Managing People (Human Resource Management for NGOs)


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Managing People (Human Resource Management for NGOs)

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  • الهدف هنا، التعرف على الحضور، الجمعيات الممثلة ومجال عملهم ونشاطاتهم بالإضافة إلى كسر الجليد بالدمج بين الشريحة الحالية والتالية من خلال أخذ توقعات الحضور عن محتويات هذه الورشة والأهداف والمخرجات التي يتوقعها منها.
  • الهدف هنا معرفة التوقعات من هذه الورشة التدريبية والمخرجات المطلوبة للعمل عليها وادراجها ضمن فقرات الورشة وتغطيتها. يمكن استبدال هذه الشريحة بعرض أهداف الورشة (course objectives)
  • تعود للمدرب حرية عرض محتويات الدورة بالشكل الأنسب (بحسب اليوم أو الموضوع) يمكن تقسيم الشريحة لأكثر من واحدة بحسب تقدير المدرب
  • The goals of recruiting (encouraging qualified people to apply for jobs) and selection (deciding which candidates would be the best fit) are different enough that they are most effective when performed separately, rather than combined as in a job interview that also involves selling candidates on the company.
  • All companies have to make decisions in three areas of recruiting:Personnel policiesRecruitment sourcesCharacteristics and behavior of the recruiterThese aspects of recruiting have different effects on whom the organization ultimately hires.This is shown in Figure 5.2.
  • An organization’s personnel policies are its decisions about how it will carry out human resource management, including how it will fill job vacancies.
  • Another critical element of an organization’s recruitment strategy is its decisions about where to look for applicants.The total labor market is enormous and spread over the entire globe.
  • Despite the advantages of internal recruitment, organizations often have good reasons to recruit externally. For entry-level positions and perhaps for specialized upper-level positions, the organization has no internal recruits from which to draw. Also, bringing in outsiders may expose the organization to new ideas or new ways of doing business.
  • In a survey of large, well-known businesses, respondents said about one-third of positions are filled with people who already work for the company and accept a promotion or transfer.
  • The third influence on recruitment outcomes is the recruiter – including this person’s characteristics and the way he or she behaves.The recruiter affects the nature of both the job vacancy and the applicants generated.
  • Researchers have tried to find the conditions in which recruiters do make a difference. Such research suggests that an organization can take several steps to increase the positive impact that recruiters have on job candidates.Through such positive behavior, recruiters can give organizations a better chance of competing for talented human resources.
  • There are few rules that say what recruitment source is best for a given job vacancy.Therefore, it is wise for employers to monitor the quality of all their recruitment sources.
  • Table 5.3 shows how the yield ratio and cost per hire measures are used by HR professionals.
  • The process of selecting employees varies considerably from organization to organization.At most organizations selection includes the steps illustrated in Figure 6.1.
  • While the process varies with each organization, there is a strategic approach that should be followed:
  • From science we have the basic standards for this:
  • When an organization has identified candidates whose applications or résumés indicate they meet basic requirements, the organization continues this selection process with this narrower pool of candidates.Often, the next step is to gather objective data through one or more employment tests. These tests fall into two broad categories:Aptitude testsAchievement tests
  • Supervisors and team members most often get involved in the selection process at the stage of employment interviews.Most organizations use interviewing as part of the selection process.
  • The selection decision typically combines ranking based on objective criteria along with subjective judgments about which candidate will make the greatest contribution.
  • The human resource department is often responsible for notifying applicants about the results of the selection process.If placement in a job requires that the applicant pass a physical examination, the offer should state that contingency.
  • In this chapter we examine a variety of approaches to performance management.
  • Performance management includes several activities. These are shown in Figure 8.1.Using this performance management process helps managers and employees focus on the organization’s goals.
  • Organizations establish performance management systems to meet three broad purposes:StrategicAdministrativeDevelopmental
  • For performance management to achieve its goals, its methods for measuring performance must be good. Selecting these measures is a critical part of planning a performance manage system.Several criteria determine the effectiveness of performance measures:Fit with strategyValidityReliabilityAcceptabilitySpecific feedback
  • Figure 8.2 shows two sets of information. The circle on the left represents all the information in a performance appraisal; the circle on the right represents all relevant measures of job performance. The overlap of the circles contains the valid information. Information that is gathered but irrelevant is “contamination.”
  • Organizations have developed a wide variety of methods for measuring performance. These are listed on this slide, compared and discussed on the slides which follow.Many organizations use a measurement system that includes a variety of these measures.
  • Several kinds of errors and biases commonly influence performance measurements.
  • Once the manager and others have measured an employee’s performance, this information must be given to the employee.Only after the employee has received feedback can he or she begin to plan how to correct any shortcomings.
  • When performance evaluation indicates that an employee’s performance is below standard, the feedback process should launch an effort to correct the problem.As shown in Figure 8.7, the most effective way to improve performance varies according to the employee’s ability and motivation. In general, when employees have high levels of ability and motivation, they perform at or above standards. But when they lack ability, motivation, or both, corrective action is needed. The type of action called for depends on what the employee lacks.
  • This chapter explores the purpose and activities of employee development.
  • Development implies learning that is not necessarily related to the employee’s current job. It prepares employees for other positions in the organization and increases their ability to move into jobs that may not yet exist.In contrast, training traditionally focuses on helping employees improve performance of their current jobs.Table 9.1 summarizes the traditional differences.
  • The many approaches to employee development fall into four broad categories:Formal educationAssessmentJob experiencesInterpersonal relationships.Figure 9.1 summarizes these four methods. Many organizations combine these approaches.
  • Figure 9.2 summarizes how various job experiences can be used for employee development.
  • A well-designed system for employee development can help organizations face three widespread challenges:The glass ceilingSuccession planningDysfunctional behavior by managers
  • As part of a the total compensation paid to employees, benefits serve functions similar to pay.
  • Along with wages and salaries, many organizations offer incentive pay – that is, pay specifically designed to energize, direct, or control employees’ behavior.The next slide illustrates the popularity of this type of pay.
  • For incentive pay to motivate employees to contribute to the organization’s success, the pay plans must be well designed. In particular, effective plans meet the requirements listed on this slide.
  • Organizations may reward individual performance with a variety of incentives:Piecework ratesStandard hour plansMerit payIndividual bonusesSales commissions
  • Employers may address the drawbacks of individual incentives by including group incentives in the organization’s compensation plan.To win group incentives employees must cooperate and share knowledge so that the entire group can meet its performance targets.Common group incentives include:GainsharingBonusesTeam awards
  • Two important ways organizations measure their performance are in terms of their profits and their stock price.In a competitive marketplace, profits result when an organization is efficiently providing products that customers want at a price they are willing to pay. Stock is the owners’ investment in a corporation; when the stock price is rising, the value of that investment is growing. Rather than trying to figure out what performance measures will motivate employees to do the things that generate high profits and a rising stock price, many organizations offer incentive pay tied to those organizational performance measures. The expectation is that employees will focus on what is best for the organization.
  • Unless a plan is well designed to include performance standards, it may not reward employees for focusing on quality or customer satisfaction if it interferes with the day’s output.In Figure 12.1 the employees quickly realize they can earn huge bonuses by writing software “bugs” and then fixing them, while writing bug-free software affords no chance to earn bonuses.
  • As we discussed in Chapter 11, communication and employee participation can contribute to the belief that the organization’s pay structure is fair.In the same way, the process by which the organization creates and administers incentive pay can help it use incentives to achieve the goal of motivating employees.
  • Because strikes are so costly and risky, unions and employers generally prefer other methods for resolving conflicts. Three common alternatives rely on a neutral third party, usually provided by the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service (FMCS):Mediation Fact Finder Arbitration
  • Vague or inconsistent language in the contract can make administering the contract difficult. The difficulties can create conflict that spills over into the next round of negotiations.
