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© 2020 JETIR February 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2 www.jetir.org (ISSN-2349-5162)
JETIR2002015 Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) www.jetir.org 100
PROPOSAL FOR REHABILITATION WORKS
OF ALANGULAM CEMENT FACTORY
1
M.Shanmugaraj, 2
R.Saravanakumar, 3
G.Arangadurai, 4
P.Pandimuni,
1
Lecturer / Civil, 2
Lecturer / Plastic, 3
Lecturer / Plastic, 4
Lecturer / EEE
V.S.V.N Polytechnic College, Virudhunagar, Tamil Nadu, India.
Abstract : Cement is the basic material for buildings and civil engineering constructions. Portland cement, the most widely used
cement in concrete construction, was patented in 1824. Cement is a fine powdery material untwining silicates of calcium, formed out of
raw materials consisting calcium oxide, silica, aluminum oxide and iron oxide. India has an installed capacity of 234 million tons per
year, making this is the second highest
Alangulam Cement Factory was commissioned during 1970 producing cement by “WET PROCESS”. Due to long run
operation of the factory and due to aging of machineries, the unit is unable to operate the Plant with efficient manner. Due
to the above reason, the production efficiency is getting reduced and increasing the production cost. The main goal of this
article is to increase the production efficiency and reduce the production cost by Rehabilitation works
I. INTRODUCTION
Alangulam Cement unit was established on 30.11.1966 to install machineries to produce Cement adopting ‘WET PROCESS”
method with a capital outlay of 6.77 corers by TIDCO. The commercial production of the plant was commenced on 14.06.1970
The unit commenced its regular production with 2 Kilns operation having Clinker production capacity of 1200 Tonnes/day
provided with labour employment of 1700 direct and indirect.
In the year 1976, a separate corporation named “TAMILNADU CEMENTS CORPORATION LTD” was formed with Alangulam
and Ariyalur Cement Units.
The installed capacity of the plant is 4.0 Lakh tones of cement per annum with the average achieved capacity utilization of
75%.Unit has achieved the maximum capacity utilization of 85% in two Kiln operation during the year 1984-85.
Due to administrative reasons, the unit is being operated in single steam operation of one Kiln, Raw Mill & Cement Mills, from
the year 2003 and the other Kiln-I & Raw Mill-I units have been phased out and removed.Unit has achieved the maximum
capacity utilization of 89% in single kiln operation during the year 2005-2006.
Unit has achieved the maximum net profit of Rs.515.87 Lakh during the year 2016-2017. Due to administrative reasons and to
operate the plant economically, plant operation has been restricted to operate the plant as Cement Grinding Unit with effect from
20.09.2017
LOCATION OF THE UNIT
Location of unit is most important factor for to be consideration for successful working of any organization. It also plays vital role
in the development of the unit. The total cost of manufacturing cost of any business unit is higher due to the wrong selection of
location of their business. The main objective of an industry concern is to maximize the profit by minimising the production cost
TAMILNADU CEMENTS CORPORATION LIMITED is situated near Alangulam village near Rajapalayam, Virudhunagar
District
Alangulam is located in India at the longitude of 77.5 and latitude of 8.86
© 2020 JETIR February 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2 www.jetir.org (ISSN-2349-5162)
JETIR2002015 Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) www.jetir.org 101
The location of the plant is very beneficial for its existences as the
area is surrounded by limestone, which is one of the basic raw
materials in cement production.
Location factors are very much important in establishing a cement
plant.
1. Input
In terms of input, about 1.5 tons of limestone is required to
produce one ton of cement. Hence location of the plant is based on
the limestone deposit. The major cash out flow come by way of
royalty and cash payments. India’s estimated total reserve of
cement grinding stone is about 90 billon tons.
2. Power
It is used in raw material grinding. Clinkerization of lime stone is
done in the kiln operation and then clinker is grinding with
gypsum to form cement. The older plant required 120 to 130 units
per ton of cement produced, while modern energy efficient plants
consume 80 to 90 units per ton of cement.
3. Coal
Coal is another major input, which along with electricity forms
40% of total cost. There is a several coal shortage for the industry.
4. Labor
On growing modernization of plants, the requirement for skilled
man power has increased then that of unskilled man power. The
cheap availability of labor from the nearby areas has proved to be
great help for the company.
5. Transportation
It is a very important thing to be kept in mind while deciding the
location. It cost widely affects the overall cost.
CEMENT MANUFACTURING PROCESS (WET)
The history of cement goes back into Roman Empire. The modern
day cement. That is Portland cement was first produced by a British stone mason, Joseph Aspdin in 1824, who cooked cement in
his kitchen. He heated a mixture of limestone and clay powder in his kitchen, and grind the mixture into powder creating cement,
that hardens when mixed with water. The name Portland was given by the inventor as it resembles a stone quarried on the Isle of
Portland.
The first use of modern day Portland cement was in the tunnel construction in the Thames River in 1828.
The manufacture procedures of Portland cement is described below.
