryland to pick up a gun </li></ul><ul><li>Stopped at Dr. Mudd’s home to get his leg set </li></ul><ul><li>Was captured by Union troops at Garrett’s farm </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  14. 14. Johnson Takes Command <ul><li>Andrew Johnson, Lincoln’s VP took control after Lincoln’s assassination </li></ul><ul><li>He disappointed Radical Republicans by siding closer to Lincoln </li></ul><ul><li>He was a Democrat </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in states’ rights </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in laissez-faire politics </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  15. 15. Johnson Takes Command...Cont’d. <ul><li>Essentially believed exactly the same way the south proclaimed it did in going to war! </li></ul><ul><li>He rejected all Radical Republican attempts to dissolve the plantation system, reorganize southern economy, and protect civil rights of freed slaves </li></ul><ul><li>He pardoned more people than any president before him (mostly wealthy southern landowners) </li></ul><ul><li>Believed slaves should not be given same rights as whites </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed special treatment for former slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Against strong-federal control (states’ rights) </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  16. 16. <ul><li>Began by Johnson while Congress was in recess </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Returned confiscated property to white southerners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issued hundreds of pardons to former CS officers and government officials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordered the Freedmen’s Bureau to return all confiscated land to white landowners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed governors to oversee drafting of new state constitutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promised readmission by ratifying 13 th Amendment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Declared Reconstruction over in 1865 </li></ul></ul>Presidential Reconstruction This Presentation is Available Online at:
  17. 17. Freedmen’s Bureau <ul><li>Lincoln, Johnson and Congress argued over how to redistribute southern land </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln wanted US generals to resettle freed slaves on captured plantations </li></ul><ul><li>Gen. Sherman’s “Special Field Order No. 15” </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  18. 18. Freedmen’s Bureau...Cont’d. <ul><li>Congress formed the Freedmen’s Bureau in 1865 </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed food & supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Established schools </li></ul><ul><li>Redistributed land to former slaves and poor white </li></ul><ul><li>Pledging loyalty to the Union got you 40 acres </li></ul><ul><li>“ 40 acres & a mule” </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  19. 20. Freedmen’s Bureau...Cont’d. <ul><li>Most southerners thought the bureau was a nuisance & threat to their way of life </li></ul><ul><li>Some believed it was a Yankee attempt to take their lands and give them to freed slaves (which was actually Lincoln’s plan) </li></ul><ul><li>Plantation-owners threatened former slaves into selling their 40 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Many Bureau agents accepted bribes and allowed the abuses </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  20. 21. Congress Vs. President Johnson <ul><li>The Freedmen’s Bureau was renewed by Congress in 1866 </li></ul><ul><li>They also created special courts that would override southern courts </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson vetoed the renewal </li></ul><ul><li>Congress gained the 2/3 majority to overturn the veto </li></ul><ul><li>The Bureau would remain in the southern states until 1872 </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  21. 22. Memphis & New Orleans Race Riots <ul><li>Both occurred in 1866 & followed a similar course </li></ul><ul><li>In Memphis, rumor spread that black Union troops killed a white policeman </li></ul><ul><li>White mobs spread through Memphis robbing, raping, and killing citizens living in the Freedmen’s camps </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  22. 23. Radical Reconstruction <ul><li>Northerners were convinced that the Fed. Govt. was not being harsh enough to the south </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Race Riots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Johnson’s “Swing around the Circle” speeches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yankees voted the Radical Republican ticket in the 1866 election </li></ul><ul><li>Started the 2 nd phase of Reconstruction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Radical Reconstruction” </li></ul></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  23. 24. Radical Reconstruction...Cont’d. <ul><li>1st Reconstruction Act: </li></ul><ul><li>Secessionist states treated as conquered territory (not equals) </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into 5 military districts (military control) </li></ul><ul><li>Martial law </li></ul><ul><li>Required new constitutions, ratify 14 th Amendment, allow blacks to vote </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  24. 25. Radical Reconstruction...Cont’d. <ul><li>2 nd Reconstruction Act: </li></ul><ul><li>Crooked southern politicians did not allow freed slaves to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Black codes </li></ul><ul><li>Outright racism </li></ul><ul><li>Congress placed Union troops in charge of voter registration </li></ul><ul><li>Outraged southerners </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  25. 26. “ Carpet Baggers” <ul><li>Northerners who migrated south after the Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Got their name by the large carpet bags in which they carried belongings </li></ul><ul><li>Some men but mostly women </li></ul><ul><li>Some promoted education or modernization </li></ul><ul><li>Others came to seek wealth </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  26. 