  • The traditional understanding of union-management relations is that the two parties are adversaries, meaning each side is competing to win at the expense of the other. There have always been exceptions to this approach.Cooperation between labor and management may feature the approaches listed on this slide.The search for a win-win solution requires that unions and their members understand the limits on what an employer can afford in a competitive marketplace.
  • Managing People (Human Resource Management for NGOs)

    1. 1. Human Resource Management for NGOS Wave ―A‖, Damascus, 15-18/9/2013 By Muhamad SHABAREK TOPIC SEBC Syrian NGO Development Programme, a project by:
    2. 2. GEF SGP SEBC • Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs2
    3. 3. Who‘s in the room? Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs3
    4. 4. Expectations! Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs4
    5. 5. Program Day I •Why HRM is important •Introduction, definitions and approaches •Human Resource planning Day II •Recruitment and selection •Induction and orientation Day III •Maintaining Personnel (Retention) •Managing Performance Day IV •Exit policy •Employee relations Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs5
    6. 6. What is HRM and why it is important Part I (Brainstorming)
    7. 7. Why is Human Resource Management Important for NGOs? • Human resource management is the management of the people who work in an organization. They can be managers, employees, project officers, field workers, coordinators. Since the organization is run by these people, they are considered to be a ―resource‖ – ‗a human resource.‘ Like we use funds to manage a project, we also need to use these ‗human resources‘ or the ‗people‘ to manage the organization. Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs7
    8. 8. DEFINITION ―Human resource management is the function performed in an organization that facilitates the most effective use of people(employees) to achieve organizational and individual goals‖, Ivancevich and Glueck
    9. 9. Basic HR Concept • Getting results • The bottom line of managing • HR creates value by engaging in activities that produce the employee behaviors the company needs to achieve its strategic goals.
    10. 10. History and evolution of HRM (main approaches) Scientific management approach (mid 1900s) Human relations approach Human Resources Approach (1970s) Strategic HRM Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs10
    11. 11. Scientific management approach (mid 1900s) • Fredrick Taylor- father of scientific management • Study of motion and fatigue • ‗one-best-way‘ to accomplish the task • Piece-rate system • Workers were solely motivated through money • Workers to maxamise production in order to satisfy their one work related need- money • Failed to bring behavioural changes and increase in productivity Human relations approach • The hawthorne studies – 1930-40‘s • Growing strength of unions • Social and psychological factors also affected employee productivity • Relations and respect >> High Productivity Why human relations approach Failed?? • Did not recognize individual differences • Did not recognize need for job structure • Failed to recognize other factors that could influence employee satisfaction and productivity
    12. 12. Human Resources Approach (1970s) • Employees are assets for organization • Policies, programmes and practices - help in work and personal development • Organization goal & needs of employee are capable of existing in harmony • should create contributive work environment to reap maximum benefit Strategic Human Resource Management • The linking of HRM with strategic goals and objectives in order to improve business performance and develop organizational cultures that foster innovation and flexibility. • Formulating and executing HR systems—HR policies and activities—that produce the employee competencies and behaviors the company needs to achieve its strategic aims.
    13. 13. Challenges of HRM • Individuals differ from one another • Customization of stimulation and motivation • Demanding personnel
    14. 14. Personnel Mistakes • Hire the wrong person for the job • Experience high turnover • Have your people not doing their best • Waste time with useless interviews • Have your company in court because of discriminatory actions • Have your company cited by OSHA for unsafe practices • Have some employees think their salaries are unfair and inequitable relative to others in the organization • Allow a lack of training to undermine your department‘s effectiveness • Commit any unfair labor practices • …
    15. 15. Line and Staff Aspects of HRM • Line manager • A manager who is authorized to direct the work of subordinates and is responsible for accomplishing the organization‘s tasks. • Staff manager • A manager who assists and advises line managers.
    16. 16. HR and Authority • Authority • The right to make decisions, direct others‘ work, and give orders. • Implied authority • The authority exerted by an HR manager by virtue of others‘ knowledge that he or she has access to top management. • Line authority • The authority exerted by an HR manager by directing the activities of the people in his or her own department and in service areas.
    17. 17. Functions of the HR Manager • A line function • The HR manager directs the activities of the people in his or her own department and in related service areas (like the plant cafeteria). • A coordinative function • HR managers also coordinate personnel activities, a duty often referred to as functional control. • Staff (assist and advise) functions • Assisting and advising line managers is the heart of the HR manager‘s job.
    18. 18. Line Managers‘ HRM Responsibilities 1. Placing the right person on the right job 2. Starting new employees in the organization (orientation) 3. Training employees for jobs new to them 4. Improving the job performance of each person 5. Gaining creative cooperation and developing smooth working relationships 6. Interpreting the firm‘s policies and procedures 7. Controlling labor costs 8. Developing the abilities of each person 9. Creating and maintaining department morale 10. Protecting employees‘ health and physical condition
    19. 19. Cooperative Line and Staff HR Management 1. The line manager‘s responsibility is to specify the qualifications employees need to fill specific positions. 2. HR staff then develops sources of qualified applicants and conduct initial screening interviews 3. HR administers the appropriate tests and refers the best applicants to the supervisor (line manager), who interviews and selects the ones he or she wants.
    20. 20. Employee Advocacy • HR must take responsibility for: • Clearly defining how management should be treating employees. • Making sure employees have the mechanisms required to contest unfair practices. • Represent the interests of employees within the framework of its primary obligation to senior management.
    21. 21. Role of HR Executives Service Providers Executives FacilitatorConsultant Auditor 21
    22. 22. Service Provider • An HR specialist can help providing information on market statistics of personnel availability, pay rates etc. • Interpret the complex labor law and legislations that‘s are applicable in day-to- day work. Executive • Carry out certain HR activities like recruitment , compensation, etc. Facilitator • Training and development activities are planned and conducted and performance appraisal are done. • Also to ensure that other managers who undertake such activities are well equipped to do so. Consultant • Handling problems due to lack of motivation, lack of training, job misfit or grievances related to pay. Auditor • Responsible for ensuring that all members of the management perform their respective roles concerned with the effective use of human resources. 22
    23. 23. Functions of HRM Functions of HRM Managerial Function Planning Organizing Staffing Directing Controlling Operative Function Employment HR development Compensation Employee relations
    24. 24. Planning •it is an ongoing process of developing business mission and objective &formulating the action to accomplish that . Identification of needs of employee & to predict the future changes are part of planning Organizing •It is establishment of internal organization structure .Its focus is on division coordination & control of task . In this function HR manager assign the responsibility and authority to job holder. Staffing •It is filling the position with qualified people and keeping it filled . Recruiting hiring training evaluating transferring are the specific activity of this function. Directing/ Leading •it is process of maximum utilization of human resources contribution . It also includes forming good human relation& coordination among different level of department Controlling •It is establishing performance standard based on organizations goal measuring them and comparing the actual performance to standard performance & taking proper action .
    25. 25. Operational Employment HR Planning Recruitment Selection Placement Induction HR Development Performance Appraisal Training Management Development Career Planning and Development Compensation Mgt Job Evaluation Wage and Salary Admn Incentives Bonus Fringe Benefits Employee Relations
    26. 26. Emerging role or HRM • Value of Human Resource • Competitive advantage • Human Resource Accounting – It is measurement of the cost and value of people for an organization “It is the competence and attitude of the human resource that can make or break a business.”
    27. 27. HR and Competitive Advantage • Competitive advantage • Any factors that allow an organization to differentiate its product or service from those of its competitors to increase market share. • Superior human resources are an important source of competitive advantage
    28. 28. Relationships Among Strategies in Multiple- Business Firms
    29. 29. Achieving Strategic Fit • Michael Porter • Emphasizes the ―fit‖ point of view that all of the firm‘s activities must be tailored to or fit its strategy, by ensuring that the firm‘s functional strategies support its corporate and competitive strategies. • Gary Hamel and C. K. Prahalad • Argue for ―stretch‖ in leveraging resources—supplementing what you have and doing more with what you have—can be more important than just fitting the strategic plan to current resources.