 Mixing of raw material
 Burning
 Grinding
 Storage and packaging
1. Mixing of raw material
The major raw materials used in the manufacture of cement are
Calcium, Silicon, Iron and Aluminum. These minerals are used in
different form as per the availability of the minerals.
Table shows the raw materials for Portland cement manufacture
The mixing procedure of the manufacture of cement is done in 2 methods,
 Dry process
 Wet process
Dry process
The both calcareous and argillaceous raw materials are firstly crushed in the gyratory crushers to get 2-5cm size pieces separately.
The crushed materials are again grinded to get fine particles into ball or tube mill.
Each finely grinded material is stored in hopper after screening. Now these powdered minerals are mixed in required proportion
to get dry raw mix which is then stored in silos and kept ready to be sent into rotary kiln. Now the raw materials are mixed in
specific proportions so that the average composition of the final product is maintained properly.
Wet Process
The raw materials are firstly crushed and made into powdered form and stored in silos. The clay is then washed in washing mills
to remove adhering organic matters found in clay.
The powdered limestone and water washed clay are sent to flow in the channels and transfer to grinding mills where they are
completely mixed and the paste is formed, i.e., known as slurry.
The grinding process can be done in ball or tube mill or even both. Then the slurry is led into collecting basin where composition
can be adjusted. The slurry contains around 38-40% water that is stored in storage tanks and kept ready for the rotary kiln.
© 2020 JETIR February 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2 www.jetir.org (ISSN-2349-5162)
JETIR2002015 Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) www.jetir.org 102
PRODUCTION PROCESS IN ALANGULAM CMENT FACTORY
PRODUCTION PROCESS
TANCEM follows a specific type of process.
The cement passes qualities and grades.
According to the mode of preparing the raw mix three different processes can manufacture cement.
A. Wet process
B. Semidry process
C. Dry process.
TANCEM uses Wet process cement manufacturing. The total process is divided into various stages which are:
Mining
The lime stone is mixed from pen cast quarry by conventional drilling and blasting method. The basic raw material for cement
manufacture is lime stone. The lime stone is mined in captive mines and transported to primary crusher and picking plant. During
the initial periods, the mines namely I Quarry, II Quarry, III Quarry which were operated. After that, ALS mines and PPLM
mines are operated.
The ALS (HSL Pit) is located at a distance of 200 metres from ALS mines office, which is located at 2km from the factory.
Primary Crusher and Picking Plant
Limestone, after being blasted, is crushed as it is in the form of boulder up to 1.2 sq. Meters. This is dumped into dump hopper
and pushed into the single rooter impact crushed. Its rated capacity is 600-1200 MT per hour.
The Primary Crusher and Picking Plant crushes the limestone received from the mines in two stages to the required size and
purify by removing the unwanted materials granite stone and earth material.
The primary Crusher is of one number Double toggle Jaw crusher type with a crushing capacity of 325 tonnes per hour, supplied
by L&T. the maximum feed size of 1.5 X 1.2 metre limestone boulder is crushed in to 250mm size.
Secondary Crusher is of one number single Rotar Impactor having crushing capacity of 250 tonnes per hour, supplied by L&T.
The feed size of 250mm is crushed in to 25mm size and is stored in 4 No storage buckers each having capacity of 60 tonnes and
transported to plant through Tippers.
RAW Mill
The received Crushed Limestone powder is fed in to the Raw Mill along with 33% of water, where it is ground to the required
fineness and comes out as Slurry. The slurry is taken to the mixer basin through silos, where it is stirred well by compressed air
for getting homogenous mixing of different grade slurry to obtain kiln feed slurry quality of around 75% TCO3. This slurry is
pumped to Ferris wheel feeder to feed in to the kiln.
© 2020 JETIR February 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2 www.jetir.org (ISSN-2349-5162)
JETIR2002015 Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) www.jetir.org 103
Rotary kiln.
The Kiln is a main production unit, where the slurry is burnt and CLINKER is produced. The Technical specification of the Kiln
are
Type : Rotary Kiln wet process)
Size : 3.75m dia x 3.4m dia x 3.75m dia x 135m long
Supplier : KCP Limited
Capacity : 630 TPD per Unit
No. of piers : 6
Kiln Slope : 20
Drive : 220 HP DC / 0-1000 rpm
No. of Units : One
The slurry fed in the Kiln is burnt in to clinker with the heat produced by injecting pulverized fine coal for continuous firing and
maintaining temperatures at various zones. The hot clinker coming out from kiln gets cooled, while passing through grate cooler
where cold air is passed through cooler grates.
Clinker cooling, crushing and storage:
The hot clinker coming out from kiln is cooled slowly by means of air provided by fans. This clinker is crushed in clinker crusher
and then stored in storage yard with help of deep bucket conveyor.
© 2020 JETIR February 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2 www.jetir.org (ISSN-2349-5162)
JETIR2002015 Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) www.jetir.org 104
Cement Mill:
The crushed clinker is taken into the clinker hopper in cement mill where it is added with gypsum and fly ash from their
hoppers with the help of weight feeders. The mixture is then taken to the bell conveyor and fed on to the ball mill. Two H.T.
motors rotate the ball mill. It contains metal ball mill of various sizes like 40mm, 60mm, 70mm, etc. The mill rotates and hence
the mixture of clinker, gypsum, and fly ash grinds in the mill. The fly material is taken out from the mill by creating an air
drought. This the final product cement stored in storage vessels known as cement silo.
