•Why HRM is important
•Introduction, definitions and approaches
•Human Resource planning
•Recruitment and selection
•Induction and orientation
•Maintaining Personnel (Retention)
Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs5
6. What is HRM and why it is
Part I (Brainstorming)
7. Why is Human Resource Management Important
• Human resource management is the management of the people who
work in an organization. They can be managers, employees, project
officers, field workers, coordinators. Since the organization is run by
these people, they are considered to be a ―resource‖ – ‗a human
resource.‘ Like we use funds to manage a project, we also need to
use these ‗human resources‘ or the ‗people‘ to manage the
Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs7
―Human resource management is the function performed in
an organization that facilitates the most effective use of
people(employees) to achieve organizational and individual
Ivancevich and Glueck
9. Basic HR Concept
• Getting results
• The bottom line of managing
• HR creates value by engaging
in activities that produce
the employee behaviors
the company needs to
achieve its strategic
10. History and evolution of HRM (main
Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs10
11. Scientific management approach (mid
• Fredrick Taylor- father of scientific
• Study of motion and fatigue
• ‗one-best-way‘ to accomplish the task
• Piece-rate system
• Workers were solely motivated through
• Workers to maxamise production in
order to satisfy their one work related
• Failed to bring behavioural changes and
increase in productivity
Human relations approach
• The hawthorne studies – 1930-40‘s
• Growing strength of unions
• Social and psychological factors also
affected employee productivity
• Relations and respect >> High
Why human relations approach Failed??
• Did not recognize individual differences
• Did not recognize need for job structure
• Failed to recognize other factors that
could influence employee satisfaction
12. Human Resources Approach
• Employees are assets for
• Policies, programmes and
practices - help in work and
• Organization goal & needs of
employee are capable of
existing in harmony
• should create contributive work
environment to reap maximum
Strategic Human Resource
• The linking of HRM with
strategic goals and objectives
in order to improve business
performance and develop
organizational cultures that
foster innovation and flexibility.
• Formulating and executing HR
systems—HR policies and
activities—that produce the
employee competencies and
behaviors the company needs
to achieve its strategic aims.
13. Challenges of HRM
• Individuals differ from one
• Customization of stimulation
• Demanding personnel
14. Personnel Mistakes
• Hire the wrong person for the job
• Experience high turnover
• Have your people not doing their best
• Waste time with useless interviews
• Have your company in court because of discriminatory actions
• Have your company cited by OSHA for unsafe practices
• Have some employees think their salaries are unfair and inequitable relative to
others in the organization
• Allow a lack of training to undermine your department‘s effectiveness
• Commit any unfair labor practices
15. Line and Staff Aspects of HRM
• Line manager
• A manager who is authorized to direct the work of subordinates and is
responsible for accomplishing the organization‘s tasks.
• Staff manager
• A manager who assists and advises line managers.
16. HR and Authority
• The right to make decisions, direct others‘ work, and give orders.
• Implied authority
• The authority exerted by an HR manager by virtue of others‘ knowledge that he
or she has access to top management.
• Line authority
• The authority exerted by an HR manager by directing the activities of the
people in his or her own department and in service areas.
17. Functions of the HR Manager
• A line function
• The HR manager directs the activities of the people in his or her own
department and in related service areas (like the plant cafeteria).
• A coordinative function
• HR managers also coordinate personnel activities, a duty often referred to as
• Staff (assist and advise) functions
• Assisting and advising line managers is the heart of the HR manager‘s job.
18. Line Managers‘ HRM Responsibilities
1. Placing the right person on the right job
2. Starting new employees in the organization (orientation)
3. Training employees for jobs new to them
4. Improving the job performance of each person
5. Gaining creative cooperation and developing smooth working relationships
6. Interpreting the firm‘s policies and procedures
7. Controlling labor costs
8. Developing the abilities of each person
9. Creating and maintaining department morale
10. Protecting employees‘ health and physical condition
19. Cooperative Line and Staff HR Management
1. The line manager‘s responsibility is to specify the qualifications
employees need to fill specific positions.
2. HR staff then develops sources of qualified applicants and conduct
initial screening interviews
3. HR administers the appropriate tests and refers the best applicants
to the supervisor (line manager), who interviews and selects the
ones he or she wants.
20. Employee Advocacy
• HR must take responsibility for:
• Clearly defining how management should be treating employees.
• Making sure employees have the mechanisms required to contest unfair
• Represent the interests of employees within the framework of its primary
obligation to senior management.
• An HR specialist can help providing information on market statistics of personnel
availability, pay rates etc.
• Interpret the complex labor law and legislations that‘s are applicable in day-to-
• Carry out certain HR activities like recruitment , compensation, etc.
• Training and development activities are planned and conducted and
performance appraisal are done.
• Also to ensure that other managers who undertake such activities are
well equipped to do so.
• Handling problems due to lack of motivation, lack of training, job
misfit or grievances related to pay.
• Responsible for ensuring that all members of the management perform
their respective roles concerned with the effective use of human
23. Functions of HRM
Functions of HRM
Planning Organizing Staffing Directing Controlling
•it is an ongoing
of needs of
employee & to
are part of
focus is on
control of task .
In this function
and authority to
•It is filling the
and keeping it
activity of this
•it is process of
contribution . It
•It is establishing
26. Emerging role or HRM
• Value of Human Resource
• Competitive advantage
• Human Resource Accounting – It is
measurement of the cost and value of people
for an organization
“It is the competence and attitude of the human resource
that can make or break a business.”
27. HR and Competitive Advantage
• Competitive advantage
• Any factors that allow an organization to differentiate its product or service
from those of its competitors to increase market share.
• Superior human resources are an important source of competitive advantage
29. Achieving Strategic Fit
• Michael Porter
• Emphasizes the ―fit‖ point of view that all of the firm‘s activities must be
tailored to or fit its strategy, by ensuring that the firm‘s functional strategies
support its corporate and competitive strategies.
• Gary Hamel and C. K. Prahalad
• Argue for ―stretch‖ in leveraging resources—supplementing what you have and
doing more with what you have—can be more important than just fitting the
strategic plan to current resources.
31. Human resource accounting
• Human resource accounting
is measurement of the cost
and value of the people for
• Human resource accounting
helps management to value
its human resource and use
them with discretion and
32. HR Metrics
• Absence Rate
[(Number of days absent in month) ÷ (Average number of employees during mo.) ×
(number of workdays)] × 100
• Cost per Hire
(Advertising + Agency Fees + Employee Referrals + Travel cost of applicants and
staff + Relocation costs + Recruiter pay and benefits) ÷ Number of Hires
• Health Care Costs per Employee
Total cost of health care ÷ Total Employees
• HR Expense Factor
HR expense ÷ Total operating expense
33. HR Metrics (cont‘d)
• Human Capital ROI
Revenue − (Operating Expense − [Compensation cost + Benefit cost]) ÷
(Compensation cost + Benefit cost)
• Human Capital Value Added
Revenue − (Operating Expense − ([Compensation cost + Benefit Cost]) ÷ Total
Number of FTE
• Revenue Factor
Revenue ÷ Total Number of FTE
• Time to fill
Total days elapsed to fill requisitions ÷ Number hired
34. HR Metrics (cont‘d)
• Training Investment Factor
Total training cost ÷ Headcount
• Turnover Costs
Cost to terminate + Cost per hire + Vacancy Cost + Learning curve loss
• Turnover Rate
[Number of separations during month ÷ Average number of employees during
month] × 100
• Workers‘ Compensation Cost per Employee
Total WC cost for Year ÷ Average number of employees
35. Measuring HR‘s Contribution
• The HR Scorecard
• Shows the quantitative standards, or ―metrics‖ the firm uses to
measure HR activities.
