Act I Sins Of The Heartland


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Act I Sins Of The Heartland

  1. 1. Act I The Midwest and St. Louis
  2. 2. <ul><li>Geographically, the Midwest had established borders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indiana on the east </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illinois on the west </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wisconsin/Minnesota on the north </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illinois/Kentucky line on the south </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Missouri is often included </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on geography </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Missouri is usually classified as upper south by Midwesterners and Southerners </li></ul>The Midwest Geographically
  3. 4. <ul><li>The Midwest is also a classifiable and distinct people group </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly German, Norwegian, Swedish or similar lineage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Or of eastern emigration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shares a number of similar traits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Northern European lineage (smaller Anglo-Saxon lineage) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protestant (smaller number of Catholics—large Lutheran numbers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Standoffish” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of “Protestant Work Ethic” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on familial tradition (has declined in recent years) </li></ul></ul>The Midwest People Group
  4. 5. <ul><li>Originally inhabited by mound builders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like the Cahokians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>French exploration by 1763—Joliet and Marquette traversed the Mississippi River Valley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 years later La Salle claimed entire valley for France (called it “Louisiana” after Louis XIV) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1703: Priests establish a small mission </li></ul><ul><li>1763: Laclede de Liguest/Chouteau establish trading post to take advantage of river traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Decided on present-day STL and laid out a grid exactly like New Orleans </li></ul>Brief History of STL
  5. 6. <ul><li>STL’s economic and social hinge was the River </li></ul><ul><li>Goods were loaded and unloaded from keel boats along a section of the city known as the levee—”The Landing” </li></ul><ul><li>The Landing became one of the most congested areas of the early city </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhabited by industry, storefronts, warehouses, and tenements </li></ul></ul>Brief History of STL…Cont’d.
  6. 7. <ul><li>1817: Steamboat makes its way to STL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STL=Northernmost stop for large vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steamboat transforms STL into a boom town, commercial center, and inland port </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1830s it was common to see more than 150 steamboats at the Landing at one time </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1850s STL had become the largest US city west of Pittsburgh </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd largest port in the country (only exceeded by N.Y.) </li></ul></ul>Brief History of STL…Cont’d.
  7. 9. <ul><li>City was incorporated in 1822 </li></ul><ul><li>15-20 years later immigrants began flooding STL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially German and Irish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During Reconstruction (1865-77) southern Blacks began pouring in </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration caused an enormous population boom: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1840—Less than 20,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1850—77,660 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1860—More than 160,000 </li></ul></ul>Brief History of STL…Cont’d.
  8. 13. <ul><li>Immigrants took advantage of growing number of jobs along the river as well as inexpensive tenements </li></ul><ul><li>Because of large number of “mob types” thriving on the levees, middle-class and wealthy STL citizens began moving away from the heart of the city </li></ul><ul><li>Landing became rowdy working-class neighborhood and helped lead to a thriving gang culture throughout the late 1800s-early 1900s </li></ul>Brief History of STL…Cont’d.
  9. 14. Act I: Scene II Chicago and New York
  10. 15. <ul><li>Geographically, Chicago is located in a swampy section of land between the Chicago and Des Moines Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Like STL, Chicago was inhabited by Native Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which remained until the US acquired the land under the Treaty of STL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incorporated in 1833 and within 7 years had a population of over 4,000 </li></ul>Brief History of Chicago
  11. 16. Brief History of Chicago…Cont’d. <ul><li>Because of its location to major canals and rail lines Chicago became the transportation hub of the US </li></ul><ul><li>Its geography caused several major problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The prairie bog provided fertile ground for disease-carrying insects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spring in Chicago was so muddy horses got stuck past their legs in the streets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sewer and water problems—many described it as the “filthiest city in America” </li></ul></ul>
  12. 17. <ul><li>That didn’t stop people from arriving though: </li></ul><ul><li>1840—92 nd most populated city in US </li></ul><ul><li>1860—9 th most populated </li></ul><ul><li>1857—Largest city in “Northwest” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 20 years it grew from 4,000 to over 90,000 </li></ul></ul>Brief History of Chicago…Cont’d.