The Cement Mills are the most vital production unit, where cement is produced by grinding clinker required additives of
fly ash and gypsum.
The technical specifications of the cement mill are
Type : Open circuit Ball mill
Size : 3m dia x 12.75m length in 3 Compartments
Capacity : 35 TPH
Supplier : KCP Limited Drive : 1500 KW / 1000 rpm
No. of Units : Two
For grinding Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) a mixture of 95% clinker and 5 % Gypsum is fed in to the Mill, whereas for
grinding Portland Pozolana Cement (PPC) a mixture of 60% Clinker, 35 % Fly ash and 5% Gypsum is fed in to the Mill. The
Cement discharged at Cement Mill outlet is conveyed to Cement storage silos with the help of FK Pumps. The venting of Mill is
passed through Cyclonic separators and Electro Static Precipitator (ESP) to the stack.
Cement Storage Silos
There are 4 Nos of identical RCC Storage Silos of 12m dia x 20m height and each having storage capacity of 3000 MT
of Cement.
Packing plant
Packing plant is the final stage of the cement manufacturing. The bulk Cement stocked in Cement Silos are extracted and
packed in Polythene / Paper bags of 50Kgs. in net weight in the Rotary Electronic packer. The packer machine is used to fill the
cement bags. When the cement weight of 50kg is filled in the bag, the bag falls automatically in the conveyer belt. The conveyer
belts transfer these cement bags from packer to either truck or wagon directly. Also, there is facility to load the bulk cement into
bucket tanker truck, which carries the bulk cement to the port from where it is exported abroad.
The Technical specification of Rotary Electronic Packer are given below
Type : BRS-E Single Discharge
Make` : FLSmidth
Year : 2013
Capacity : 90 TPH
Load : 34.5 KW
No. of Units : One
SIMPLE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM OF ALANGULAM CEMENT FACTORY
Sanctioned Maximum demand is 2970 KVA
Transformer capacity =4 Transformer X 1500 KVA
EB Supply incoming single line layout
© 2020 JETIR February 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2 www.jetir.org (ISSN-2349-5162)
JETIR2002015 Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) www.jetir.org 105
Now the plant is running with simple system of manufacturing Cement with 2 Cement Mills only each Cement Mill is coupled
with 1500KW synchronous motor.
The synchronous motor initially started as slip ring induction motor with 5 steps of rotor resistance.
Each and every step of resistance is reduced with Timers after 5th
(last) resistance dc supply fed to the rotor winding.
This dc supply generated from the dc generator which is also coupled with the cement mill synchronous motor.
DC exciter voltage is 28.5 V with 600A.
PRODUCTION Details at M/s Alangulam Cement works
YEAR
CLINKER
in MT
CEMENT in MT
CAPACITY OF
UTILISATION (%)
1969 - 1970 16,183 811 -
1970 - 1971 135,231 89621 39
1971 - 1972 273,816 306158 77
1972 - 1973 249,753 293525 73
1973 - 1974 258,140 280382 70
1974 - 1975 189,110 200070 50
1975 - 1976 254,412 262729 66
1976 - 1977 326,021 338445 85
1977 - 1978 286,890 309105 77
1978 - 1979 297,040 319305 80
1979 - 1980 249,050 274400 69
1980 - 1981 267,561 301148 75
1981 - 1982 274,102 293515 73
1982 - 1983 232,251 280750 70
1983 - 1984 209,474 243445 61
1984 - 1985 293,413 340030 85
1985 - 1986 280,575 320672 80
1986 - 1987 266,918 312741 78
© 2020 JETIR February 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2 www.jetir.org (ISSN-2349-5162)
JETIR2002015 Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) www.jetir.org 106
1987 - 1988 247,337 291009 73
1988 - 1989 254,500 276725 69
1989 - 1990 273,840 316130 79
1990 - 1991 229,189 236765 59
1991 - 1992 247,249 284213 71
1992 - 1993 238,522 268041 67
1993 - 1994 240,600 269413 67
1994 - 1995 238,562 271809 38
1995 - 1996 210,679 242404 61
1996 - 1997 190,331 226594 57
1997 - 1998 161,684 246725 62
1998 - 1999 262,704 300378 75
1999 - 2000 181,347 285558 71
2000 - 2001 216,602 302496 76
2001 - 2002 196,296 280156 70
2002 - 2003 118,288 245376 61
2003 - 2004 149,101 267020 67
2004 - 2005 124,170 235670 81
2005 - 2006 134,275 258025 89
2006 - 2007 114,101 200140 69
2007 – 2008 90,005 139195 48
2008 – 2009 115,455 143895 50
2009 – 2010 165,565 214505 74
2010 – 2011 163,866 203040 70
2011 - 2012 106,661 134640 46
2012 – 2013 87,656 108870 41
2013 – 2014 70,975 103253 36
2014 – 2015 42,560 61190 21
2015 – 2016 119,196 167154 58
2016 – 2017 101,760 142105 49
2017 – 2018 0 75260 28
2018 - 2019 0 80235 28
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
400000
1970-1971
1972-1973
1974-1975
1976-1977
1978-1979
1980-1981
1982-1983
1984-1985
1986-1987
1988-1989
1990-1991
1992-1993
1994-1995
1996-1997
1998-1999
2000-2001
2002-2003
2004-2005
2006-2007
2008-2009
2010-2011
2012-2013
2014-2015
2016-2017
2018-2019
YEAR VS CEMENT PRODUCTION
© 2020 JETIR February 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2 www.jetir.org (ISSN-2349-5162)
JETIR2002015 Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) www.jetir.org 107
Cement Products of TANCEM
Cement
It manufactures and supply 33 Grade Portland Pozolana Cement (PPC) in the brand name of "Arasu Super Star".