• Measures the employee behaviors resulting from these activities.
• Measures the strategically relevant organizational outcomes of
those employee behaviors.
36. Creating a Strategy-oriented HR System
• Components of the HR process
• HR professionals who have strategic and other skills
• HR policies and activities that comprise the HR system itself
• Employee behaviors and competencies that the company‘s strategy requires.
The Basic Architecture of HR
Source: Adapted from Brian Becker et al., The HR Scorecard: Linking People,
Strategy, and Performance (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2001), p. 12.
38. The High-Performance Work System
• High-performance work system (HPWS) practices.
• High-involvement employee practices (such as job enrichment and team-based
• High commitment work practices (such as improved employee development,
communications, and disciplinary practices)
• Flexible work assignments.
• Other practices include those that foster skilled workforces and expanded
opportunities to use those skills.
41. Why structure ???
• What structure signifies?
• No directions
• Leads to confusion
42. Mechanistic Vs organic organization
• Rigid structure
• Employees are tied by
rules & regulations
• High degree of
• Suitable for operating
in static environment
• Decision-making is
done by superiors
• Ex: Public sector in the
• Flexible structure
• Employees are not tied
by rules & regulations
• Decentralized style of
• Suitable for operating
• Decision-making is
done by junior level
• Ex: Marico`s Saffola
44. Tall Vs Flat structure
PM PM PM PM
45. RESPONSIBILITY, AUTHORITY &
It is the obligation of a manager to carry out the
duties assigned to him.
It refers to the right to give orders and the power
to exact obedience from others in the process of
The employee's answerability on using the
authority in discharging the responsibility is termed
46. LINE AND STAFF FUNCTIONS
• Departments or employees of a
firm that perform core
• Contributes directly to the
business of the firm
• Ex: Manufacturing and
• Departments or employees of a
firm that perform a support
• Contributes indirectly to the
business of the firm
• Ex: HR and Finance
48. What is HRP
• Process of anticipating and making provision
for the movement of people into, within, and
out of an organization
• Human resource planning is
a process by which an
organization ensures that
• it has the right number and
kinds of people
• at the right place
• at the right time
• capable of effectively and
efficiently completing those
tasks that will help the
organization achieve its
overall strategic objectives.
53. Organizational plans
Identify future human
Compare with the
current HR inventory
Determine the redundant
Determine the numbers,
levels & criticality of vacancies
Analyze the cost & time involved
in managing the demand
Analyze the cost & time
required for managing surplus
Choose the resources &
methods of recruitment
54. Assessing current human resources and
• Job analysis
• HR inventory – HRIS
• Generate a fairly accurate
picture existing situation
55. Job Analysis
• Job Analysis is a systematic exploration
of the activities within a job.
• It defines and documents the duties,
responsibilities and accountabilities of a
job and the conditions under which a
job is performed.
56. Outputs of job analysis
• Job Descriptions
• Written statement of what
jobholder does, how it is done,
under what conditions and why.
• Common format: title; duties;
authority and responsibilities.
• Used to describe the job to
applicants, to guide new
employees, and to evaluate
• Job Specifications
• States minimum acceptable
• Used to select employees who have
the essential qualifications.
• Job Evaluations
• Specify relative value of each job in
• Used to design equitable
57. Types of Information Collected
• Work activities
• Human behaviors
• Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids
• Performance standards
• Job context
• Human requirements
58. Uses of Job Analysis Information
• Recruitment and Selection
• Performance Appraisal
• Discovering Unassigned Duties
• EEO Compliance
59. Job Analysis Methods
• Observation method – job analyst watches employees directly or reviews film of workers on
• Individual interview method – a team of job incumbents is selected and extensively
• Group interview method – a number of job incumbents are interviewed simultaneously.
• Structured questionnaire method – workers complete a specifically designed questionnaire.
• Technical conference method – uses supervisors with an extensive knowledge of the job.
• Diary method – job incumbents record their daily activities.
• The position analysis questionnaire (PAQ)
• The Department of Labor (DOL) procedure
• Functional job analysis: Takes into account the extent to which instructions, reasoning,
judgment, and mathematical and verbal ability are necessary for performing job tasks.
The best results are usually achieved with some combination of methods.
• Compare future needs with current availabity
• Analyze companies change plan
• Forecasting methods used are Time Series Analysis, Regression
Analysis and Productivity Ratios
61. Linking Organizational Strategy to Human
• Ensures that people are available to meet the requirements set
during strategic planning.
• Assessing current human resources
• A human resources inventory report summarizes information on
current workers and their skills.
• Human Resource Information Systems
• HRIS are increasingly popular computerized databases that
contain important information about employees.
62. • Assessing current human resources
• Succession planning
• includes the development of replacement charts
• portray middle-to-upper level management positions that may
become vacant in the near future
• lists information about individuals who might qualify to fill the
• Determining the Demand for Labor
• A human resource inventory can be developed to project
year-by-year estimates of future HRM needs for every
significant job level and type.
• Forecasts must be made of the need for specific knowledge,
skills and abilities.
63. • Predicting the Future Labor
• A unit‘s supply of human resources
• new hires
• contingent workers
• individuals returning from leaves
• Predicting these can range from
simple to complex.
• Predicting the Future Labor
• Decreases in internal supply come
• Voluntary quits
• Prolonged illnesses
64. Matching the inventory with future
• If the current inventory exceeds the future
• Natural attrition cannot bring down
resource to match
• What to consider then????
65. Matching Labor Demand and Supply
• Employment planning compares forecasts for demand and supply
• Special attention should be paid to current and future shortages
• Recruitment or downsizing may be used to reduce supply and
• Rightsizing involves linking staffing levels to organizational goals.
66. MANAGING THE FORECASTED DEMAND
Managing future demand
Managing Future Surplus
Leave of absence without pay
Reduced work hours
69. Recruiting Human Resources
• The role of human resource recruitment is to build a supply of
potential new hires that the organization can draw on if the need
• Recruiting: any activity carried on by the organization with the
primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees.
72. • Image advertising,
such as in this
campaign to recruit
nurses, promotes a
whole profession or
opposed to a specific
• This ad is designed
to create a positive
impression of the
profession, which is
now facing a shortage
74. Recruitment Sources: Internal Sources
• Succession planning
• Job Posting: the process of communicating information about a job
• On company bulletin boards
• In employee publications
• On corporate intranets
• Anywhere else the organization communicates with employees
75. Recruitment Sources: External Sources
78. Recruiter Characteristics and
True = A False = B
• Applicants respond more positively when the recruiter
is an HR specialist than line managers or incumbents.