    30. 30. The Southwest Airlines‘ Activity System Figure 3–5Source: Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business Review. From ―What is Strategy?‖ by Michael E. Porter, November–December 1996. Copyright © 1996 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College, all rights reserved.
    31. 31. Human resource accounting • Human resource accounting is measurement of the cost and value of the people for an organization.COST • Human resource accounting helps management to value its human resource and use them with discretion and wisdom VALUE 31
    32. 32. HR Metrics • Absence Rate [(Number of days absent in month) ÷ (Average number of employees during mo.) × (number of workdays)] × 100 • Cost per Hire (Advertising + Agency Fees + Employee Referrals + Travel cost of applicants and staff + Relocation costs + Recruiter pay and benefits) ÷ Number of Hires • Health Care Costs per Employee Total cost of health care ÷ Total Employees • HR Expense Factor HR expense ÷ Total operating expense
    33. 33. HR Metrics (cont‘d) • Human Capital ROI Revenue − (Operating Expense − [Compensation cost + Benefit cost]) ÷ (Compensation cost + Benefit cost) • Human Capital Value Added Revenue − (Operating Expense − ([Compensation cost + Benefit Cost]) ÷ Total Number of FTE • Revenue Factor Revenue ÷ Total Number of FTE • Time to fill Total days elapsed to fill requisitions ÷ Number hired
    34. 34. HR Metrics (cont‘d) • Training Investment Factor Total training cost ÷ Headcount • Turnover Costs Cost to terminate + Cost per hire + Vacancy Cost + Learning curve loss • Turnover Rate [Number of separations during month ÷ Average number of employees during month] × 100 • Workers‘ Compensation Cost per Employee Total WC cost for Year ÷ Average number of employees
    35. 35. Measuring HR‘s Contribution • The HR Scorecard • Shows the quantitative standards, or ―metrics‖ the firm uses to measure HR activities. • Measures the employee behaviors resulting from these activities. • Measures the strategically relevant organizational outcomes of those employee behaviors.
    36. 36. Creating a Strategy-oriented HR System • Components of the HR process • HR professionals who have strategic and other skills • HR policies and activities that comprise the HR system itself • Employee behaviors and competencies that the company‘s strategy requires.
    37. 37. 3–37 The Basic Architecture of HR Source: Adapted from Brian Becker et al., The HR Scorecard: Linking People, Strategy, and Performance (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2001), p. 12.
    38. 38. The High-Performance Work System • High-performance work system (HPWS) practices. • High-involvement employee practices (such as job enrichment and team-based organizations), • High commitment work practices (such as improved employee development, communications, and disciplinary practices) • Flexible work assignments. • Other practices include those that foster skilled workforces and expanded opportunities to use those skills.
    39. 39. Strategic HR Relationships Figure 3–10 HR Activities Emergent Employee Behaviors Strategically Relevant Organizational Outcomes Organizational Performance Achieve Strategic Goals
    40. 40. Organizational Structure & HRM Sharing of practices
    41. 41. Why structure ??? • What structure signifies? • No directions • Leads to confusion • Chaos • Why???????????
    42. 42. Mechanistic Vs organic organization • Rigid structure • Employees are tied by rules & regulations • High degree of centralization • Suitable for operating in static environment • Decision-making is done by superiors • Ex: Public sector in the pre-reforms era • Flexible structure • Employees are not tied by rules & regulations • Decentralized style of management • Suitable for operating in dynamic environment • Decision-making is done by junior level employees also • Ex: Marico`s Saffola
    43. 43. President Vice President Division Managers Division Managers Department Managers Department Managers Department Managers Division Managers Vice President Division Managers Department Managers Department Managers Division Managers Division Managers Vice President Division Managers Department Managers Department Managers Division Managers Division Managers Department Managers Department Managers Informal organization Bowling team Informal organization Chess group Formal organization
    44. 44. Tall Vs Flat structure CMD ED GM CM CM Manager Manager Officer Officer Executive Executive GM GM ED ED TALL STRUCTURE COO PM PM PM PM Team Lead Team Lead Team Lead Team Member Team Member Team Member Team Member FLAT STRUCTURE
    45. 45. RESPONSIBILITY, AUTHORITY & ACCOUNTABILITY • Responsibility: It is the obligation of a manager to carry out the duties assigned to him. • Authority: It refers to the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience from others in the process of discharging responsibility. • Accountability: The employee's answerability on using the authority in discharging the responsibility is termed accountability.
    46. 46. LINE AND STAFF FUNCTIONS • Departments or employees of a firm that perform core activities • Contributes directly to the business of the firm • Ex: Manufacturing and Marketing departments • Departments or employees of a firm that perform a support function • Contributes indirectly to the business of the firm • Ex: HR and Finance departments
    47. 47. Human Resource Planning Discussion
    48. 48. What is HRP • Process of anticipating and making provision for the movement of people into, within, and out of an organization
    49. 49. Definition • Human resource planning is a process by which an organization ensures that • it has the right number and kinds of people • at the right place • at the right time • capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that will help the organization achieve its overall strategic objectives.
    50. 50. Human Resource planning Right Number Right Skills Right Time Right Cost
    51. 51. Objectives of HRP To maintain •Right time To forecast •Right Number To optimize •Right skills To utilize •Right Cost
    52. 52. HRP at different planning levels  Corporate – level planning  Intermediate – level planning  Operations planning  Planning short-term activities
    53. 53. Organizational plans and objectives Identify future human resource requirements Compare with the current HR inventory Determine the redundant numbers Determine the numbers, levels & criticality of vacancies Analyze the cost & time involved in managing the demand Analyze the cost & time required for managing surplus Retrench Choose the resources & methods of recruitment Redeploy HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING MODEL
    54. 54. Assessing current human resources and making inventory • Job analysis • HR inventory – HRIS • Generate a fairly accurate picture existing situation
    55. 55. Job Analysis • Job Analysis is a systematic exploration of the activities within a job. • It defines and documents the duties, responsibilities and accountabilities of a job and the conditions under which a job is performed. ?
    56. 56. Outputs of job analysis • Job Descriptions • Written statement of what jobholder does, how it is done, under what conditions and why. • Common format: title; duties; distinguishing characteristics; environmental conditions; authority and responsibilities. • Used to describe the job to applicants, to guide new employees, and to evaluate employees. • Job Specifications • States minimum acceptable qualifications. • Used to select employees who have the essential qualifications. • Job Evaluations • Specify relative value of each job in the organization. • Used to design equitable compensation program.
    57. 57. Types of Information Collected • Work activities • Human behaviors • Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids • Performance standards • Job context • Human requirements
    58. 58. Uses of Job Analysis Information • Recruitment and Selection • Compensation • Performance Appraisal • Training • Discovering Unassigned Duties • EEO Compliance
    59. 59. Job Analysis Methods • Observation method – job analyst watches employees directly or reviews film of workers on the job. • Individual interview method – a team of job incumbents is selected and extensively interviewed. • Group interview method – a number of job incumbents are interviewed simultaneously. • Structured questionnaire method – workers complete a specifically designed questionnaire. • Technical conference method – uses supervisors with an extensive knowledge of the job. • Diary method – job incumbents record their daily activities. • The position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) • The Department of Labor (DOL) procedure • Functional job analysis: Takes into account the extent to which instructions, reasoning, judgment, and mathematical and verbal ability are necessary for performing job tasks. • … The best results are usually achieved with some combination of methods.