MARKETING ACTIVITIES
Tamilnadu Cements Corporation Limited, a State Government undertaking, is manufacturing high quality Arasu Super
star Brand cement of PPC, OPC 43 Grade and OPC 53 Grade as per B.I.S. in their two factories. The cement manufactured by
TANCEM is being used by both Government Departments and general public through private Stockist. A number of Government
buildings such as Collectorates, TNHB Towers, Shopping complexes, Bridges, Power plants, etc. have been constructed
exclusively using “Arasu Cement”. “ARASU SUPER STAR” is the most liked and reputed brand among public.
Some of the important constructions where Arasu cement was used.
1. Anna Fly Over, Chennai. (Constructed during 1973)
2. TNHB Shopping Complex, Anna Nagar, Chennai.
3. TNHB Tower Block, Taylor’s Road, Chennai.
4. Napier’s Bridge Extension, Chennai.
5. North Chennai Thermal Power Plant, Ennore.
6. Thalamuthu Natarajan Buildings, Chennai.
7. Number of new buildings for various collectorates like Thiruvannamalai, Dindigul, Vellore and Villupuram.
8. Vellore Court, TANCEM supplies cement to Government Departments and also to General public through its Stockists’
network. TANCEM markets cement not only in Tamil Nadu but also to Kerala.
PROPOSAL FOR REHABILITATION WORKS OF ALANGULAM CEMENT FACTORY
Alangulam Cement Factory was commissioned during 1970 producing cement by “WET PROCESS”. Due to long run operation
of the factory and due to aging of machineries, the unit is unable to operate the Plant with efficient manner. Due to the above
reason, the production efficiency is getting reduced and increasing the production cost.
Based on the inspection the following Rehabilitation works has to be done
 Reconditioning of Raw Mill
 Changing of Kiln shell to a length of 23.05m to adopt Dry Process
 Repairing of ESP ducting &casing including thermal insulation.
 Installation of Mechanical Conveying System
 Repairing works in Cement Mill I and Cement Mill II
 Repairing Dumpers
The approximate Estimate for the above said works is Rs. 7.00 Crores.
By carrying out the rehabilitation works, the following immediate benefits may be achieved.
 Increasing the Raw Mill productivity by which the electricity consumption can be reduced.
 In Kiln, changing of 23.05m length will increase the productivity by which the variable cost for coal, power, spare parts
and firebricks for producing clinker can be reduced.
 As per the direction of Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board, while the Kiln is in operation, we can operate the ESP,
control the dust and protect the environment.
 Conveying the cement through Belt conveyors (Mechanical Conveying System) from Cement Mill to Cement Silos, the
power consumption for producing one tone of cement can be reduced to 5 units. The expenditure towards the cost of
spares and maintenance can also be controlled.
 By attending to the repairing work in Cement Mill II, the productivity can be increased.
 By attending to the repairing work and the quantity of limestone transported from the Mines to the Plant can be
increased.
CONCLUSION
By completing the above works, the Plant will be run efficiently with a payback period of 3 years. After implementation
of the Rehabilitation works the following expenditure can be reduced.
Sl.
No
Description
For producing one tone cement
Present
expenditure incurred
Anticipated expenditure
to be incurred after completion
Profit on expenditure in
cement production
1 Electricity 105 Units 94 Units Rs.88.00
2 Coal 31% 30% Rs. 30.00
By Completing the rehabilitation works at Alangulam Cement Works, the Plant can be operated efficiently.
© 2020 JETIR February 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2 www.jetir.org (ISSN-2349-5162)
JETIR2002015 Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) www.jetir.org 108
I. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Hereby we Sincerely thanks Mr . K.MARIKANI , Unit Head / General Manager, M/s TAMILNADU CEMENTS
CORPORATION LTD for giving this wonderful opportunity to undergo Industrial Training at Alangulam Unit, Tamilnadu.
.
REFERENCES
[1] A Review Article on Manufacturing Process of Cement, Environmental Attributes, Topography and Climatological Data
Station: IMD, Sidhi M.P. ISSN 2320-3862 JMPS 2016; 4(4): 47-53
[2] An Overview of Cement production: How “green” and sustainable is the industry?. Environmental Management and
Sustainable Development. 1. 14 - 37. 10.5296/emsd.v1i2.1872.