• Applicants respond positively to recruiters whom are
warm and informative
• Personnel policies are more important than the
recruiter when deciding whether or not to take a job.
• Realistic job previews should highlight the positive
characteristics of the job rather than the negative.
79. Enhancing the Recruiter‘s Impact
• Recruiters should provide timely feedback.
• Recruiters should avoid offensive behavior.
• They should avoid behaving in ways that might convey the wrong
impression about the organization.
• The organization can recruit with teams rather than individual
80. Measuring Recruiting Effectiveness
• What to measure and how to measure
• How many qualified applicants were attracted from each recruitment source?
• Assessing both the quantity and the quality of the applicants produced by a source.
• High performance recruiting
• Applying best-practices management techniques to recruiting.
• Using a benchmarks-oriented approach to analyzing and measuring the effectiveness
of recruiting efforts such as employee referrals.
81. Evaluating the Quality of a Source
• A ratio that expresses the percentage
of applicants who successfully move
from one stage of the recruitment and
selection process to the next.
• By comparing the yield ratios of
different recruitment sources, we can
determine which source is the best or
most efficient for the type of vacancy.
Cost Per Hire
• Find the cost of using a particular
recruitment source for a particular type
• Divide that cost by the number of
people hired to fill that type of vacancy.
• A low cost per hire means that the
recruitment source is efficient.
83. Recruiting Yield Pyramid
Recruiting yield pyramid
– The historical arithmetic relationships between recruitment
leads and invitees, invitees and interviews, interviews and
offers made, and offers made and offers accepted.
84. Issues in Recruiting a More Diverse Workforce
• Single parents: Providing work schedule flexibility.
• Older workers: Revising polices that make it difficult or unattractive for older
workers to remain employed.
• Recruiting minorities and women
• Understanding recruitment barriers.
• Formulating recruitment plans.
• Instituting specific day-to-day programs.
• Disabled: Developing resources and policies to recruit and integrate disable
persons into the workforce.
86. Crossing the chasm (Geoffrey Moore)
Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs86
87. Developing and Using Application Forms
• Application form
• The form that provides information on education, prior work record, and skills.
• Uses of information from applications
• Judgments about the applicant‘s educational and experience qualifications
• Conclusions about the applicant‘s previous progress and growth
• Indications of the applicant‘s employment stability
• Predictions about which candidate is likely to succeed on the job
89. Personnel Selection
• Personnel Selection: the process through which
organizations make decisions about who will or will not
be allowed to join the organization.
• Selection begins with the candidates identified through
• It attempts to reduce their number to the individuals
best qualified to perform available jobs.
• It ends with the selected individuals placed in jobs
with the organization.
91. Why Careful Selection is Important
• The importance of selecting the right people
• Organizational performance always depends in part on subordinates having the
right skills and attributes.
• Recruiting and hiring employees is costly.
• The legal or negative implications of incompetent hiring
• EEO laws and court decisions related to nondiscriminatory selection procedures
• The liability of negligent hiring of workers with questionable backgrounds
92. A Strategic Approach
to Personnel Selection
• Organizations should create a selection process in support of its job
• The selection process should be set up in a way that it lets the
organization identify people who have the necessary KASOs.
• This kind of strategic approach to selection requires ways to
measure the effectiveness of the selection tools.
93. Criteria for Measuring the Effectiveness of
Selection Tools and Methods
The method provides reliable information.
The method provides valid information.
The information can be generalized to apply to
The method offers high utility.
The selection criteria are legal & ethical.
94. • Reliability: the extent to which
a measurement is free from
• A reliable measurement
generates consistent results.
• Organizations use statistical
tests to compare results over
• Correlation coefficients
• A higher correlation coefficient
signifies a greater degree of
• Validity: the extent to which
the performance on a measure
(such as a test score) is related
to what the measure is
designed to assess (such as job
performance). three ways of
95. • A generalizable selection
method applies not only to the
conditions in which the method
was originally developed – job,
organization, people, time
• It also applies to other
organizations, jobs, applicants,
• Thus, is a selection method that
was valid in one context also
valid in other contexts?
• Another consideration is the
cost of using the selection
• Selection methods should cost
significantly less than the
benefits of hiring new
• Methods that provide economic
value greater than the cost of
using them are said to have
96. Initial Screening
• Involves screening of inquiries and screening
• Job description information is shared along with a
• Usually it checks: application, resumes, references
checks, background checks. Recently: social media
97. Employment Tests
Aptitude tests: assess how
well a person can learn or
acquire skills and abilities.
Achievement tests: measure
a person‘s existing knowledge
98. Employment Tests and Work
nt Tests &
100. Formats of Interviews
• Unstructured or nondirective interview
• An unstructured conversational-style interview in which the interviewer pursues
points of interest as they come up in response to questions.
• Structured or directive interview
• An interview following a set sequence of questions.
101. Interview Content: Types of Questions
• Situational interview
• A series of job-related questions that focus on how the candidate would behave
in a given situation.
• Behavioral interview
• A series of job-related questions that focus on how they reacted to actual
situations in the past.
• Job-related interview
• A series of job-related questions that focus on relevant past job-related
102. Interview Content: Types of Questions
• Stress interview
• An interview in which the interviewer seeks to make the applicant
uncomfortable with occasionally rude questions that supposedly to spot
sensitive applicants and those with low or high stress tolerance.
• Puzzle questions
• Recruiters for technical, finance, and other types of jobs use questions to pose
problems requiring unique (―out-of-the-box‖) solutions to see how candidates
think under pressure.
103. Personal or Individual Interviews
• Unstructured sequential interview
• An interview in which each interviewer forms an independent opinion after
asking different questions.
• Structured sequential interview
• An interview in which the applicant is interviewed sequentially by several
persons; each rates the applicant on a standard form.
• Panel interview
• An interview in which a group of interviewers questions the applicant.
104. Personal or Individual Interviews
• Panel (broad) interview
• An interview in which a group of interviewers questions the applicant.
• Mass interview
• A panel interviews several candidates simultaneously.
105. Factors Affecting Interviews
• First impressions
• The tendency for interviewers to jump to conclusions—make snap judgments—about
candidates during the first few minutes of the interview.
• Negative bias: unfavorable information about an applicant influences interviewers
more than does positive information.
• Misunderstanding the job
• Not knowing precisely what the job entails and what sort of candidate is best
suited causes interviewers to make decisions based on incorrect stereotypes of
what a good applicant is.
• Candidate-order error
• An error of judgment on the part of the interviewer due to interviewing one or
more very good or very bad candidates just before the interview in question.
106. Factors Affecting Interviews (cont‘d)
• Nonverbal behavior and impression management
• Interviewers‘ inferences of the interviewee‘s personality from the way he or
she acts in the interview have a large impact on the interviewer‘s rating of the
• Clever interviewees attempt to manage the impression they present to
persuade interviewers to view them more favorably.