    60. 60. Forecasting • Compare future needs with current availabity • Analyze companies change plan • Forecasting methods used are Time Series Analysis, Regression Analysis and Productivity Ratios
    61. 61. Linking Organizational Strategy to Human Resource Planning • Ensures that people are available to meet the requirements set during strategic planning. • Assessing current human resources • A human resources inventory report summarizes information on current workers and their skills. • Human Resource Information Systems • HRIS are increasingly popular computerized databases that contain important information about employees.
    62. 62. • Assessing current human resources • Succession planning • includes the development of replacement charts • portray middle-to-upper level management positions that may become vacant in the near future • lists information about individuals who might qualify to fill the positions • Determining the Demand for Labor • A human resource inventory can be developed to project year-by-year estimates of future HRM needs for every significant job level and type. • Forecasts must be made of the need for specific knowledge, skills and abilities. ?
    63. 63. • Predicting the Future Labor Supply • A unit‘s supply of human resources comes from: • new hires • contingent workers • transfers-in • individuals returning from leaves • Predicting these can range from simple to complex. • Predicting the Future Labor Supply • Decreases in internal supply come about through: • Retirements • Dismissals • Transfers-out • Lay-offs • Voluntary quits • Sabbaticals • Prolonged illnesses • Deaths
    64. 64. Matching the inventory with future requirements • If the current inventory exceeds the future requirements • Natural attrition cannot bring down resource to match • What to consider then????
    65. 65. Matching Labor Demand and Supply • Employment planning compares forecasts for demand and supply of workers. • Special attention should be paid to current and future shortages and overstaffing. • Recruitment or downsizing may be used to reduce supply and balance demand. • Rightsizing involves linking staffing levels to organizational goals.
    66. 66. MANAGING THE FORECASTED DEMAND / SURPLUS Managing future demand Managing Future Surplus Retrenchment Outplacement Layoffs Leave of absence without pay Loaning Work Sharing Reduced work hours Early/voluntary retirement Attrition Recruitment
    67. 67. Strategic Human Resource Planning Process
    68. 68. Recruitment Day II Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs68
    69. 69. Recruiting Human Resources • The role of human resource recruitment is to build a supply of potential new hires that the organization can draw on if the need arises. • Recruiting: any activity carried on by the organization with the primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees.
    70. 70. Three Aspects of Recruiting
    71. 71. Personnel Policies Internal versus external recruiting Lead-the-market pay strategies Employment-at-will policies Image advertising Paid versus unpaid Several personnel policies are especially relevant to recruitment:
    72. 72. • Image advertising, such as in this campaign to recruit nurses, promotes a whole profession or organization as opposed to a specific job opening. • This ad is designed to create a positive impression of the profession, which is now facing a shortage of workers.
    73. 73. Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs 73
    74. 74. Recruitment Sources: Internal Sources • Succession planning • Job Posting: the process of communicating information about a job vacancy: • On company bulletin boards • In employee publications • On corporate intranets • Anywhere else the organization communicates with employees
    75. 75. Recruitment Sources: External Sources Direct applicants (Walk-ins) Referrals Advertisements Electronic recruiting Employment agencies Colleges and universities Activities and projects Recruitment events
    76. 76. One in Three Positions Are Filled with Insiders
    77. 77. The Recruiter Characteristics of the Recruiter Behavior of the Recruiter Recruiter‘s Impact
    78. 78. Recruiter Characteristics and Behavior True = A False = B • Applicants respond more positively when the recruiter is an HR specialist than line managers or incumbents. • Applicants respond positively to recruiters whom are warm and informative • Personnel policies are more important than the recruiter when deciding whether or not to take a job. • Realistic job previews should highlight the positive characteristics of the job rather than the negative.
    79. 79. Enhancing the Recruiter‘s Impact • Recruiters should provide timely feedback. • Recruiters should avoid offensive behavior. • They should avoid behaving in ways that might convey the wrong impression about the organization. • The organization can recruit with teams rather than individual recruiters.
    80. 80. Measuring Recruiting Effectiveness • What to measure and how to measure • How many qualified applicants were attracted from each recruitment source? • Assessing both the quantity and the quality of the applicants produced by a source. • High performance recruiting • Applying best-practices management techniques to recruiting. • Using a benchmarks-oriented approach to analyzing and measuring the effectiveness of recruiting efforts such as employee referrals.
    81. 81. Evaluating the Quality of a Source Yield Ratios • A ratio that expresses the percentage of applicants who successfully move from one stage of the recruitment and selection process to the next. • By comparing the yield ratios of different recruitment sources, we can determine which source is the best or most efficient for the type of vacancy. Cost Per Hire • Find the cost of using a particular recruitment source for a particular type of vacancy. • Divide that cost by the number of people hired to fill that type of vacancy. • A low cost per hire means that the recruitment source is efficient.
    82. 82. Results of a Hypothetical Recruiting Effort
    83. 83. Recruiting Yield Pyramid  Recruiting yield pyramid – The historical arithmetic relationships between recruitment leads and invitees, invitees and interviews, interviews and offers made, and offers made and offers accepted.
    84. 84. Issues in Recruiting a More Diverse Workforce • Single parents: Providing work schedule flexibility. • Older workers: Revising polices that make it difficult or unattractive for older workers to remain employed. • Recruiting minorities and women • Understanding recruitment barriers. • Formulating recruitment plans. • Instituting specific day-to-day programs. • Disabled: Developing resources and policies to recruit and integrate disable persons into the workforce.
    85. 85. Recruitment alternatives • Outsourcing/Offshoring • Partnerships • Temp. staff/ Interim Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs85
    86. 86. Crossing the chasm (Geoffrey Moore) Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs86
    87. 87. Developing and Using Application Forms • Application form • The form that provides information on education, prior work record, and skills. • Uses of information from applications • Judgments about the applicant‘s educational and experience qualifications • Conclusions about the applicant‘s previous progress and growth • Indications of the applicant‘s employment stability • Predictions about which candidate is likely to succeed on the job
    88. 88. Selection Your experience Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs88
    89. 89. Personnel Selection • Personnel Selection: the process through which organizations make decisions about who will or will not be allowed to join the organization. • Selection begins with the candidates identified through recruitment. • It attempts to reduce their number to the individuals best qualified to perform available jobs. • It ends with the selected individuals placed in jobs with the organization.
    90. 90. Figure 6.1: Steps in the Selection Process
    91. 91. Why Careful Selection is Important • The importance of selecting the right people • Organizational performance always depends in part on subordinates having the right skills and attributes. • Recruiting and hiring employees is costly. • The legal or negative implications of incompetent hiring • EEO laws and court decisions related to nondiscriminatory selection procedures • The liability of negligent hiring of workers with questionable backgrounds
    92. 92. A Strategic Approach to Personnel Selection • Organizations should create a selection process in support of its job descriptions. • The selection process should be set up in a way that it lets the organization identify people who have the necessary KASOs. • This kind of strategic approach to selection requires ways to measure the effectiveness of the selection tools.
    93. 93. Criteria for Measuring the Effectiveness of Selection Tools and Methods The method provides reliable information. The method provides valid information. The information can be generalized to apply to the candidates. The method offers high utility. The selection criteria are legal & ethical.
    94. 94. • Reliability: the extent to which a measurement is free from random error. • A reliable measurement generates consistent results. • Organizations use statistical tests to compare results over time. • Correlation coefficients • A higher correlation coefficient signifies a greater degree of reliability. • Validity: the extent to which the performance on a measure (such as a test score) is related to what the measure is designed to assess (such as job performance). three ways of measuring validity: 1. Criterion-related 2. Content 3. Construct
    95. 95. • A generalizable selection method applies not only to the conditions in which the method was originally developed – job, organization, people, time period, etc. • It also applies to other organizations, jobs, applicants, etc. • Thus, is a selection method that was valid in one context also valid in other contexts? • Another consideration is the cost of using the selection method. • Selection methods should cost significantly less than the benefits of hiring new employees. • Methods that provide economic value greater than the cost of using them are said to have utility.