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PROPOSAL FOR REHABILITATION WORKS OF ALANGULAM CEMENT FACTORY

  • 1. © 2020 JETIR February 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2 www.jetir.org (ISSN-2349-5162) JETIR2002015 Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) www.jetir.org 100 PROPOSAL FOR REHABILITATION WORKS OF ALANGULAM CEMENT FACTORY 1 M.Shanmugaraj, 2 R.Saravanakumar, 3 G.Arangadurai, 4 P.Pandimuni, 1 Lecturer / Civil, 2 Lecturer / Plastic, 3 Lecturer / Plastic, 4 Lecturer / EEE V.S.V.N Polytechnic College, Virudhunagar, Tamil Nadu, India. Abstract : Cement is the basic material for buildings and civil engineering constructions. Portland cement, the most widely used cement in concrete construction, was patented in 1824. Cement is a fine powdery material untwining silicates of calcium, formed out of raw materials consisting calcium oxide, silica, aluminum oxide and iron oxide. India has an installed capacity of 234 million tons per year, making this is the second highest Alangulam Cement Factory was commissioned during 1970 producing cement by “WET PROCESS”. Due to long run operation of the factory and due to aging of machineries, the unit is unable to operate the Plant with efficient manner. Due to the above reason, the production efficiency is getting reduced and increasing the production cost. The main goal of this article is to increase the production efficiency and reduce the production cost by Rehabilitation works I. INTRODUCTION Alangulam Cement unit was established on 30.11.1966 to install machineries to produce Cement adopting ‘WET PROCESS” method with a capital outlay of 6.77 corers by TIDCO. The commercial production of the plant was commenced on 14.06.1970 The unit commenced its regular production with 2 Kilns operation having Clinker production capacity of 1200 Tonnes/day provided with labour employment of 1700 direct and indirect. In the year 1976, a separate corporation named “TAMILNADU CEMENTS CORPORATION LTD” was formed with Alangulam and Ariyalur Cement Units. The installed capacity of the plant is 4.0 Lakh tones of cement per annum with the average achieved capacity utilization of 75%.Unit has achieved the maximum capacity utilization of 85% in two Kiln operation during the year 1984-85. Due to administrative reasons, the unit is being operated in single steam operation of one Kiln, Raw Mill & Cement Mills, from the year 2003 and the other Kiln-I & Raw Mill-I units have been phased out and removed.Unit has achieved the maximum capacity utilization of 89% in single kiln operation during the year 2005-2006. Unit has achieved the maximum net profit of Rs.515.87 Lakh during the year 2016-2017. Due to administrative reasons and to operate the plant economically, plant operation has been restricted to operate the plant as Cement Grinding Unit with effect from 20.09.2017 LOCATION OF THE UNIT Location of unit is most important factor for to be consideration for successful working of any organization. It also plays vital role in the development of the unit. The total cost of manufacturing cost of any business unit is higher due to the wrong selection of location of their business. The main objective of an industry concern is to maximize the profit by minimising the production cost TAMILNADU CEMENTS CORPORATION LIMITED is situated near Alangulam village near Rajapalayam, Virudhunagar District Alangulam is located in India at the longitude of 77.5 and latitude of 8.86
  • 2. © 2020 JETIR February 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2 www.jetir.org (ISSN-2349-5162) JETIR2002015 Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) www.jetir.org 101 The location of the plant is very beneficial for its existences as the area is surrounded by limestone, which is one of the basic raw materials in cement production. Location factors are very much important in establishing a cement plant. 1. Input In terms of input, about 1.5 tons of limestone is required to produce one ton of cement. Hence location of the plant is based on the limestone deposit. The major cash out flow come by way of royalty and cash payments. India’s estimated total reserve of cement grinding stone is about 90 billon tons. 2. Power It is used in raw material grinding. Clinkerization of lime stone is done in the kiln operation and then clinker is grinding with gypsum to form cement. The older plant required 120 to 130 units per ton of cement produced, while modern energy efficient plants consume 80 to 90 units per ton of cement. 3. Coal Coal is another major input, which along with electricity forms 40% of total cost. There is a several coal shortage for the industry. 4. Labor On growing modernization of plants, the requirement for skilled man power has increased then that of unskilled man power. The cheap availability of labor from the nearby areas has proved to be great help for the company. 5. Transportation It is a very important thing to be kept in mind while deciding the location. It cost widely affects the overall cost. CEMENT MANUFACTURING PROCESS (WET) The history of cement goes back into Roman Empire. The modern day cement. That is Portland cement was first produced by a British stone mason, Joseph Aspdin in 1824, who cooked cement in his kitchen. He heated a mixture of limestone and clay powder in his kitchen, and grind the mixture into powder creating cement, that hardens when mixed with water. The name Portland was given by the inventor as it resembles a stone quarried on the Isle of Portland. The first use of modern day Portland cement was in the tunnel construction in the Thames River in 1828. The manufacture procedures of Portland cement is described below.  Mixing of raw material  Burning  Grinding  Storage and packaging 1. Mixing of raw material The major raw materials used in the manufacture of cement are Calcium, Silicon, Iron and Aluminum. These minerals are used in different form as per the availability of the minerals. Table shows the raw materials for Portland cement manufacture The mixing procedure of the manufacture of cement is done in 2 methods,  Dry process  Wet process Dry process The both calcareous and argillaceous raw materials are firstly crushed in the gyratory crushers to get 2-5cm size pieces separately. The crushed materials are again grinded to get fine particles into ball or tube mill. Each finely grinded material is stored in hopper after screening. Now these powdered minerals are mixed in required proportion to get dry raw mix which is then stored in silos and kept ready to be sent into rotary kiln. Now the raw materials are mixed in specific proportions so that the average composition of the final product is maintained properly. Wet Process The raw materials are firstly crushed and made into powdered form and stored in silos. The clay is then washed in washing mills to remove adhering organic matters found in clay. The powdered limestone and water washed clay are sent to flow in the channels and transfer to grinding mills where they are completely mixed and the paste is formed, i.e., known as slurry. The grinding process can be done in ball or tube mill or even both. Then the slurry is led into collecting basin where composition can be adjusted. The slurry contains around 38-40% water that is stored in storage tanks and kept ready for the rotary kiln.