• Effect of personal characteristics: attractiveness, gender, race
• Interviewers tend have a less favorable view of candidates who are: (Physically
unattractive, Female, Of a different racial background, Disabled)
107. Factors Affecting Interviews (cont‘d)
• Interviewer behaviors affecting interview outcomes
• Inadvertently telegraphing expected answers.
• Talking so much that applicants have no time to answer questions.
• Letting the applicant dominate the interview.
• Acting more positively toward a favored (or similar to the interviewer)
108. Designing and Conducting the Interview
• The structured situational interview
• Use either situational questions (preferred) or behavioral questions that yield
high criteria-related validities.
• Step 1: Job Analysis
• Step 2: Rate the Job‘s Main Duties
• Step 3: Create Interview Questions
• Step 4: Create Benchmark Answers
• Step 5: Appoint the Interview Panel and Conduct Interviews
109. How to Conduct an Effective Interview
• Structure your interview:
1. Be prepared:
I. Secure a private room to minimize interruptions.
II. Review the candidate‘s application and résumé.
III. Review the job specifications
2. Assign responsibilities
3. Put the applicant at ease
4. Base questions on actual job duties.
5. Use job knowledge, situational, or behaviorally oriented questions and objective
criteria to evaluate the interviewee‘s responses.
6. Ask about past behaviors
7. Figure out what your employees do, and ask questions that look for similar behaviors
8. Train interviewers.
9. Use the same questions with all candidates.
10. Use descriptive rating scales (excellent, fair, poor) to rate answers.
11. Use multiple interviewers or panel interviews.
12. If possible, use a standardized interview form.
13. Control the interview.
14. Take brief, unobtrusive notes during the interview.
15. At the end of the interview, make sure the candidate knows what to expect next
110. Background Investigation:
• Verify information from the application form
• Typical information verified includes:
• former employers
• previous job performance
• legal status to work
• credit references
• criminal records
• Reasons for investigations and checks
• To verify factual information provided by applicants.
• To uncover damaging information.
111. How Organizations Select Employees
• Process of arriving at a
selection decision by
candidates at each stage of
the selection process.
• Process of arriving at a
selection decision in which
a very high score on one
type of assessment can
make up for a low score on
112. Communicating the Decision
• When a candidate has been selected, the organization
should communicate the the offer to the candidate.
The offer should include:
• Job responsibilities
• Work schedule
• Rate of pay
• Starting date
• Other relevant details
113. Orienting Employees
• Employee orientation
• A procedure for providing new employees with basic background information about
• Orientation content
• Information on the benefits
• Personnel policies
• The daily routine
• The Organization‘s structure, system and operations
• Safety measures and regulations
• Facilities tour
114. Orienting Employees (cont‘d)
• A successful orientation should accomplish four things for new
• Make them feel welcome and at ease.
• Help them understand the organization in a broad sense.
• Make clear to them what is expected in terms of work and behavior.
• Help them begin the process of becoming socialized into the firm‘s ways of
acting and doing things.
• Performance management: the process through which managers
ensure that employees‘ activities and outputs contribute to the
• This process requires:
• Knowing what activities and outputs are desired
• Observing whether they occur
• Providing feedback to help employees meet expectations
119. Comparing Performance Appraisal and
• Performance appraisal
• Evaluating an employee‘s current and/or past performance relative to his or
her performance standards.
• Performance management
• The process employers use to make sure employees are working toward
120. Purposes of Performance Management
• Strategic Purpose – means effective performance
management helps the organization achieve its business
• Administrative Purpose – refers to the ways in which
organizations use the system to provide information for
day-to-day decisions about salary, benefits, and
• Developmental Purpose – means that it serves as a basis
for developing employees‘ knowledge and skills.
121. Performance Appraisal Roles
• Usually do the actual appraising.
• Must be familiar with basic appraisal techniques.
• Must understand and avoid problems that can cripple appraisals.
• Must know how to conduct appraisals fairly.
122. Performance Appraisal Roles (cont‘d)
• HR department
• Serves a policy-making and advisory role.
• Provides advice and assistance regarding the appraisal tool to use.
• Prepares forms and procedures and insists that all departments use them.
• Responsible for training supervisors to improve their appraisal skills.
• Responsible for monitoring the system to ensure that appraisal formats and
criteria comply with EEO laws and are up to date.
125. Designing the Appraisal Tool
• What to measure?
• Work output (quality and quantity)
• Personal competencies
• Goal (objective) achievement
• How to measure?
• Graphic rating scales
• Alternation ranking method
127. Computerized and Web-Based Performance
• Performance appraisal software programs
• Keep notes on subordinates during the year.
• Electronically rate employees on a series of performance traits.
• Generate written text to support each part of the appraisal.
• Electronic performance monitoring (EPM)
• Having supervisors electronically monitor the amount of computerized data an
employee is processing per day, and thereby his or her performance.
128. Who Should Do the Appraising?
• The immediate supervisor
• Rating committees
• 360-Degree feedback
129. Sources of Performance Information
• 360-Degree Performance Appraisal: performance measurement that
combines information from the employees‘:
130. Types of Performance Measurement
• Contrast errors: the rater compares an individual, not against an objective
standard, but against other employees.
• Distributional errors: the rater tends to use only one part of a rating
• Leniency: the reviewer rates everyone near the top
• Strictness: the rater favors lower rankings
• Central tendency: the rater puts everyone near the middle of the scale
• Rater bias: raters often let their opinion of one quality color their opinion
• Halo error: when the bias is in a favorable direction. This can mistakenly tell employees they don’t need
to improve in any area.
• Horns error: when the bias involves negative ratings. This can cause employees to feel frustrated and
131. Giving Performance Feedback
• Scheduling Performance Feedback
• Performance feedback should be a regular, expected management activity.
• Annual feedback is not enough.
• Employees should receive feedback so often that they know what the manager will say during their annual performance
• Preparing for a Feedback Session
• Managers should be prepared for each formal feedback session.
• Conducting the Feedback Session
• During the feedback session, managers can take any of three approaches:
1. “Tell-and-Sell” – managers tell employees their ratings and then justify those ratings.
2. “Tell-and-Listen” – managers tell employees their ratings and then let the employees explain their side of the story.
3. “Problem-Solving” – managers and employees work together to solve performance problems.
133. The Training Process
• The process of teaching new employees the basic skills they need to perform their
• Training and Development Process
1. Needs analysis: Identify job performance skills needed, assess prospective
trainees skills, and develop objectives.
2. Instructional design: Produce the training program content, including workbooks,
exercises, and activities.
3. Validation: Presenting (trying out) the training to a small representative audience.
4. Implement the program: Actually training the targeted employee group.
5. Evaluation: Assesses the program‘s successes or failures.
134. Training Methods
• On-job Training (OJT)
• Having a person learn a job by actually doing the job. i.e. by Coaching or understudy, Job
rotation, Special assignments
• Apprenticeship training
• A structured process by which people become skilled workers through a combination of
classroom instruction and on-the-job training.