    96. 96. Initial Screening • Involves screening of inquiries and screening interviews. • Job description information is shared along with a salary range. • Usually it checks: application, resumes, references checks, background checks. Recently: social media or googling.
    97. 97. Employment Tests Aptitude tests: assess how well a person can learn or acquire skills and abilities. Achievement tests: measure a person‘s existing knowledge and skills.
    98. 98. Employment Tests and Work Samples Employme nt Tests & Work Samples Physical Ability Tests Cognitive Ability Tests Job Performance Tests Work Samples Personality Inventories Honesty Tests Drug Tests Medical Examination s
    99. 99. Interviews Interviewing Techniques Nondirective Interview Structured Interview Situational Interview Behavior Description Interview
    100. 100. Formats of Interviews • Unstructured or nondirective interview • An unstructured conversational-style interview in which the interviewer pursues points of interest as they come up in response to questions. • Structured or directive interview • An interview following a set sequence of questions.
    101. 101. Interview Content: Types of Questions • Situational interview • A series of job-related questions that focus on how the candidate would behave in a given situation. • Behavioral interview • A series of job-related questions that focus on how they reacted to actual situations in the past. • Job-related interview • A series of job-related questions that focus on relevant past job-related behaviors.
    102. 102. Interview Content: Types of Questions • Stress interview • An interview in which the interviewer seeks to make the applicant uncomfortable with occasionally rude questions that supposedly to spot sensitive applicants and those with low or high stress tolerance. • Puzzle questions • Recruiters for technical, finance, and other types of jobs use questions to pose problems requiring unique (―out-of-the-box‖) solutions to see how candidates think under pressure.
    103. 103. Personal or Individual Interviews • Unstructured sequential interview • An interview in which each interviewer forms an independent opinion after asking different questions. • Structured sequential interview • An interview in which the applicant is interviewed sequentially by several persons; each rates the applicant on a standard form. • Panel interview • An interview in which a group of interviewers questions the applicant.
    104. 104. Personal or Individual Interviews • Panel (broad) interview • An interview in which a group of interviewers questions the applicant. • Mass interview • A panel interviews several candidates simultaneously.
    105. 105. Factors Affecting Interviews • First impressions • The tendency for interviewers to jump to conclusions—make snap judgments—about candidates during the first few minutes of the interview. • Negative bias: unfavorable information about an applicant influences interviewers more than does positive information. • Misunderstanding the job • Not knowing precisely what the job entails and what sort of candidate is best suited causes interviewers to make decisions based on incorrect stereotypes of what a good applicant is. • Candidate-order error • An error of judgment on the part of the interviewer due to interviewing one or more very good or very bad candidates just before the interview in question.
    106. 106. Factors Affecting Interviews (cont‘d) • Nonverbal behavior and impression management • Interviewers‘ inferences of the interviewee‘s personality from the way he or she acts in the interview have a large impact on the interviewer‘s rating of the interviewee. • Clever interviewees attempt to manage the impression they present to persuade interviewers to view them more favorably. • Effect of personal characteristics: attractiveness, gender, race • Interviewers tend have a less favorable view of candidates who are: (Physically unattractive, Female, Of a different racial background, Disabled)
    107. 107. Factors Affecting Interviews (cont‘d) • Interviewer behaviors affecting interview outcomes • Inadvertently telegraphing expected answers. • Talking so much that applicants have no time to answer questions. • Letting the applicant dominate the interview. • Acting more positively toward a favored (or similar to the interviewer) applicant.
    108. 108. Designing and Conducting the Interview • The structured situational interview • Use either situational questions (preferred) or behavioral questions that yield high criteria-related validities. • Step 1: Job Analysis • Step 2: Rate the Job‘s Main Duties • Step 3: Create Interview Questions • Step 4: Create Benchmark Answers • Step 5: Appoint the Interview Panel and Conduct Interviews
    109. 109. How to Conduct an Effective Interview • Structure your interview: 1. Be prepared: I. Secure a private room to minimize interruptions. II. Review the candidate‘s application and résumé. III. Review the job specifications 2. Assign responsibilities 3. Put the applicant at ease 4. Base questions on actual job duties. 5. Use job knowledge, situational, or behaviorally oriented questions and objective criteria to evaluate the interviewee‘s responses. 6. Ask about past behaviors 7. Figure out what your employees do, and ask questions that look for similar behaviors 8. Train interviewers. 9. Use the same questions with all candidates. 10. Use descriptive rating scales (excellent, fair, poor) to rate answers. 11. Use multiple interviewers or panel interviews. 12. If possible, use a standardized interview form. 13. Control the interview. 14. Take brief, unobtrusive notes during the interview. 15. At the end of the interview, make sure the candidate knows what to expect next
    110. 110. Background Investigation: • Verify information from the application form • Typical information verified includes: • former employers • previous job performance • education • legal status to work • credit references • criminal records • Reasons for investigations and checks • To verify factual information provided by applicants. • To uncover damaging information.
    111. 111. How Organizations Select Employees Multiple-Hurdle Model • Process of arriving at a selection decision by eliminating some candidates at each stage of the selection process. Compensatory Model • Process of arriving at a selection decision in which a very high score on one type of assessment can make up for a low score on another.
    112. 112. Communicating the Decision • When a candidate has been selected, the organization should communicate the the offer to the candidate. The offer should include: • Job responsibilities • Work schedule • Rate of pay • Starting date • Other relevant details
    113. 113. Orienting Employees • Employee orientation • A procedure for providing new employees with basic background information about the organization. • Orientation content • Information on the benefits • Personnel policies • The daily routine • The Organization‘s structure, system and operations • Safety measures and regulations • Facilities tour
    114. 114. Orienting Employees (cont‘d) • A successful orientation should accomplish four things for new employees: • Make them feel welcome and at ease. • Help them understand the organization in a broad sense. • Make clear to them what is expected in terms of work and behavior. • Help them begin the process of becoming socialized into the firm‘s ways of acting and doing things.
    115. 115. New Employee Departmental Orientation Checklist
    116. 116. Performance Management Day III Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs116
    117. 117. Introduction • Performance management: the process through which managers ensure that employees‘ activities and outputs contribute to the organization‘s goals. • This process requires: • Knowing what activities and outputs are desired • Observing whether they occur • Providing feedback to help employees meet expectations
    118. 118. Stages of the Performance Management Process
    119. 119. Comparing Performance Appraisal and Performance Management • Performance appraisal • Evaluating an employee‘s current and/or past performance relative to his or her performance standards. • Performance management • The process employers use to make sure employees are working toward organizational goals.
    120. 120. Purposes of Performance Management • Strategic Purpose – means effective performance management helps the organization achieve its business objectives. • Administrative Purpose – refers to the ways in which organizations use the system to provide information for day-to-day decisions about salary, benefits, and recognition programs. • Developmental Purpose – means that it serves as a basis for developing employees‘ knowledge and skills.
    121. 121. Performance Appraisal Roles • Supervisors • Usually do the actual appraising. • Must be familiar with basic appraisal techniques. • Must understand and avoid problems that can cripple appraisals. • Must know how to conduct appraisals fairly.
    122. 122. Performance Appraisal Roles (cont‘d) • HR department • Serves a policy-making and advisory role. • Provides advice and assistance regarding the appraisal tool to use. • Prepares forms and procedures and insists that all departments use them. • Responsible for training supervisors to improve their appraisal skills. • Responsible for monitoring the system to ensure that appraisal formats and criteria comply with EEO laws and are up to date.