  • 3. © 2020 JETIR February 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2 www.jetir.org (ISSN-2349-5162) JETIR2002015 Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) www.jetir.org 102 PRODUCTION PROCESS IN ALANGULAM CMENT FACTORY PRODUCTION PROCESS TANCEM follows a specific type of process. The cement passes qualities and grades. According to the mode of preparing the raw mix three different processes can manufacture cement. A. Wet process B. Semidry process C. Dry process. TANCEM uses Wet process cement manufacturing. The total process is divided into various stages which are: Mining The lime stone is mixed from pen cast quarry by conventional drilling and blasting method. The basic raw material for cement manufacture is lime stone. The lime stone is mined in captive mines and transported to primary crusher and picking plant. During the initial periods, the mines namely I Quarry, II Quarry, III Quarry which were operated. After that, ALS mines and PPLM mines are operated. The ALS (HSL Pit) is located at a distance of 200 metres from ALS mines office, which is located at 2km from the factory. Primary Crusher and Picking Plant Limestone, after being blasted, is crushed as it is in the form of boulder up to 1.2 sq. Meters. This is dumped into dump hopper and pushed into the single rooter impact crushed. Its rated capacity is 600-1200 MT per hour. The Primary Crusher and Picking Plant crushes the limestone received from the mines in two stages to the required size and purify by removing the unwanted materials granite stone and earth material. The primary Crusher is of one number Double toggle Jaw crusher type with a crushing capacity of 325 tonnes per hour, supplied by L&T. the maximum feed size of 1.5 X 1.2 metre limestone boulder is crushed in to 250mm size. Secondary Crusher is of one number single Rotar Impactor having crushing capacity of 250 tonnes per hour, supplied by L&T. The feed size of 250mm is crushed in to 25mm size and is stored in 4 No storage buckers each having capacity of 60 tonnes and transported to plant through Tippers. RAW Mill The received Crushed Limestone powder is fed in to the Raw Mill along with 33% of water, where it is ground to the required fineness and comes out as Slurry. The slurry is taken to the mixer basin through silos, where it is stirred well by compressed air for getting homogenous mixing of different grade slurry to obtain kiln feed slurry quality of around 75% TCO3. This slurry is pumped to Ferris wheel feeder to feed in to the kiln.
  • 4. © 2020 JETIR February 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2 www.jetir.org (ISSN-2349-5162) JETIR2002015 Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) www.jetir.org 103 Rotary kiln. The Kiln is a main production unit, where the slurry is burnt and CLINKER is produced. The Technical specification of the Kiln are Type : Rotary Kiln wet process) Size : 3.75m dia x 3.4m dia x 3.75m dia x 135m long Supplier : KCP Limited Capacity : 630 TPD per Unit No. of piers : 6 Kiln Slope : 20 Drive : 220 HP DC / 0-1000 rpm No. of Units : One The slurry fed in the Kiln is burnt in to clinker with the heat produced by injecting pulverized fine coal for continuous firing and maintaining temperatures at various zones. The hot clinker coming out from kiln gets cooled, while passing through grate cooler where cold air is passed through cooler grates. Clinker cooling, crushing and storage: The hot clinker coming out from kiln is cooled slowly by means of air provided by fans. This clinker is crushed in clinker crusher and then stored in storage yard with help of deep bucket conveyor.