  13. 18. <ul><li>1871—The Great Chicago Fire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supposedly caused by Mrs. O’Leary’s cow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most buildings in Chicago were made of wood so the fire spread quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the end: 300 people dead, 18,000 buildings destroyed, and 100,000 of the cities 300,000 were left homeless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its recreation made Chicago one of the great architectural playgrounds of the Midwest </li></ul></ul>Brief History of Chicago…Cont’d.
  14. 21. <ul><li>Between 1870-1900 Chicago grew from 299,000 to 1.7 million </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The fastest growing city ever at that time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly caused by the economically-driven immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chicago’s manufacturing and retail dominated the Midwest </li></ul><ul><li>The Union Stock Yards dominated the packing trade </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago became the world’s largest rail hub and one of the busiest ports </li></ul>Brief History of Chicago…Cont’d.
  15. 24. <ul><li>Chicago’s and STL’s urbanization was similar to that of New York: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City began as a trading center, farming community, or transportation station </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became industrialized during the Revolution (1830s-1840s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrant (cheap) labor became the norm and life centered around industrial centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Class/Wealthy citizens moved away from industrial center (taking money, influence, and support with them) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s left is tenements, industrial centers, poor immigrants—prime breeding ground for gangs and vice </li></ul></ul>Comparing Midwest and East
  16. 25. <ul><li>STL stockyards in present-day East STL and the Union Stock Yards in Chicago near Dearborn Street and Michigan Avenue are good examples </li></ul><ul><li>STL’s and Chicago’s crime districts developed around industry </li></ul><ul><li>New York’s was slightly different </li></ul>Comparing Midwest and East…Cont’d.
  17. 26. The Five Points <ul><li>Early on, the points was a swampy area surrounding the Collect </li></ul><ul><li>A small island in the Collect was used for execution/punishment </li></ul><ul><li>It then became “Magazine Island” holding gun powder </li></ul><ul><li>In 1732 it was purchased and promised to be drained w/n a year for construction of a settlement </li></ul>
  18. 27. The Five Points…Cont’d. <ul><li>Draining was started, then abandoned </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy settlers built homes along the Collect and the swamps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste and refuse filled the half-emptied pond </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After nearly 80 years the pond was filled, streets were lined out, and brothels and saloons opened for business </li></ul>
  19. 30. <ul><li>Paradise Square, an intersection of the 5 main streets, was a gathering place for locals (the Points were peaceful for several years) </li></ul><ul><li>Gang rivalry between the Points and the Bowery soon erupted </li></ul><ul><li>The Native Americans fought the Irish and other immigrant gangs </li></ul><ul><li>Rival Fire Companies fought each other </li></ul><ul><li>The Points soon became the most dangerous location in New York City </li></ul>The Five Points…Cont’d.