• Informal learning
• The majority of what employees learn on the job they learn through informal means of
performing their jobs on a daily basis.
• Job instruction training (JIT)
• Listing each job‘s basic tasks, along with key points, in order to provide step-by-step training
135. Evaluating the Training Effort
• Designing the study
• Time series design
• Controlled experimentation
• Training effects to measure
• Reaction of trainees to the program
• Learning that actually took place
• Behavior that changed on the job
• Results that were achieved as a result of the training
137. Career Development
• Employee development: the combination of formal education, job
experiences, relationships, and assessment of personality and
abilities to help employees prepare for the future of their careers.
• Development is about preparing for change in the form of new jobs,
new responsibilities, or new requirements.
138. Training versus Development
Focus Current Future
Use of work experiences Low High
Goal Preparation for current job Preparation for changes
Participation Required Voluntary
139. The Basics of Career Management
• Career management
• The process for enabling employees to better understand and develop their
career skills and interests, and to use these skills and interests more
• Career development
• The lifelong series of activities that contribute to a person‘s career exploration,
establishment, success, and fulfillment.
• Career planning
• The deliberate process through which someone becomes aware of personal
skills, interests, knowledge, motivations, and other characteristics; and
establishes action plans to attain specific goals.
140. Roles in Career Development
• Accept responsibility for your own career.
• Assess your interests, skills, and values.
• Seek out career information and resources.
• Establish goals and career plans.
• Utilize development opportunities.
• Talk with your manager about your career.
• Follow through on realistic career plans.
• Provide timely performance feedback.
• Provide developmental assignments and support.
• Participate in career development discussions.
• Support employee development plans.
• Communicate mission, policies, and procedures.
• Provide training and development opportunities.
• Provide career information and career programs.
• Offer a variety of career options.
143. Development-Related Challenges
invisible barrier that
keep most women
and minorities from
attaining the top
jobs in organizations.
• The process of
who will be able to
fill top management
positions when they
• A manager who is
may engage in some
behaviors that make
him or her
ineffective or even
―toxic‖ – stifles ideas
and drives away good
145. Why Retention is important?
• Retention starts with recruitment.
• When you lose a Member you must recruit two in order to show
• Renewal is only the last step in the long process of retention.
• Members are neither identical nor interchangeable.
• Pay special attention to new Members so they will convert to
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146. Losses reasons
4. Military Service
5. Business Conflicts
6. Moving from the Community
• Organization management
• Organization activities
• Education and orientation
• Personal objections
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147. Members Life in the NGO
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
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148. 1. Encourage member involvement
• Members do not want to sit passively on the sidelines while your
organization works toward its goals. If they can't take action -- any
action -- they will lose interest in the organization. In many
cases, an uninterested member will drop his membership and move
on to something else. To keep members engaged, do what you can to
help them get involved. Encourage them to attend events, help the
organization raise funds and take advantage of partner offerings. For
any program you roll out to the membership, a well thought
out, sustained marketing effort is critical to show the VALUE of
engagement and what the program does for the member and the
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149. 2. Create value
• Your members want to feel like they are helping the organization
serve its purpose, but they also want to gets something out of it. By
providing members with valuable resources and experiences, you can
ensure that they don't forget the value of their membership.
• To create value for your members, provide them with access to
exclusive, members-only offers from your partners, teach them to
improve their own lives through educational resources and tackle
legislative issues that are relevant to them.
• When your organization wins a fight, make the success a celebration
for members. When you lose, make sure that your members know
that your organization will continue to fight.
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150. 3. Communicate appropriately
• When it comes to communicating with members, quality is more
important than quantity. Make sure that all communications you send
are relevant to your members, to the point and timely. Let your
members choose their favorite methods of communication, and let
them opt out of certain channels. Never forget that every member
interaction is an opportunity for branding, and these interactions
must be part of your member retention strategy, from sale -- to
onboarding -- to service -- to renewal.
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151. 4. Segment your membership
• Segmenting your membership allows you to communicate more
effectively and personally with each member. For every member of
your organization, make sure that you know the reason they
joined, the issues that are most important to them and what type of
communications they would like to receive from you.
• Let your members feel that their experience with the
organization is specifically tailored to their needs and
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152. 5. Use a multi-layer approach for renewals
• When the time comes for members to renew their membership, give
them as many chances to say, "yes" as possible. Develop a planned
approach that involved phone calls, email, postal mail and in-person
contact with members. Track member involvement at all times, and
use the information you collect to remind your members of the
programs and resources they've taken advantage of during their
membership with your organization.
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153. 6. Survey your former members
• Even with the best renewal strategies, some members will leave
your organization. When members choose not to renew, survey them
to find out why they left, which services they liked and which areas
of your organization need improvement. Use members' responses to
improve your organization's offerings and member retention rates in
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154. 7. Sell to the right target audience
• Part of retaining a solid membership involves choosing the right
members to begin with. Your ideal member is a company or
individual that identifies with your purpose, stands to benefit from
the accomplishment of your goals and expresses interest in
participating in the organization's activities. By focusing your efforts
on companies and individuals that are likely to stay with your
organization for the long haul, you can ensure better member
retention right from the start.
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155. 8. Maximize Social media
4 steps to do
1. use several social networks
2. align it to your strategic brand plan
3. Use metrics to evaluate
1. Listen to your audience
2. Share value added content
3. Engage all your connections
1. Provide sophisticated customer experience (think out of the box)
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• Indirect financial and nonfinancial payments employees receive for continuing
their employment with the company.
• Types of employee benefit plans
• Supplemental pay
• Additional services and facilities
• Retirement (Pensions)
158. The Role of Benefits
• Benefits contribute to attracting, retaining, and motivating People.
• The variety of possible benefits helps organizations to tailor their
compensation based on their needs.
• benefits help to maintain economic security.
• Benefits impose significant costs.
• Benefits packages are more complex than pay structures, making them
harder to understand and appreciate.
• Sometimes, benefits are subject to government regulation.
• Legally required benefits.
• Tax laws can make benefits favorable.
159. Expectations and Values
• Employees expect to receive benefits that are legally required and
• They value benefits they are likely to use.
• The value they place on various benefits is likely to differ from one
employee to another.
160. Expectations and Values (continued)
• Organizations can
address differences in
employees‘ needs and
employees by offering
flexible benefits plans in
place of a single benefits
package for all
• Cafeteria-style plan: a
benefits plan that offers
employees a set of
alternatives from which
they can choose the
types and amounts of
benefits they want.
161. Communicating Benefits to Employees
• Organizations must communicate benefits information to employees
so that they will appreciate the value of their benefits.
• This is essential so that benefits can achieve their objective of
attracting, motivating, and retaining employees.
• Employees are interested in their benefits, and they need a great
deal of detailed information to take advantage of benefits.
162. Incentive Pay
• Incentive pay – forms of pay linked to an employee‘s performance as
an individual, group member, or organization member.