  • 5. © 2020 JETIR February 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2 www.jetir.org (ISSN-2349-5162) JETIR2002015 Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) www.jetir.org 104 Cement Mill: The crushed clinker is taken into the clinker hopper in cement mill where it is added with gypsum and fly ash from their hoppers with the help of weight feeders. The mixture is then taken to the bell conveyor and fed on to the ball mill. Two H.T. motors rotate the ball mill. It contains metal ball mill of various sizes like 40mm, 60mm, 70mm, etc. The mill rotates and hence the mixture of clinker, gypsum, and fly ash grinds in the mill. The fly material is taken out from the mill by creating an air drought. This the final product cement stored in storage vessels known as cement silo. The Cement Mills are the most vital production unit, where cement is produced by grinding clinker required additives of fly ash and gypsum. The technical specifications of the cement mill are Type : Open circuit Ball mill Size : 3m dia x 12.75m length in 3 Compartments Capacity : 35 TPH Supplier : KCP Limited Drive : 1500 KW / 1000 rpm No. of Units : Two For grinding Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) a mixture of 95% clinker and 5 % Gypsum is fed in to the Mill, whereas for grinding Portland Pozolana Cement (PPC) a mixture of 60% Clinker, 35 % Fly ash and 5% Gypsum is fed in to the Mill. The Cement discharged at Cement Mill outlet is conveyed to Cement storage silos with the help of FK Pumps. The venting of Mill is passed through Cyclonic separators and Electro Static Precipitator (ESP) to the stack. Cement Storage Silos There are 4 Nos of identical RCC Storage Silos of 12m dia x 20m height and each having storage capacity of 3000 MT of Cement. Packing plant Packing plant is the final stage of the cement manufacturing. The bulk Cement stocked in Cement Silos are extracted and packed in Polythene / Paper bags of 50Kgs. in net weight in the Rotary Electronic packer. The packer machine is used to fill the cement bags. When the cement weight of 50kg is filled in the bag, the bag falls automatically in the conveyer belt. The conveyer belts transfer these cement bags from packer to either truck or wagon directly. Also, there is facility to load the bulk cement into bucket tanker truck, which carries the bulk cement to the port from where it is exported abroad. The Technical specification of Rotary Electronic Packer are given below Type : BRS-E Single Discharge Make` : FLSmidth Year : 2013 Capacity : 90 TPH Load : 34.5 KW No. of Units : One SIMPLE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM OF ALANGULAM CEMENT FACTORY Sanctioned Maximum demand is 2970 KVA Transformer capacity =4 Transformer X 1500 KVA EB Supply incoming single line layout
  • 6. © 2020 JETIR February 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2 www.jetir.org (ISSN-2349-5162) JETIR2002015 Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) www.jetir.org 105 Now the plant is running with simple system of manufacturing Cement with 2 Cement Mills only each Cement Mill is coupled with 1500KW synchronous motor. The synchronous motor initially started as slip ring induction motor with 5 steps of rotor resistance. Each and every step of resistance is reduced with Timers after 5th (last) resistance dc supply fed to the rotor winding. This dc supply generated from the dc generator which is also coupled with the cement mill synchronous motor. DC exciter voltage is 28.5 V with 600A. PRODUCTION Details at M/s Alangulam Cement works YEAR CLINKER in MT CEMENT in MT CAPACITY OF UTILISATION (%) 1969 - 1970 16,183 811 - 1970 - 1971 135,231 89621 39 1971 - 1972 273,816 306158 77 1972 - 1973 249,753 293525 73 1973 - 1974 258,140 280382 70 1974 - 1975 189,110 200070 50 1975 - 1976 254,412 262729 66 1976 - 1977 326,021 338445 85 1977 - 1978 286,890 309105 77 1978 - 1979 297,040 319305 80 1979 - 1980 249,050 274400 69 1980 - 1981 267,561 301148 75 1981 - 1982 274,102 293515 73 1982 - 1983 232,251 280750 70 1983 - 1984 209,474 243445 61 1984 - 1985 293,413 340030 85 1985 - 1986 280,575 320672 80 1986 - 1987 266,918 312741 78
  • 7. © 2020 JETIR February 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2 www.jetir.org (ISSN-2349-5162) JETIR2002015 Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) www.jetir.org 106 1987 - 1988 247,337 291009 73 1988 - 1989 254,500 276725 69 1989 - 1990 273,840 316130 79 1990 - 1991 229,189 236765 59 1991 - 1992 247,249 284213 71 1992 - 1993 238,522 268041 67 1993 - 1994 240,600 269413 67 1994 - 1995 238,562 271809 38 1995 - 1996 210,679 242404 61 1996 - 1997 190,331 226594 57 1997 - 1998 161,684 246725 62 1998 - 1999 262,704 300378 75 1999 - 2000 181,347 285558 71 2000 - 2001 216,602 302496 76 2001 - 2002 196,296 280156 70 2002 - 2003 118,288 245376 61 2003 - 2004 149,101 267020 67 2004 - 2005 124,170 235670 81 2005 - 2006 134,275 258025 89 2006 - 2007 114,101 200140 69 2007 – 2008 90,005 139195 48 2008 – 2009 115,455 143895 50 2009 – 2010 165,565 214505 74 2010 – 2011 163,866 203040 70 2011 - 2012 106,661 134640 46 2012 – 2013 87,656 108870 41 2013 – 2014 70,975 103253 36 2014 – 2015 42,560 61190 21 2015 – 2016 119,196 167154 58 2016 – 2017 101,760 142105 49 2017 – 2018 0 75260 28 2018 - 2019 0 80235 28 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000 350000 400000 1970-1971 1972-1973 1974-1975 1976-1977 1978-1979 1980-1981 1982-1983 1984-1985 1986-1987 1988-1989 1990-1991 1992-1993 1994-1995 1996-1997 1998-1999 2000-2001 2002-2003 2004-2005 2006-2007 2008-2009 2010-2011 2012-2013 2014-2015 2016-2017 2018-2019 YEAR VS CEMENT PRODUCTION