27. “ Scalawags” <ul><li>Native southerners </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly men </li></ul><ul><li>Some served in the CS army or navy </li></ul><ul><li>Gen. Longstreet </li></ul><ul><li>They were the southern equivalent of Carpet Baggers </li></ul><ul><li>Hated as much or more by southerners </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  27. 28. Sharecropping <ul><li>One of the characteristics of the Reconstruction south </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed freed slaves to rent land, farm it, and provide for their families </li></ul><ul><li>They would “pay” part of the crop or money for rent </li></ul><ul><li>Many former plantation owners divided up lands to rent to former slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Poor whites also took advantage of the system </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  28. 29. Sharecropping...Cont’d. <ul><li>By 1880, most farmers in the south were sharecroppers </li></ul><ul><li>Many former slaves worked for former masters </li></ul><ul><li>Forever indebted to their white landowners (bosses) </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton prices crashed </li></ul><ul><li>Incomes were next to nothing </li></ul><ul><li>Freed slaves could only buy on credit from shops usually owned by white landlords </li></ul><ul><li>Went deeply into debt </li></ul><ul><li>Was it any better than slavery? </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  29. 30. Educating Freed Slaves <ul><li>As slaves, most Africans were forbidden from learning to read or write </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick Douglass </li></ul><ul><li>During Reconstruction, freed slaves wanted their children to learn </li></ul><ul><li>The Freedmen’s Bureau established thousands of schools </li></ul><ul><li>Black churches also began appearing in the south </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  30. 31. “ Black Codes” <ul><li>The anti-Radical Republican southern whites passed laws exempting freed slaves from voting, political office, interracial marriage, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>These were called “Black Codes” </li></ul><ul><li>Black Codes in Mississippi were the most severe </li></ul><ul><li>These Black Codes didn’t end during Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>They lasted in the south in one way or another until the 1960s </li></ul><ul><li>Where there Black Codes in Missouri? </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  31. 32. “ A White Revolution” <ul><li>The Republicans controlled southern politics from 1868 to 1876 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under former US General (now President) Grant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Southern whites wanted control of their states again </li></ul><ul><li>Several groups organized under this goal including the Ku Klux Klan </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  32. 33. The KKK <ul><li>The Ku Klux Klan was formed by ex-Confederates in Tennessee </li></ul><ul><li>It was a kind of social club for angry young white men </li></ul><ul><li>Their goal: take back the south from northern interference </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  33. 34. The KKK…Cont’d. <ul><li>The first leader (Wizard) of the Klan was Nathan Bedford Forrest </li></ul><ul><li>Fort Pillow Massacre </li></ul><ul><li>Forrest was against Radical Republicanism </li></ul><ul><li>He also believed in moving on after the war </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  34. 35. The KKK…Cont’d. <ul><li>When Forrest found out the Klan was attacking black families he resigned and distanced himself </li></ul><ul><li>He said that racial violence was not the purpose of the KKK </li></ul><ul><li>He later moved to Memphis, Tennessee and worked in the cause of civil rights for freed slaves </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  35. 36. The KKK…Cont’d. <ul><li>The KKK’s violence got so bad President Grant issued martial law (1871) </li></ul><ul><li>Klan members were arrested and tried </li></ul><ul><li>The Klan was essentially destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>It made a resurgance in the 1920s </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  36. 37. Compromise of 1877 <ul><li>The election of 1876 consisted of Democrat Samuel Tilden and Republican Rutherford B. Hayes </li></ul><ul><li>3 Southern states claimed that both candidates had won </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of risk another war over the issue the Fed. Government and states made a compromise… </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  37. 38. Compromise of 1877…Cont’d. <ul><li>Republican Hayes could have the Presidency if he agreed to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove ALL Union troops from the south </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appoint 1 southern Democrat to his cabinet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build another transcontinental railroad through the south </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help industrialize the south </li></ul></ul><ul><li>#3 and #4 were never realized </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  38. 39. Changing Northern Views?
  39. 40. Results of Reconstruction <ul><li>“ Redeemers” took over southern governments </li></ul><ul><li>Racial tensions intensified </li></ul><ul><li>Northern “condescension” towards southerners </li></ul><ul><li>The “Dixiecrats” (southern Democrats) </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanization/Ghettoization </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at:
  40. 41. Questions? <ul><li>Remember, if you have any questions please feel free to contact me at: </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Also, </li></ul><ul><li>Please check the blog for Presentations, Studycasts, and other important information at: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>This Presentation is Available Online at: