The world is becoming mostly urban % 1950 1990 2001 2025World 30 45 48 58MEDC 53 74 76 83LEDC 17 34 41 56 Study the table Which parts of the world are experiencing the most rapid growth in their populations?
Growth of citiesTwo types of city….• Millionaire cities – population >1 million – Back in 1850, there were only 2 ‘millionaire’ cities (London and Paris) – By 1950, increased to 70 – By 2003, increased to 408• Megacities – Population >10 million – First to appear in LEDCs – 1970, only 3 megacities – There are around 25 megacities – By 2015, maybe 60 megacities
The distribution of megacities…• Prior to 1950, largest cities were found in MEDCs• Recently, the highest growth has been in LEDCs• Look at fig 2 (geoactive), describe the change in the distribution of millionaire/megacities
Where are the world’s largest cities?There are 17 megacities in the world – these are cities with a population of over 10 million
Task – how has the world been growing since the 1950’s?http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/world/06/ur banisation/html/urbanisation.stm1) Find the BBC map of world megacities showing a timeline from 1955-20152) Investigate the pages, use your mouse to hover over facts3) Fill in this table using the data on the mega cities map4) Summarise the prediction for urban population by 2015
Total % city % rural List 3 biggest Describe the location of megacities (continents / HIC / world dweller dwellers cities LIC etc) pop s1955 2756m 30% 70%19852005
Why has this change taken place?Push and pull factors!Watch the video from channel 4 news and answer the questions on Lagos
What is the typical land use pattern in an LIC?
Case Study:Rio – a city of contrasts Click for Olympics!
What should I be able to do at the end of this case study?• Describe the location of Rio de Janeiro and the main favelas• Understand WHY people have moved into the city• Describe/explain the problems that are found in the favelas• Describe/explain the solutions to the problems
Rio is a city of contrasts:Beaches and luxury housing ofIpanema.Problems of rapid urban growth:favelas, traffic and crime..
Can you think of any physical factorswhich have lead to over crowing in Rio?
In Rio:0.6 million homeless,street dwellers.1 million pop favelas.1 million pop poor localauthority housing.Globally slum populationsare growing by 25 milliona year.
There are 750 favelas in Rio.The largest is Rocinha pop 100,000.Favelas are illegal settlements, lackingbasic services (no water, sewerage orelectricity).Housing is constructed from any materials.In Rio favelas are built on steep slopes onmarginal land.
Study the land use model for a LIC…In your books:1) Describe the patterns shown in the model2) Explain the pattern
Aims for today…1) Finish off labelling LEDC land use map2) Identify the problems that urbanisation brings to LIC cities (video time)3) Categorise these problems into Social/economic/environmental4) If time, start Rio…
TASK: On a blank double page in your book, cut out and stick in the blank map of an LEDCcity, then add the following statements to the correct zones Informal industries become established along major The wealthy residents This area is where rural communication routes continue to live in these migrants typically live, in a through the outer areas, but are shanty town or favela. They zones, such as tyre surrounded by high lack basic amenities, and are repairs, cafes and walls, and security built on poor quality and workshops – there is a unsafe land reliable flow of business The CBD has similar Some wealthy residents Greater traffic Houses in the Outer Zone characteristics to MEDCs, move outwards from congestion and are the opposite to those offering entertainment, the Inner zone, living in competition for in MEDCs – ie: the quality retail and business expensive and well space are a concern rapidly decreases with opportunities guarded communities in LEDC cities distance from the CBD The quality of housing is considerably poorer than Large & luxurious houses Planned industries similar areas in MEDCs. Often The middle zone , or were built in pre-industrial are found in the houses are self-built, and are the ‘periferia’ shares and colonial times around the inner zone, often unlikely to have basic amenities characteristics to CBD by along lines of such as running water and MEDCs, providing administrators, merchants communication electricity “inbetween housing” and the wealthy
What are the problems found in LEDCs?Create the following headings in your books, and add to them during the video:• Housing• Health• Education• Transport• Social• Tour of Rochina• Favela wars
Definition of a Favela “A residential area of 60 or morefamilies living in basic accommodationthat lacks basic services, and who have no legal right to the land”
Solving Rio’s problems – Poor quality housing1) Self-help housing in Rochina (The Favela Barrio project) - Original poor quality housing replaced with bricks and tiles, sewerage, electricity, water butts may be installed, and the houses are extended where possible - The government provide the materials, and the community join forces to carry out the work. This has many advantages….(what are they?!) - In return, the residents pay a small tax to the government. The favela now has a formal status Facts!- Took place in 1990s- $200 million spent in 60/600 favelas- 16 mid size sites were chosen first
Solving Rio’s problems – Overcrowding2) The new town of Barra da Tijuca• In an attempt to find more space, Rio’s wealthy have moved out from the centre of Rio (counter-urbanisation)• Barra da Tijuca is 20km along the coast from Rio – but a road had to be built through the moutains. – This area had been relatively cut off since the 1970s• By 2000, the town had a population of 140,000 Cleaning up the litter in the favelas – including the odd body!