  • 8. © 2020 JETIR February 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2 www.jetir.org (ISSN-2349-5162) JETIR2002015 Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) www.jetir.org 107 Cement Products of TANCEM Cement It manufactures and supply 33 Grade Portland Pozolana Cement (PPC) in the brand name of "Arasu Super Star". MARKETING ACTIVITIES Tamilnadu Cements Corporation Limited, a State Government undertaking, is manufacturing high quality Arasu Super star Brand cement of PPC, OPC 43 Grade and OPC 53 Grade as per B.I.S. in their two factories. The cement manufactured by TANCEM is being used by both Government Departments and general public through private Stockist. A number of Government buildings such as Collectorates, TNHB Towers, Shopping complexes, Bridges, Power plants, etc. have been constructed exclusively using “Arasu Cement”. “ARASU SUPER STAR” is the most liked and reputed brand among public. Some of the important constructions where Arasu cement was used. 1. Anna Fly Over, Chennai. (Constructed during 1973) 2. TNHB Shopping Complex, Anna Nagar, Chennai. 3. TNHB Tower Block, Taylor’s Road, Chennai. 4. Napier’s Bridge Extension, Chennai. 5. North Chennai Thermal Power Plant, Ennore. 6. Thalamuthu Natarajan Buildings, Chennai. 7. Number of new buildings for various collectorates like Thiruvannamalai, Dindigul, Vellore and Villupuram. 8. Vellore Court, TANCEM supplies cement to Government Departments and also to General public through its Stockists’ network. TANCEM markets cement not only in Tamil Nadu but also to Kerala. PROPOSAL FOR REHABILITATION WORKS OF ALANGULAM CEMENT FACTORY Alangulam Cement Factory was commissioned during 1970 producing cement by “WET PROCESS”. Due to long run operation of the factory and due to aging of machineries, the unit is unable to operate the Plant with efficient manner. Due to the above reason, the production efficiency is getting reduced and increasing the production cost. Based on the inspection the following Rehabilitation works has to be done  Reconditioning of Raw Mill  Changing of Kiln shell to a length of 23.05m to adopt Dry Process  Repairing of ESP ducting &casing including thermal insulation.  Installation of Mechanical Conveying System  Repairing works in Cement Mill I and Cement Mill II  Repairing Dumpers The approximate Estimate for the above said works is Rs. 7.00 Crores. By carrying out the rehabilitation works, the following immediate benefits may be achieved.  Increasing the Raw Mill productivity by which the electricity consumption can be reduced.  In Kiln, changing of 23.05m length will increase the productivity by which the variable cost for coal, power, spare parts and firebricks for producing clinker can be reduced.  As per the direction of Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board, while the Kiln is in operation, we can operate the ESP, control the dust and protect the environment.  Conveying the cement through Belt conveyors (Mechanical Conveying System) from Cement Mill to Cement Silos, the power consumption for producing one tone of cement can be reduced to 5 units. The expenditure towards the cost of spares and maintenance can also be controlled.  By attending to the repairing work in Cement Mill II, the productivity can be increased.  By attending to the repairing work and the quantity of limestone transported from the Mines to the Plant can be increased. CONCLUSION By completing the above works, the Plant will be run efficiently with a payback period of 3 years. After implementation of the Rehabilitation works the following expenditure can be reduced. Sl. No Description For producing one tone cement Present expenditure incurred Anticipated expenditure to be incurred after completion Profit on expenditure in cement production 1 Electricity 105 Units 94 Units Rs.88.00 2 Coal 31% 30% Rs. 30.00 By Completing the rehabilitation works at Alangulam Cement Works, the Plant can be operated efficiently.
  • 9. © 2020 JETIR February 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2 www.jetir.org (ISSN-2349-5162) JETIR2002015 Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) www.jetir.org 108 I. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Hereby we Sincerely thanks Mr . K.MARIKANI , Unit Head / General Manager, M/s TAMILNADU CEMENTS CORPORATION LTD for giving this wonderful opportunity to undergo Industrial Training at Alangulam Unit, Tamilnadu. . REFERENCES [1] A Review Article on Manufacturing Process of Cement, Environmental Attributes, Topography and Climatological Data Station: IMD, Sidhi M.P. ISSN 2320-3862 JMPS 2016; 4(4): 47-53 [2] An Overview of Cement production: How “green” and sustainable is the industry?. Environmental Management and Sustainable Development. 1. 14 - 37. 10.5296/emsd.v1i2.1872.