    123. 123. Criteria for Effective Performance Management Fit with strategy Validity Reliability Acceptability Specific feedback
    124. 124. Contamination and Deficiency of a Job Performance Measure
    125. 125. Designing the Appraisal Tool • What to measure? • Work output (quality and quantity) • Personal competencies • Goal (objective) achievement • How to measure? • Graphic rating scales • Alternation ranking method • MBO
    126. 126. Methods for Measuring Performance METHOD Comparati ve Attribute BehaviorResults Quality
    127. 127. Computerized and Web-Based Performance Appraisal • Performance appraisal software programs • Keep notes on subordinates during the year. • Electronically rate employees on a series of performance traits. • Generate written text to support each part of the appraisal. • Electronic performance monitoring (EPM) • Having supervisors electronically monitor the amount of computerized data an employee is processing per day, and thereby his or her performance.
    128. 128. Who Should Do the Appraising? • The immediate supervisor • Peers • Rating committees • Self-ratings • Subordinates • 360-Degree feedback
    129. 129. Sources of Performance Information • 360-Degree Performance Appraisal: performance measurement that combines information from the employees‘: • Managers • Peers • Subordinates • Self • Customers
    130. 130. Types of Performance Measurement Rating Errors • Contrast errors: the rater compares an individual, not against an objective standard, but against other employees. • Distributional errors: the rater tends to use only one part of a rating scale. • Leniency: the reviewer rates everyone near the top • Strictness: the rater favors lower rankings • Central tendency: the rater puts everyone near the middle of the scale • Rater bias: raters often let their opinion of one quality color their opinion of others. • Halo error: when the bias is in a favorable direction. This can mistakenly tell employees they don’t need to improve in any area. • Horns error: when the bias involves negative ratings. This can cause employees to feel frustrated and defensive.
    131. 131. Giving Performance Feedback • Scheduling Performance Feedback • Performance feedback should be a regular, expected management activity. • Annual feedback is not enough. • Employees should receive feedback so often that they know what the manager will say during their annual performance review. • Preparing for a Feedback Session • Managers should be prepared for each formal feedback session. • Conducting the Feedback Session • During the feedback session, managers can take any of three approaches: 1. “Tell-and-Sell” – managers tell employees their ratings and then justify those ratings. 2. “Tell-and-Listen” – managers tell employees their ratings and then let the employees explain their side of the story. 3. “Problem-Solving” – managers and employees work together to solve performance problems.
    132. 132. Improving Performance
    133. 133. The Training Process • Training • The process of teaching new employees the basic skills they need to perform their jobs. • Training and Development Process 1. Needs analysis: Identify job performance skills needed, assess prospective trainees skills, and develop objectives. 2. Instructional design: Produce the training program content, including workbooks, exercises, and activities. 3. Validation: Presenting (trying out) the training to a small representative audience. 4. Implement the program: Actually training the targeted employee group. 5. Evaluation: Assesses the program‘s successes or failures.
    134. 134. Training Methods • On-job Training (OJT) • Having a person learn a job by actually doing the job. i.e. by Coaching or understudy, Job rotation, Special assignments • Apprenticeship training • A structured process by which people become skilled workers through a combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job training. • Informal learning • The majority of what employees learn on the job they learn through informal means of performing their jobs on a daily basis. • Job instruction training (JIT) • Listing each job‘s basic tasks, along with key points, in order to provide step-by-step training for employees.
    135. 135. Evaluating the Training Effort • Designing the study • Time series design • Controlled experimentation • Training effects to measure • Reaction of trainees to the program • Learning that actually took place • Behavior that changed on the job • Results that were achieved as a result of the training
    136. 136. Time Series Training Evaluation Design Figure 8–5
    137. 137. Career Development • Employee development: the combination of formal education, job experiences, relationships, and assessment of personality and abilities to help employees prepare for the future of their careers. • Development is about preparing for change in the form of new jobs, new responsibilities, or new requirements.
    138. 138. Training versus Development TRAINING DEVELOPMENT Focus Current Future Use of work experiences Low High Goal Preparation for current job Preparation for changes Participation Required Voluntary
    139. 139. The Basics of Career Management • Career management • The process for enabling employees to better understand and develop their career skills and interests, and to use these skills and interests more effectively. • Career development • The lifelong series of activities that contribute to a person‘s career exploration, establishment, success, and fulfillment. • Career planning • The deliberate process through which someone becomes aware of personal skills, interests, knowledge, motivations, and other characteristics; and establishes action plans to attain specific goals.
    140. 140. Roles in Career Development The Individual • Accept responsibility for your own career. • Assess your interests, skills, and values. • Seek out career information and resources. • Establish goals and career plans. • Utilize development opportunities. • Talk with your manager about your career. • Follow through on realistic career plans. The Manager • Provide timely performance feedback. • Provide developmental assignments and support. • Participate in career development discussions. • Support employee development plans. The Organization • Communicate mission, policies, and procedures. • Provide training and development opportunities. • Provide career information and career programs. • Offer a variety of career options.
    141. 141. Four Approaches to Employee Development
    142. 142. How Job Experiences Are Used for Employee Development
    143. 143. Development-Related Challenges Glass Ceiling • Circumstances resembling an invisible barrier that keep most women and minorities from attaining the top jobs in organizations. Succession Planning • The process of identifying and tracking high- potential employees who will be able to fill top management positions when they become vacant. Dysfunctional Managers • A manager who is otherwise competent may engage in some behaviors that make him or her ineffective or even ―toxic‖ – stifles ideas and drives away good employees.
    144. 144. Membership Retention Though organizations often focus on attracting new members, retaining your existing members is just as important, if not more
    145. 145. Why Retention is important? • Retention starts with recruitment. • When you lose a Member you must recruit two in order to show growth • Renewal is only the last step in the long process of retention. • Members are neither identical nor interchangeable. • Pay special attention to new Members so they will convert to lifetime Members. Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs145
    146. 146. Losses reasons 1. Death 2. Economics 3. Health 4. Military Service 5. Business Conflicts 6. Moving from the Community 7. … Controllable reasons: • Organization management • Organization activities • Meetings • Education and orientation • Personal objections • Financial Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs146
    147. 147. Members Life in the NGO 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Activity% Years Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs147
    148. 148. 1. Encourage member involvement • Members do not want to sit passively on the sidelines while your organization works toward its goals. If they can't take action -- any action -- they will lose interest in the organization. In many cases, an uninterested member will drop his membership and move on to something else. To keep members engaged, do what you can to help them get involved. Encourage them to attend events, help the organization raise funds and take advantage of partner offerings. For any program you roll out to the membership, a well thought out, sustained marketing effort is critical to show the VALUE of engagement and what the program does for the member and the organization. Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs148
    149. 149. 2. Create value • Your members want to feel like they are helping the organization serve its purpose, but they also want to gets something out of it. By providing members with valuable resources and experiences, you can ensure that they don't forget the value of their membership. • To create value for your members, provide them with access to exclusive, members-only offers from your partners, teach them to improve their own lives through educational resources and tackle legislative issues that are relevant to them. • When your organization wins a fight, make the success a celebration for members. When you lose, make sure that your members know that your organization will continue to fight. Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs149
    150. 150. 3. Communicate appropriately • When it comes to communicating with members, quality is more important than quantity. Make sure that all communications you send are relevant to your members, to the point and timely. Let your members choose their favorite methods of communication, and let them opt out of certain channels. Never forget that every member interaction is an opportunity for branding, and these interactions must be part of your member retention strategy, from sale -- to onboarding -- to service -- to renewal. Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs150
    151. 151. 4. Segment your membership • Segmenting your membership allows you to communicate more effectively and personally with each member. For every member of your organization, make sure that you know the reason they joined, the issues that are most important to them and what type of communications they would like to receive from you. • Let your members feel that their experience with the organization is specifically tailored to their needs and preferences. Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs151
    152. 152. 5. Use a multi-layer approach for renewals • When the time comes for members to renew their membership, give them as many chances to say, "yes" as possible. Develop a planned approach that involved phone calls, email, postal mail and in-person contact with members. Track member involvement at all times, and use the information you collect to remind your members of the programs and resources they've taken advantage of during their membership with your organization. Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs152
    153. 153. 6. Survey your former members • Even with the best renewal strategies, some members will leave your organization. When members choose not to renew, survey them to find out why they left, which services they liked and which areas of your organization need improvement. Use members' responses to improve your organization's offerings and member retention rates in the future. Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs153
    154. 154. 7. Sell to the right target audience • Part of retaining a solid membership involves choosing the right members to begin with. Your ideal member is a company or individual that identifies with your purpose, stands to benefit from the accomplishment of your goals and expresses interest in participating in the organization's activities. By focusing your efforts on companies and individuals that are likely to stay with your organization for the long haul, you can ensure better member retention right from the start. Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs154
    155. 155. 8. Maximize Social media 4 steps to do 1. Educate: 1. use several social networks 2. align it to your strategic brand plan 3. Use metrics to evaluate 2. Engage: 1. Listen to your audience 2. Share value added content 3. Engage all your connections 3. Grow: 1. Provide sophisticated customer experience (think out of the box) Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs155
    156. 156. Benefits, Incentives & Recognition Day IV Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs156
    157. 157. Benefits • Benefits • Indirect financial and nonfinancial payments employees receive for continuing their employment with the company. • Types of employee benefit plans • Supplemental pay • Insurance • Additional services and facilities • Retirement (Pensions)
    158. 158. The Role of Benefits • Benefits contribute to attracting, retaining, and motivating People. • The variety of possible benefits helps organizations to tailor their compensation based on their needs. • benefits help to maintain economic security. • Benefits impose significant costs. • Benefits packages are more complex than pay structures, making them harder to understand and appreciate. • Sometimes, benefits are subject to government regulation. • Legally required benefits. • Tax laws can make benefits favorable.