  20. 31. Act II Gangs of the Midwest
  21. 32. What is a Gang? <ul><li>The word “gang” comes from “gonge” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning “Journey” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later meant a group (gonge) of sailors in the 15 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gangs of outlaws were found in Europe by Shakespeare’s time </li></ul><ul><li>Frederic Thrasher named roving bands of street urchins gangs (1920s) </li></ul>
  22. 33. What is a Gang?...Cont’d. <ul><li>4 types of organizations led to modern gangs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Secret Societies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Outlaw gangs of the West </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Racist organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. “Voting Gangs” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We’ll next look at each </li></ul>
  23. 34. 1. Secret Societies <ul><li>Two secret societites had profound influence on US gangs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese Triads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italian Mafia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Triads started as political resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Tongs in NY and CHI </li></ul>
  24. 35. 1. Secret Societies…Cont’d. <ul><li>Mafia is the most well-known and romanticized gang culture </li></ul><ul><li>Began in Sicily when it was controlled by Spain (1600s) </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled Western Sicily (1800s-early 1900s) </li></ul>
  25. 36. 1. Secret Societies…Cont’d. <ul><li>Mafiosi gained respect through violence </li></ul><ul><li>The “Black Hand” was a dangerous American mafia product </li></ul><ul><li>Practiced extortion on Italian immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Also responsible for large number of deaths in CHI in early 1900s </li></ul><ul><li>Mafia did not develop as well in STL or CHI as it did in NYC </li></ul>
  26. 37. 2. Outlaws in the West <ul><li>As western cities grew so did a culture of male violence </li></ul><ul><li>Partly goes back to gold rush (1840s) </li></ul><ul><li>90,000 men competing for wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Mining camps/towns were cut-throat </li></ul>
  27. 38. 2. Outlaws in the West…Cont’d. <ul><li>Jesse James, Cole Younger, and gangs scoured MO during the late 19 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Other gangs of outlaws also rode the plains of Illinois </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly bank and train robberies </li></ul>
  28. 39. 3. Racist Gangs <ul><li>Many gangs of armed young men were racially motivated but not solely in the south </li></ul><ul><li>Racial tensions in STL, CHI, and NYC were constant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look at the enormous amount of immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ex. 1863 Draft Riots (NYC) </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Know-Nothing Riots (1840s—NYC) </li></ul><ul><li>EX. 1854 Know-Nothing Riot (STL) </li></ul>
  29. 40. 3. Racist Gangs…Cont’d. <ul><li>Comp. for jobs and other economic factors were often at the root </li></ul><ul><li>KKK was formed in the south after the Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Against Radical Republicanism at first </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Black focus came later </li></ul><ul><li>Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest </li></ul>
  30. 41. 4. Voting Gangs <ul><li>Concentrated in NYC (east coast) </li></ul><ul><li>Supposedly an Irish institution </li></ul><ul><li>Gangs hired to beat up opponents, threaten voters, steal ballots, burn voting booths, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Masked under names like “Social Athletic Clubs” </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic Party in CHI was notorious and borrowed the custom from NYC </li></ul>
  31. 42. The Chicago Race Riot <ul><li>July 27-August 2, 1919: race riots broke out </li></ul><ul><li>38 dead, 537 injured, 1000 homeless </li></ul><ul><li>What started the riot: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A black teenager floated into the waters of the “white area” of a white beach in Chicago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was drowned by several white males </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fueled by the long history of racism, segregation, and organized activities of white gangs (many of which were sponsored by Chicago’s political machine). </li></ul>
  32. 43. White Gangs in Chicago...Cont’d. <ul><li>Most of the white gangs came from the Union Stockyards </li></ul><ul><li>The Canaryville Bunch and the Hamburgs were especially notorious </li></ul><ul><li>They burned, killed, looted, and caused chaos for several days </li></ul>
  33. 44. Ragen’s Colts <ul><li>&quot;At 51st Street and Shields Avenue, for example, three blocks west of Wentworth, there had been for years a black enclave of nine families, but that night the Ragen Colts tried to burn it to th ground. Throughout the afternoon, reported Harriett White, one of the black residents, there had been rumors of a mob that intended to &quot;run all the niggers out of this section tonight.&quot; Repeated telephone calls to the police had brought only a brief visit by about ten mounted policemen at 6:30. Two hours later the Colts arrived, 200 strong, and they &quot;started throwing rocks, bricks, and other missiles and shooting into...houses...&quot; Then they began storming through the front doors, smashing furniture and throwing it through windows, and putting the torch to everything. &quot;Bricks, stones, and shots entered my home, forcing me to leave,&quot; recalled Mrs. White. Having done their work, the Colts left a warning: &quot;if you open your mouth against 'Ragen's' we will not only burn your house down, we will 'do' you.&quot; </li></ul>