Observation & Inference Presentation


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Observation & Inference Presentation

  1. 1. Observation & Inference In Understanding History The “What” compared to the “Why”
  2. 2. What is Observation? <ul><li>Observation is the act of looking at a particular object, text, or individual and making an assumption. </li></ul><ul><li>We make observations using our 5 senses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Observations can be qualitative or quantitative </li></ul>
  3. 3. Qualitative Observation <ul><li>These are a description of what we see </li></ul><ul><li>Qualit ative=Quality (or how something appears) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: The bowl is red </li></ul><ul><li>Example: It feels like a newspaper </li></ul>
  4. 4. Quantitative Observation <ul><li>These are the number of items we observe </li></ul><ul><li>Quantit ative=Quantity (number) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: The red bowl has three yellow stripes around it. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: The paper item has six columns on the front. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Inferences? <ul><li>An inference explains your observation </li></ul><ul><li>An inference is based on prior or background knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>“ Observations are information we gather directly through our five senses…inferences help explain those observations!” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Examples of Inference… <ul><li>Observation: The floor in the doorway of class is wet. </li></ul><ul><li>Possible Inferences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a leak from the ceiling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone spilled water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The janitor is preparing to scrub the floor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These are all possible explanations as to why the floor is wet. We know that ceilings sometimes leak, people spill water, and water and soap are used to scrub floors </li></ul>
  7. 7. A Couple Historical Examples <ul><li>What can we observe? </li></ul><ul><li>It is a gun: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barrel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trigger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hammer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It looks old: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of wood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No place for bullets to load </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has some kind of rock on the hammer </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. A Couple Historical Examples…Cont’d. <ul><li>What can we infer? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most modern pistols are not made of wood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most modern pistols have a clear location for loading bullets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern pistols DON’T have a rock on the hammer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We can then use inference to tell us that this is definitely an old weapon that uses a rock and metal in its operation </li></ul>
  9. 9. A Couple of Historical Examples…Cont’d. <ul><li>Now, using text, what can we observe? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks like music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has two dates (1763-1816) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talks about dying and eternity </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. A Couple of Historical Examples…Cont’d. <ul><li>What can we infer? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belongs to an old tradition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is meant to be sung </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used as part of a religious exercise or ceremony </li></ul></ul>