• Incentive pay is influential because the amount paid is linked to
certain predefined behaviors or outcomes.
• For incentive pay to motivate employees to contribute to the
organization‘s success, the pay plans must be well designed.
163. The third ―R‖ (Recognition)
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164. Effective incentive pay plans meet the
1. Performance measures are linked to the organization‘s goals.
2. Employees believe they can meet performance standards.
3. The organization gives employees the resources they need to
meet their goals.
4. Employees value the rewards given.
5. Employees believe the reward system is fair.
6. The pay plan takes into account that employees may ignore
any goals that are not rewarded.
165. Individual Differences
• Law of individual differences
• The fact that people differ in personality, abilities, values, and needs.
• Different people react to different incentives in different ways.
• Managers should be aware of employee needs and fine-tune the incentives
offered to meets their needs.
• Money is not the only motivator.
166. Needs and Motivation
• Abraham Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Needs
• Five increasingly higher-level needs:
• physiological (food, water)
• security (a safe environment)
• social (relationships with others)
• self-esteem (a sense of personal worth)
• self-actualization (becoming the desired self)
• Lower level needs must be satisfied before higher level needs can be addressed
or become of interest to the individual.
167. Pay for Individual Performance
Standard hour plans
171. Why Incentive Plans Fail
• Performance pay can‘t replace good management.
• You get what you pay for.
• ―Pay is not a motivator.‖
• Rewards punish.
• Rewards rupture relationships.
• Rewards can have unintended consequences.
• Rewards may undermine responsiveness.
• Rewards undermine intrinsic motivation.
172. Processes That Make Incentives Work
Participation in Decisions
• Employee participation in pay-
related decisions can be part of
a general move toward
• Employee participation can
contribute to the success of an
• Communication demonstrates
to employees that the pay plan
• When employees understand
the requirements of the
incentive pay plan, the plan is
more likely to influence their
behavior as desired.
• Important when the pay plan is
174. What is Employee Relations?
Employee Relations involves the body of work concerned with maintaining employer-
employee relationships that contribute to satisfactory productivity, motivation, and
morale. Essentially, Employee Relations is concerned with preventing and resolving
problems involving individuals which arise out of or affect work situations.
Advice is provided to supervisors on how to correct poor performance and employee
misconduct. In such instances, progressive discipline and regulatory and other
requirements must be considered in effecting disciplinary actions and in resolving
employee grievances and appeals.
Information is provided to employees to promote a better understanding of
management's goals and policies. Information is also provided to employees to assist
them in correcting poor performance, on or off duty misconduct, and/or to address
personal issues that affect them in the workplace. Employees are advised about
applicable regulations, legislation, and bargaining agreements. Employees are also
advised about their grievance and appeal rights and discrimination and whistleblower
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175. Ways to interfere
• Conflict resolution
procedure in which a
mediator hears the
views of both sides
and facilitates the
but has no formal
authority to dictate a
• Third party to
who reports the
reasons for a
dispute, the views and
arguments of both
sides, and possibly a
settlement, which the
parties may decline.
• Conflict resolution
procedure in which an
determines a binding
176. Contract Administration
• Includes carrying out the
terms of the agreement
and resolving conflicts over
interpretation or violation
of the agreement.
• The process for resolving
interpretation or violation
of a contract/agreement
178. Equal employment Opportunity (EEO) is about:
Making sure that workplaces are free from all forms of unlawful
discrimination and harassment, and
Providing programs to assist members of EEO groups to overcome past
or present disadvantages.This means having workplace
rules, policies, practices and behaviours that are fair and do not
disadvantage people their full potential and pursue a career path of
In such an environment, all workers are valued and respected and have
opportunities to develop their full potential and pursue a career path
of their choice
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179. EEO Practices and Behavours
• recruitment, selection and promotion practices which are open, competitive and
based on merit. This means the best applicant is selected for the job,
• access for all employees to training and development,
• flexible working arrangements that meet the needs of employees and create a
• grievance handling procedures that are accessible to all employees and deal with
workplace complaints promptly, confidentially and fairly,
• communication processes to give employees access to information and allow their
views to be heard,
• management decisions being made without bias,
• no lawful discrimination or harassment in the workplace,
• respect for the social and cultural backgrounds of all employees and customers
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181. Social Enterpuener
• Social entrepreneurs are individuals with innovative solutions to society‘s
most pressing social problems. They are ambitious and persistent, tackling
major social issues and offering new ideas for wide-scale change.
• Rather than leaving societal needs to the government or business
sectors, social entrepreneurs find what is not working and solve the
problem by changing the system, spreading the solution, and persuading
entire societies to take new leaps.
• Social entrepreneurs often seem to be possessed by their ideas, committing
their lives to changing the direction of their field. They are both visionaries
and ultimate realists, concerned with the practical implementation of their
vision above all else.
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183. Managing Organizational Change and
• What to change?
• Strategy: mission and vision
• Culture: new corporate values
• Structure: departmental structure, coordination, span of control, reporting
relationships, tasks, decision-making procedures
• Technologies: new systems and methods
• Employees: changes in employee attitudes and skills
184. Overcoming Resistance to Change
• What causes resistance?
• All behavior in organizations is a product of two kinds of forces—those striving
to maintain the status quo and those pushing for change.
• Lewin‘s Change Process
• Unfreezing: reducing the forces striving to maintain the status quo.
• Moving: developing new behaviors, values, and attitudes, sometimes through
• Refreezing: reinforcing the changes.
185. Overcoming Resistance to Change
• Change initiatives
• Political campaign: creating a coalition strong enough to support and guide the
• Marketing campaign: tapping into employees‘ thoughts and feelings and also
effectively communicating messages about the prospective program‘s theme
• Military campaign: Deploying executives‘ scarce resources of attention and
time to actually carry out the change.
186. How to Lead the Change (in 10 Steps)
1. Establish a sense of urgency.
2. Mobilize commitment through joint diagnosis of problems.
3. Create a guiding coalition.
4. Develop a shared vision.
5. Communicate the vision.
6. Help employees to make the change.
7. Generate short-term wins.
8. Consolidate gains and produce more change.
9. Anchor the new ways of doing things in the company‘s culture.
10. Monitor progress and adjust the vision as required.
187. Using Organizational Development
• Organizational development (OD)
• A special approach to organizational change in which employees themselves
formulate and implement the change that‘s required.
• Usually involves action research.
• Applies behavioral science knowledge.
• Changes the attitudes, values, and beliefs of employees.
• Changes the organization in a particular direction.
188. Examples of OD Interventions
Formal structural change
Differentiation and integration
Total quality management
Human Resource Management
Career planning and development
Managing workforce diversity
Integrated strategic management
190. Managing Exit
the process used within many businesses to terminate employees in a
professional manner. It applies to employees who have resigned and
those that have been terminated by the company.
When an employee is terminated there are a number of considerations
that an organization needs to make in order to cleanly end the
relationship between the company and the employee. The company as
a legal entity has a responsibility to the employee which may extend
beyond the period of employment and this is the primary focus of the
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191. Managing Dismissals
• Involuntary termination of an employee‘s employment with the firm.