Summary of the solutions to Rio’s problems• Forced evictions of squatter settlements – To clear land for formal development• Low cost housing – Very basic breeze block housing constructed. People re- housed in them. City of God• Site and Service – Land is cleared and building plots prepared with water and electricity.• Self Help Scheme – Existing settlements provided with water, sewage and rubbish collection. Building materials provided for residents to upgrade their homes (Favela Barrio Plan)• Counter-urbanisation - encourage upwardly mobile people to move out to the new town of Barra da Tijuca, reducing overcrowing in Rio• Rural Development – To reduce rural to urban migration• Increasing policing - to stop new squatter settlement• Raise taxes - on the rich to pay for improving housing for the poor• Local initiatives – such as Afro-Reggae using music and culture to keep kids away from crime and drugs
Task… You are the new governor of Rio – born and raised in the Favelas, your mission is to begin to solve the issues in RioThe challenge!You must make a proposal to the government in theform of an A3 poster, proposing how you are going tosolve Rio’s issues. You must include: - Self help schemes - The Barra da Tijuca - One of the other schemes mentioned For each scheme: - Outline the problem (give details!) - Explain how the scheme will solve the issue - Briefly evaluate each scheme
Study the picture of a favela1) Name one problem caused by the physical environment2) Name one problem caused by high population growth3) Describe the benefits of living in a favela.4) Describe the problems caused by the growth of large shanty towns in LICs.5) Explain how governments in LICs have managed shanty towns.
Characteristics• In the centre around the historical core (e.g. cathedral, castle)• Contains skyscrapers and other tall buildings• Contains: – The largest offices and shops including department stores – The widest variety of goods on sale – High land values, rents and rates – The main place of work by day – The most accessible location where the main roads meet and has the main railway station• The main difference between the CBD and other zones is that few people live here
Main Functions• Shops: – The department stores and national chains are in the very centre of the CBD – The smaller, often privately owned, shops are located on the edges of the CBD (The frame) – Some shops, e.g. clothing, shoe and jewellery tend to cluster together to take advantage of competition – Other shops are more dispersed e.g. newsagents and chemists
• Offices: – Banks, building societies, solicitors, company HQ, etc. occupy the upper floors above shops• Culture and entertainment: – Some parts ‘come alive’ at night as theatres, cinemas, clubs, bars and restaurants attract customers e.g. London’s West End
Characteristics• Located next to the historical core• An area of old housing and industry• Contains a mixture of land uses: – Old high-density terraced houses – Some are 3 or 4 storeys high which are often let out as flats and badly maintained – Old and sometimes abandoned factories – Areas of derelict land around railway sidings, unused docks and canals – High-rise flats (many built in the 1960s) – Pockets of smart new developments e.g. London Docklands• The main difference between the inner city and other urban zones is its generally run-down appearance
Characteristics• Normally cover the largest area• Part of the urban area that has grown outwards from the old centre across what was once countryside• Predominantly residential: – Along the sides of main roads are inter-war semi-detached (S-D) housing and small shopping parades – Behind the main roads are more modern housing estates (S-D and detached (D)) – Some are private estates others were local authority built (some have been bought by the residents) – The houses usually have gardens and garages and space between them – More recent and expensive housing is in the outer suburbs, where density is lower• There is less change in this zone than in the other 3; the houses are good for many more years and virtually all the land suitable for building has already been used
Suburban Housing – Semi-detached inter/post war
Characteristics• On and around the edge of the built-up area• Partly urban, partly countryside• A mixture of land uses: – Some traditional rural land uses e.g. farmland and woodland – Others are rural businesses targeted at people living in nearby urban areas e.g. garden centres and farm shops – Recreation e.g. golf courses and stables – Public utilities e.g. water storage and sewerage farms – New urban developments e.g. out-of-town supermarkets, shopping centres and business parks – New housing in villages leads to old settlements growing and becoming part of the urban built-up area• This zone has many conflicts between developers who want to use the greenfield sites for building homes and planners and conservationists who want to preserve as much countryside as possible
In which urban zone/s are you likely to find… a shop open at 2am? the highest buildings? cul-de-sacs? a castle? a museum? the cathedral? an old warehouse? houses with large gardens? a department store? a small corner shop? golf courses? Someone who wants to mug you?
Urban Structure ExerciseLook at the photos that follow. For each one: •Describe the area it shows •Identify which zone of the city you think it is •Name a part of London with similar characteristicsCut the photos out and stick them in your books beside your answersPhoto 1 Photo 2
Task...• On the map of Luton, study the 6 squares closely• Based on the road layouts, nearby services, and the shape of the housing, identify what zone of the city it is in
Urban Zones ICT exercise• Double click on the “urban zones” file below in the work folderon the student “V” drive• V:workGeography4th Yearsettlement• Look at the summary model of urban land uses and read thetext on the Urban Land Uses page that appears.
Look at the maps below, and refer to the textbook. For each one, suggest thetypes of houses and ages of housesChose 2 areas and explain the differences between them.Include: type/design/age of housing; road pattern; land use; socio-economic groups;amenities, quality of environment Feature Map 1 Map 2 Map 3 Map 4 Location in city Type, appearance, age of housing 2 main types of land use Main type of tenure 2 main types of socio economic groups % born outside the % with amenities
Urban land use and functional zones• The location of each zone and the distribution of each functional zone are related to several factors• Land value and space: – Land values are highest and available sites are more limited in the CBD where competition for land is greatest – As land value decreases rapidly towards the urban boundary then both the amount of space and the number of available sites increase
• Age: – As towns develop outwards, the oldest buildings were near to the city centre (although many of these have now been replaced) and the newest ones on the outskirts• Accessibility: – The CBD, where the main routes from the suburbs and surrounding towns meet, has been the easiest place to reach from all parts of the city although ease is now often reduced due to increased congestion• Wealth of inhabitants: – The poorer members of the community tend to live in cheaper housing near to the CBD (with its shops) and the inner city (where most jobs used to be found). These people are less likely to be able to afford the higher transport (private or public) and housing costs of places nearer the city boundary
• Changes in demand: – Land use and function change with time: • Nineteenth century industry was located next to the CBD whereas modern industry prefers edge-of-city sites • The main land use demand in the nineteenth century was for industry and low-cost housing. Today it is for industry, shops and better-quality housing, all in a more pleasant environment, and open space
Using the attached sheet, in google maps, search the streets and explore the area in street view! Visit these areas (not in order): • Colmore Row & Paradise Street • Alderbrook Road, Solihull • Edmund Road, Saltley or Church Street, Lozells • Legge Lane • Upper Highgate Street • Broad Street • Wellington Road, Edgbaston • School Road, Hall Green • Ithon Grove & Meadowsweet Avenue, Kings Norton
With your partner, choose two areas of the city to explain the major land use Urban Zone Map extract List land uses Explain major land use CBD Old Inner cityZone in transition Prestige inner city redevelopment 1960s Comprehensive redevelopment Inner Suburbs (PreWW1, Edwardian ) Interwarsuburbia 1930s Outer SuburbsOuter city council estate
Population Ethnic origin Key % from BME GroupKey Number of People Below 10.0% Up to 20,999 10.1% to 20.0% 21,000 to 22,999 20.1% to 40.0% 23,000 to 24,999 40.1% to 60.0% 25,000 to 26,999 60.1% and above 27,000 and above
UnemploymentKey % Unemployed None to 10.0% 10.1% to 15.0% 15.1% to 20.0% 20.1% and above
Is Birmingham segregated?1. Which wards in Birmingham are most densely populated? Why?2. Where are the highest proportions of ethnic minority immigrant populations? Why?3. Where is the highest unemployment? Why?4. What causes segregation?5. Is Birmingham ethnically segregated? Read this article and give a reasoned answer using data and ward names.• http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/1234984.stm• http://bigcityplan.birmingham.gov.uk/gcly-highgate.php
Manufacturing jobs Service jobs Key Service Sector JobsKey Manufacturing Jobs None to 5,000 None to 1,000 5,100 to 10,000 1,100 to 2,000 10,100 to 15,000 2,100 to 3,000 15,100 and over 3,100 and over
Key terms:Counter-urbanisation - the process of peoplemoving from cities and towns into thecountrysideSuburbanised Villages - villages growing insize and taking on more urban characteristics
The causes of suburbanisation can be explained by push and pull factors similar to the ones causing changes to the rural- urban fringe. Can you remember them?Push factors Pull factors• Congestion • Perceived better quality of• High rates of air, noise and life visual pollution • Safer, more pleasant environment• High crime rates • Less pollution• High land values • More open space• Lack of space • Lower land values and cheaper housing • Room for businesses to expand
Can you think of any consequences for the village? Sort the following into POSITIVE and NEGATIVE consequences: New housing developments Growth in population Growth of village New business units Becoming more like the suburbs of a city Village becomes like a ‘dormitory’ village for commuters leading to a drop in services Increase in people owning a second home Loss of community Increase in house prices
Let’s solve a mystery!• Background• Thurston is a village 5km east of Bury St Edmunds in Suffolk
Task: Find out why Thurston Primary School needs a new teacher!• Work in pairs• Sort the statements into two piles of relevant and irrelevant to the question• Rank the relevant statements• Use them to write up your report and solve the mystery.
Watch this! Watch this! Urban sprawlWho are the winners and losers?
You are going to have a debate on Tuesday• You will each be given a role: – Dairy Farmer – Young couple wanting to set up a small holding – Developer wanting to build a business park – Conservationalist & environmental campaigner – Young family living in the outer suburbs – Representative from the planning authority• You will be discussing the advantages and disadvantages of urban sprawl for the role that you have been given. – Today – discuss your viewpoint with a partner and write ideas down in your books under ADVANTAGES and DISADVANTAGES