    159. 159. Expectations and Values • Employees expect to receive benefits that are legally required and widely available. • They value benefits they are likely to use. • The value they place on various benefits is likely to differ from one employee to another.
    160. 160. Expectations and Values (continued) • Organizations can address differences in employees‘ needs and empower their employees by offering flexible benefits plans in place of a single benefits package for all employees. • Cafeteria-style plan: a benefits plan that offers employees a set of alternatives from which they can choose the types and amounts of benefits they want.
    161. 161. Communicating Benefits to Employees • Organizations must communicate benefits information to employees so that they will appreciate the value of their benefits. • This is essential so that benefits can achieve their objective of attracting, motivating, and retaining employees. • Employees are interested in their benefits, and they need a great deal of detailed information to take advantage of benefits.
    162. 162. Incentive Pay • Incentive pay – forms of pay linked to an employee‘s performance as an individual, group member, or organization member. • Incentive pay is influential because the amount paid is linked to certain predefined behaviors or outcomes. • For incentive pay to motivate employees to contribute to the organization‘s success, the pay plans must be well designed.
    163. 163. The third ―R‖ (Recognition) Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs163
    164. 164. Effective incentive pay plans meet the following requirements: 1. Performance measures are linked to the organization‘s goals. 2. Employees believe they can meet performance standards. 3. The organization gives employees the resources they need to meet their goals. 4. Employees value the rewards given. 5. Employees believe the reward system is fair. 6. The pay plan takes into account that employees may ignore any goals that are not rewarded.
    165. 165. Individual Differences • Law of individual differences • The fact that people differ in personality, abilities, values, and needs. • Different people react to different incentives in different ways. • Managers should be aware of employee needs and fine-tune the incentives offered to meets their needs. • Money is not the only motivator.
    166. 166. Needs and Motivation • Abraham Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Needs • Five increasingly higher-level needs: • physiological (food, water) • security (a safe environment) • social (relationships with others) • self-esteem (a sense of personal worth) • self-actualization (becoming the desired self) • Lower level needs must be satisfied before higher level needs can be addressed or become of interest to the individual.
    167. 167. Pay for Individual Performance Piecework rates Standard hour plans Merit pay Individual bonuses Sales commissions
    168. 168. Pay for Group Performance Gainsharing Bonuses Team Awards
    169. 169. Types of Pay for Organizational Performance
    170. 170. How Incentives Sometimes ―Work‖ SOURCE: DILBERT reprinted by permission of United Feature Syndicate, Inc.
    171. 171. Why Incentive Plans Fail • Performance pay can‘t replace good management. • You get what you pay for. • ―Pay is not a motivator.‖ • Rewards punish. • Rewards rupture relationships. • Rewards can have unintended consequences. • Rewards may undermine responsiveness. • Rewards undermine intrinsic motivation.
    172. 172. Processes That Make Incentives Work Participation in Decisions • Employee participation in pay- related decisions can be part of a general move toward employee empowerment. • Employee participation can contribute to the success of an incentive plan. Communication • Communication demonstrates to employees that the pay plan is fair. • When employees understand the requirements of the incentive pay plan, the plan is more likely to influence their behavior as desired. • Important when the pay plan is being changed.
    173. 173. Employee Relations
    174. 174. What is Employee Relations? Employee Relations involves the body of work concerned with maintaining employer- employee relationships that contribute to satisfactory productivity, motivation, and morale. Essentially, Employee Relations is concerned with preventing and resolving problems involving individuals which arise out of or affect work situations. Advice is provided to supervisors on how to correct poor performance and employee misconduct. In such instances, progressive discipline and regulatory and other requirements must be considered in effecting disciplinary actions and in resolving employee grievances and appeals. Information is provided to employees to promote a better understanding of management's goals and policies. Information is also provided to employees to assist them in correcting poor performance, on or off duty misconduct, and/or to address personal issues that affect them in the workplace. Employees are advised about applicable regulations, legislation, and bargaining agreements. Employees are also advised about their grievance and appeal rights and discrimination and whistleblower protections. Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs174
    175. 175. Ways to interfere Mediation • Conflict resolution procedure in which a mediator hears the views of both sides and facilitates the negotiation process but has no formal authority to dictate a resolution. Fact Finder • Third party to collective bargaining who reports the reasons for a dispute, the views and arguments of both sides, and possibly a recommended settlement, which the parties may decline. Arbitration • Conflict resolution procedure in which an arbitrator or arbitration board determines a binding settlement.
    176. 176. Contract Administration Contract Administration • Includes carrying out the terms of the agreement and resolving conflicts over interpretation or violation of the agreement. Grievance Procedure • The process for resolving conflicts over interpretation or violation of a contract/agreement
    177. 177. Labor-Management Cooperation Employee involvement in decision making Self-managing employee teams Labor-management problem-solving teams Broadly defined jobs Sharing of financial gains and business information with employees
    178. 178. Equal employment Opportunity (EEO) is about: Making sure that workplaces are free from all forms of unlawful discrimination and harassment, and Providing programs to assist members of EEO groups to overcome past or present disadvantages.This means having workplace rules, policies, practices and behaviours that are fair and do not disadvantage people their full potential and pursue a career path of their choice. In such an environment, all workers are valued and respected and have opportunities to develop their full potential and pursue a career path of their choice Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs178
    179. 179. EEO Practices and Behavours • recruitment, selection and promotion practices which are open, competitive and based on merit. This means the best applicant is selected for the job, • access for all employees to training and development, • flexible working arrangements that meet the needs of employees and create a productive workplace, • grievance handling procedures that are accessible to all employees and deal with workplace complaints promptly, confidentially and fairly, • communication processes to give employees access to information and allow their views to be heard, • management decisions being made without bias, • no lawful discrimination or harassment in the workplace, • respect for the social and cultural backgrounds of all employees and customers Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs179
    180. 180. Fair versus Equal Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs180
    181. 181. Social Enterpuener • Social entrepreneurs are individuals with innovative solutions to society‘s most pressing social problems. They are ambitious and persistent, tackling major social issues and offering new ideas for wide-scale change. • Rather than leaving societal needs to the government or business sectors, social entrepreneurs find what is not working and solve the problem by changing the system, spreading the solution, and persuading entire societies to take new leaps. • Social entrepreneurs often seem to be possessed by their ideas, committing their lives to changing the direction of their field. They are both visionaries and ultimate realists, concerned with the practical implementation of their vision above all else. Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs181
    182. 182. Organizational Change
    183. 183. Managing Organizational Change and Development • What to change? • Strategy: mission and vision • Culture: new corporate values • Structure: departmental structure, coordination, span of control, reporting relationships, tasks, decision-making procedures • Technologies: new systems and methods • Employees: changes in employee attitudes and skills
    184. 184. Overcoming Resistance to Change • What causes resistance? • All behavior in organizations is a product of two kinds of forces—those striving to maintain the status quo and those pushing for change. • Lewin‘s Change Process • Unfreezing: reducing the forces striving to maintain the status quo. • Moving: developing new behaviors, values, and attitudes, sometimes through structural changes. • Refreezing: reinforcing the changes.