• Terminate-at-will rule
• Without a contract, the employee can resign for any reason, at will, and the
employer can similarly dismiss the employee for any reason (or no reason), at
• Limitations on ―terminate-at-will‖
• Violation of public
• Implied contract
• Good faith
192. Managing Dismissals (cont‘d)
• Limitations on terminate-at-will
• Public policy exception
• Discharge is wrongful when it was against an explicit, well-established public policy:
employee fired or refusing to break the law.
• Implied contract exception
• Employer statements about future employment create a contractual obligation for
the employer to continue to employ the employee.
• Covenant of good faith exception
• Suggests that employers should not fire employees without good cause.
193. Grounds for Dismissal
• Unsatisfactory performance
• Persistent failure to perform assigned duties or to meet prescribed standards on the job.
• Misconduct in the workplace
• Deliberate and willful violation of the employer‘s rules: stealing, rowdy behavior, and
• Lack of qualifications for the job
• An employee‘s inability to do the assigned work although he or she is diligent.
• Changed requirements or elimination of the job.
• An employee‘s inability to do the work assigned, after the nature of the job has changed.
• Elimination of the employee‘s job.
1. Direct disregard of the boss‘s authority.
2. Flat-out disobedience of, or refusal to obey, the boss‘s orders—particularly in front of
3. Deliberate defiance of clearly stated company policies, rules, regulations, and procedures.
4. Public criticism of the boss. Contradicting or arguing with him or her is also negative and
5. Blatant disregard of reasonable instructions.
6. Contemptuous display of disrespect and, portraying these feelings while on the job.
7. Disregard for the chain of command, shown by going around the immediate supervisor or
manager with a complaint, suggestion, or political maneuver.
8. Participation in (or leadership of ) an effort to undermine and remove the boss from
195. Managing Dismissals (cont‘d)
• Foster a perception of fairness in the dismissal situation by:
• Instituting a formal multi-step procedure (including warning).
• Having a supervising manager give full explanations of why and how
termination decisions were made.
• Establishing a neutral appeal process also fosters fairness.
196. Avoiding Wrongful Discharge Suits
• Bases for wrongful discharge suits:
• Discharge does not comply with the law.
• Discharge does not comply with the contractual arrangement stated or implied
by the firm via its employment application forms, employee manuals, or other
• Avoiding wrongful discharge suits
• Set up employment policies and dispute resolution procedures that make
employees feel treated fairly.
• Do the preparatory work that helps to avoid such suits.
197. Personal Supervisory Liability
• Avoiding personal supervisory liability:
• Be familiar with federal, state, and local statutes and know how to uphold
• Follow company policies and procedures
• Be consistent application of the rule or regulation is important.
• Don‘t administer discipline in a manner that adds to the emotional hardship on
• Do not act in anger.
• Utilize the HR department for advice regarding how to handle difficult
198. The Termination Interview
• Plan the interview carefully.
• Make sure the employee keeps the appointment time.
• Never inform an employee over the phone.
• Allow 10 minutes as sufficient time for the interview.
• Use a neutral site, never your own office.
• Have employee agreements, the human resource file, and a release
announcement (internal and external) prepared in advance.
• Be available at a time after the interview in case questions or problems arise.
• Have phone numbers ready for medical or security emergencies.
199. The Termination Interview (cont‘d)
• Get to the point.
• Do not beat around the bush by talking about the weather or making other
• As soon as the employee enters, give the person a moment to get comfortable
and then inform him or her of your decision.
• Describe the situation.
• Briefly explain why the person is being let go.
• Remember to describe the situation rather than attack the employee personally
• Emphasize that the decision is final and irrevocable.
200. The Termination Interview (cont‘d)
• Continue the interview until the person appears to be talking freely and
reasonably calmly about the reasons for his or her termination and the support
package (including severance pay).
• Review all elements of the severance package.
• Describe severance payments, benefits, access to office support people, and
the way references will be handled. However, under no conditions should any
promises or benefits beyond those already in the support package be implied.
201. The Termination Interview (cont‘d)
• Identify the next step.
• The terminated employee may be disoriented and unsure what to do next.
• Explain where the employee should go next, upon leaving the interview.
202. Interviewing Departing Employees
• Exit Interview
• Its aim is to elicit information about the job or related matters that might give
the employer a better insight into what is right—or wrong—about the company.
• The assumption is that because the employee is leaving, he or she will be candid.
• The quality of information gained from exit interviews is questionable.
203. Exit Interview Questions
• How were you recruited?
• Why did you join the company?
• Was the job presented correctly and honestly?
• Were your expectations met?
• What was the workplace environment like?
• What was your supervisor‘s management style like?
• What did you like most/least about the company?
• Were there any special problem areas?
• Why did you decide to leave, and how was the departure handled?
204. Why former members are important?
• A word of mouth
• Supporter (financial, …)
• Connections (i.e. lobbying)
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• Layoff are not terminations.
• Temporary layoffs occur when:
• There is no work available for employees.
• Management expects the no-work situation to be temporary and probably short
• Management intends to recall the employees when work is again available.
206. Bumping/Layoff Procedures
• Seniority is usually the ultimate determinant of who will work.
• Seniority can give way to merit or ability, but usually only when no
senior employee is qualified for a particular job.
• Seniority is usually based on the date the employee joined the
organization, not the date he or she took a particular job.
• Companywide seniority allows an employee in one job to bump or
displace an employee in another job, provided the more senior
person can do the job without further training.
207. Alternatives to Layoffs
• Voluntarily reducing employees‘ pay to keep everyone working.
• Concentrating employees‘ vacations during slow periods.
• Taking voluntary time off to reduce the employer‘s payroll.
• Taking a ―rings of defense approach‖ by hiring temporary workers
that can be let go early.
• Offering buyout packages to find enough volunteers to avoid
208. The Assignment
Within your organization, you are asked to do the following:
1. Evaluate the HR system applied (types of
people, size, management, level) and explain how HRP is done.
2. Evaluate your recruitment Policy (Personnel
policies, sources, recruiter) then how is selection is done
3. What you do to retain members and the relations with people
4. Describe how exits are managed
NB: use as much metrics as you can.
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الهدف هنا، التعرف على الحضور، الجمعيات الممثلة ومجال عملهم ونشاطاتهم بالإضافة إلى كسر الجليد بالدمج بين الشريحة الحالية والتالية من خلال أخذ توقعات الحضور عن محتويات هذه الورشة والأهداف والمخرجات التي يتوقعها منها.
الهدف هنا معرفة التوقعات من هذه الورشة التدريبية والمخرجات المطلوبة للعمل عليها وادراجها ضمن فقرات الورشة وتغطيتها. يمكن استبدال هذه الشريحة بعرض أهداف الورشة (course objectives)
تعود للمدرب حرية عرض محتويات الدورة بالشكل الأنسب (بحسب اليوم أو الموضوع) يمكن تقسيم الشريحة لأكثر من واحدة بحسب تقدير المدرب
The goals of recruiting (encouraging qualified people to apply for jobs) and selection (deciding which candidates would be the best fit) are different enough that they are most effective when performed separately, rather than combined as in a job interview that also involves selling candidates on the company.
All companies have to make decisions in three areas of recruiting:Personnel policiesRecruitment sourcesCharacteristics and behavior of the recruiterThese aspects of recruiting have different effects on whom the organization ultimately hires.This is shown in Figure 5.2.
An organization’s personnel policies are its decisions about how it will carry out human resource management, including how it will fill job vacancies.
Another critical element of an organization’s recruitment strategy is its decisions about where to look for applicants.The total labor market is enormous and spread over the entire globe.
Despite the advantages of internal recruitment, organizations often have good reasons to recruit externally. For entry-level positions and perhaps for specialized upper-level positions, the organization has no internal recruits from which to draw. Also, bringing in outsiders may expose the organization to new ideas or new ways of doing business.
In a survey of large, well-known businesses, respondents said about one-third of positions are filled with people who already work for the company and accept a promotion or transfer.
The third influence on recruitment outcomes is the recruiter – including this person’s characteristics and the way he or she behaves.The recruiter affects the nature of both the job vacancy and the applicants generated.
Researchers have tried to find the conditions in which recruiters do make a difference. Such research suggests that an organization can take several steps to increase the positive impact that recruiters have on job candidates.Through such positive behavior, recruiters can give organizations a better chance of competing for talented human resources.
There are few rules that say what recruitment source is best for a given job vacancy.Therefore, it is wise for employers to monitor the quality of all their recruitment sources.
Table 5.3 shows how the yield ratio and cost per hire measures are used by HR professionals.
The process of selecting employees varies considerably from organization to organization.At most organizations selection includes the steps illustrated in Figure 6.1.
While the process varies with each organization, there is a strategic approach that should be followed:
From science we have the basic standards for this:
When an organization has identified candidates whose applications or résumés indicate they meet basic requirements, the organization continues this selection process with this narrower pool of candidates.Often, the next step is to gather objective data through one or more employment tests. These tests fall into two broad categories:Aptitude testsAchievement tests
Supervisors and team members most often get involved in the selection process at the stage of employment interviews.Most organizations use interviewing as part of the selection process.
The selection decision typically combines ranking based on objective criteria along with subjective judgments about which candidate will make the greatest contribution.
The human resource department is often responsible for notifying applicants about the results of the selection process.If placement in a job requires that the applicant pass a physical examination, the offer should state that contingency.
In this chapter we examine a variety of approaches to performance management.
Performance management includes several activities. These are shown in Figure 8.1.Using this performance management process helps managers and employees focus on the organization’s goals.
Organizations establish performance management systems to meet three broad purposes:StrategicAdministrativeDevelopmental
For performance management to achieve its goals, its methods for measuring performance must be good. Selecting these measures is a critical part of planning a performance manage system.Several criteria determine the effectiveness of performance measures:Fit with strategyValidityReliabilityAcceptabilitySpecific feedback
Figure 8.2 shows two sets of information. The circle on the left represents all the information in a performance appraisal; the circle on the right represents all relevant measures of job performance. The overlap of the circles contains the valid information. Information that is gathered but irrelevant is “contamination.”
Organizations have developed a wide variety of methods for measuring performance. These are listed on this slide, compared and discussed on the slides which follow.Many organizations use a measurement system that includes a variety of these measures.
Several kinds of errors and biases commonly influence performance measurements.
Once the manager and others have measured an employee’s performance, this information must be given to the employee.Only after the employee has received feedback can he or she begin to plan how to correct any shortcomings.
When performance evaluation indicates that an employee’s performance is below standard, the feedback process should launch an effort to correct the problem.As shown in Figure 8.7, the most effective way to improve performance varies according to the employee’s ability and motivation. In general, when employees have high levels of ability and motivation, they perform at or above standards. But when they lack ability, motivation, or both, corrective action is needed. The type of action called for depends on what the employee lacks.
This chapter explores the purpose and activities of employee development.
Development implies learning that is not necessarily related to the employee’s current job. It prepares employees for other positions in the organization and increases their ability to move into jobs that may not yet exist.In contrast, training traditionally focuses on helping employees improve performance of their current jobs.Table 9.1 summarizes the traditional differences.
The many approaches to employee development fall into four broad categories:Formal educationAssessmentJob experiencesInterpersonal relationships.Figure 9.1 summarizes these four methods. Many organizations combine these approaches.
Figure 9.2 summarizes how various job experiences can be used for employee development.
A well-designed system for employee development can help organizations face three widespread challenges:The glass ceilingSuccession planningDysfunctional behavior by managers
As part of a the total compensation paid to employees, benefits serve functions similar to pay.
Along with wages and salaries, many organizations offer incentive pay – that is, pay specifically designed to energize, direct, or control employees’ behavior.The next slide illustrates the popularity of this type of pay.
For incentive pay to motivate employees to contribute to the organization’s success, the pay plans must be well designed. In particular, effective plans meet the requirements listed on this slide.
Organizations may reward individual performance with a variety of incentives:Piecework ratesStandard hour plansMerit payIndividual bonusesSales commissions
Employers may address the drawbacks of individual incentives by including group incentives in the organization’s compensation plan.To win group incentives employees must cooperate and share knowledge so that the entire group can meet its performance targets.Common group incentives include:GainsharingBonusesTeam awards
Two important ways organizations measure their performance are in terms of their profits and their stock price.In a competitive marketplace, profits result when an organization is efficiently providing products that customers want at a price they are willing to pay. Stock is the owners’ investment in a corporation; when the stock price is rising, the value of that investment is growing. Rather than trying to figure out what performance measures will motivate employees to do the things that generate high profits and a rising stock price, many organizations offer incentive pay tied to those organizational performance measures. The expectation is that employees will focus on what is best for the organization.
Unless a plan is well designed to include performance standards, it may not reward employees for focusing on quality or customer satisfaction if it interferes with the day’s output.In Figure 12.1 the employees quickly realize they can earn huge bonuses by writing software “bugs” and then fixing them, while writing bug-free software affords no chance to earn bonuses.
As we discussed in Chapter 11, communication and employee participation can contribute to the belief that the organization’s pay structure is fair.In the same way, the process by which the organization creates and administers incentive pay can help it use incentives to achieve the goal of motivating employees.
Because strikes are so costly and risky, unions and employers generally prefer other methods for resolving conflicts. Three common alternatives rely on a neutral third party, usually provided by the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service (FMCS):Mediation Fact Finder Arbitration
Vague or inconsistent language in the contract can make administering the contract difficult. The difficulties can create conflict that spills over into the next round of negotiations.
The traditional understanding of union-management relations is that the two parties are adversaries, meaning each side is competing to win at the expense of the other. There have always been exceptions to this approach.Cooperation between labor and management may feature the approaches listed on this slide.The search for a win-win solution requires that unions and their members understand the limits on what an employer can afford in a competitive marketplace.