    185. 185. Overcoming Resistance to Change • Change initiatives • Political campaign: creating a coalition strong enough to support and guide the initiative. • Marketing campaign: tapping into employees‘ thoughts and feelings and also effectively communicating messages about the prospective program‘s theme and benefits. • Military campaign: Deploying executives‘ scarce resources of attention and time to actually carry out the change.
    186. 186. How to Lead the Change (in 10 Steps) 1. Establish a sense of urgency. 2. Mobilize commitment through joint diagnosis of problems. 3. Create a guiding coalition. 4. Develop a shared vision. 5. Communicate the vision. 6. Help employees to make the change. 7. Generate short-term wins. 8. Consolidate gains and produce more change. 9. Anchor the new ways of doing things in the company‘s culture. 10. Monitor progress and adjust the vision as required.
    187. 187. Using Organizational Development • Organizational development (OD) • A special approach to organizational change in which employees themselves formulate and implement the change that‘s required. • Usually involves action research. • Applies behavioral science knowledge. • Changes the attitudes, values, and beliefs of employees. • Changes the organization in a particular direction.
    188. 188. Examples of OD Interventions Table 8–3 Human Process T-groups Process consultation Third-party intervention Team building Organizational confrontation meeting Intergroup relations Technostructural Formal structural change Differentiation and integration Cooperative union–management projects Quality circles Total quality management Work design Human Resource Management Goal setting Performance appraisal Reward systems Career planning and development Managing workforce diversity Employee wellness Strategic Integrated strategic management Culture change Strategic change Self-designing organizations
    189. 189. Managing Exits
    190. 190. Managing Exit the process used within many businesses to terminate employees in a professional manner. It applies to employees who have resigned and those that have been terminated by the company. When an employee is terminated there are a number of considerations that an organization needs to make in order to cleanly end the relationship between the company and the employee. The company as a legal entity has a responsibility to the employee which may extend beyond the period of employment and this is the primary focus of the exit procedure. Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs190
    191. 191. Managing Dismissals • Dismissal • Involuntary termination of an employee‘s employment with the firm. • Terminate-at-will rule • Without a contract, the employee can resign for any reason, at will, and the employer can similarly dismiss the employee for any reason (or no reason), at will. • Limitations on ―terminate-at-will‖ • Violation of public • Implied contract • Good faith
    192. 192. Managing Dismissals (cont‘d) • Limitations on terminate-at-will • Public policy exception • Discharge is wrongful when it was against an explicit, well-established public policy: employee fired or refusing to break the law. • Implied contract exception • Employer statements about future employment create a contractual obligation for the employer to continue to employ the employee. • Covenant of good faith exception • Suggests that employers should not fire employees without good cause.
    193. 193. Grounds for Dismissal • Unsatisfactory performance • Persistent failure to perform assigned duties or to meet prescribed standards on the job. • Misconduct in the workplace • Deliberate and willful violation of the employer‘s rules: stealing, rowdy behavior, and insubordination. • Lack of qualifications for the job • An employee‘s inability to do the assigned work although he or she is diligent. • Changed requirements or elimination of the job. • An employee‘s inability to do the work assigned, after the nature of the job has changed. • Elimination of the employee‘s job.
    194. 194. Insubordination 1. Direct disregard of the boss‘s authority. 2. Flat-out disobedience of, or refusal to obey, the boss‘s orders—particularly in front of others. 3. Deliberate defiance of clearly stated company policies, rules, regulations, and procedures. 4. Public criticism of the boss. Contradicting or arguing with him or her is also negative and inappropriate. 5. Blatant disregard of reasonable instructions. 6. Contemptuous display of disrespect and, portraying these feelings while on the job. 7. Disregard for the chain of command, shown by going around the immediate supervisor or manager with a complaint, suggestion, or political maneuver. 8. Participation in (or leadership of ) an effort to undermine and remove the boss from power.
    195. 195. Managing Dismissals (cont‘d) • Foster a perception of fairness in the dismissal situation by: • Instituting a formal multi-step procedure (including warning). • Having a supervising manager give full explanations of why and how termination decisions were made. • Establishing a neutral appeal process also fosters fairness.
    196. 196. Avoiding Wrongful Discharge Suits • Bases for wrongful discharge suits: • Discharge does not comply with the law. • Discharge does not comply with the contractual arrangement stated or implied by the firm via its employment application forms, employee manuals, or other promises. • Avoiding wrongful discharge suits • Set up employment policies and dispute resolution procedures that make employees feel treated fairly. • Do the preparatory work that helps to avoid such suits.
    197. 197. Personal Supervisory Liability • Avoiding personal supervisory liability: • Be familiar with federal, state, and local statutes and know how to uphold their requirements. • Follow company policies and procedures • Be consistent application of the rule or regulation is important. • Don‘t administer discipline in a manner that adds to the emotional hardship on the employee. • Do not act in anger. • Utilize the HR department for advice regarding how to handle difficult disciplinary matters.
    198. 198. The Termination Interview • Plan the interview carefully. • Make sure the employee keeps the appointment time. • Never inform an employee over the phone. • Allow 10 minutes as sufficient time for the interview. • Use a neutral site, never your own office. • Have employee agreements, the human resource file, and a release announcement (internal and external) prepared in advance. • Be available at a time after the interview in case questions or problems arise. • Have phone numbers ready for medical or security emergencies.
    199. 199. The Termination Interview (cont‘d) • Get to the point. • Do not beat around the bush by talking about the weather or making other small talk. • As soon as the employee enters, give the person a moment to get comfortable and then inform him or her of your decision. • Describe the situation. • Briefly explain why the person is being let go. • Remember to describe the situation rather than attack the employee personally • Emphasize that the decision is final and irrevocable.
    200. 200. The Termination Interview (cont‘d) • Listen. • Continue the interview until the person appears to be talking freely and reasonably calmly about the reasons for his or her termination and the support package (including severance pay). • Review all elements of the severance package. • Describe severance payments, benefits, access to office support people, and the way references will be handled. However, under no conditions should any promises or benefits beyond those already in the support package be implied.
    201. 201. The Termination Interview (cont‘d) • Identify the next step. • The terminated employee may be disoriented and unsure what to do next. • Explain where the employee should go next, upon leaving the interview.
    202. 202. Interviewing Departing Employees • Exit Interview • Its aim is to elicit information about the job or related matters that might give the employer a better insight into what is right—or wrong—about the company. • The assumption is that because the employee is leaving, he or she will be candid. • The quality of information gained from exit interviews is questionable.
    203. 203. Exit Interview Questions • How were you recruited? • Why did you join the company? • Was the job presented correctly and honestly? • Were your expectations met? • What was the workplace environment like? • What was your supervisor‘s management style like? • What did you like most/least about the company? • Were there any special problem areas? • Why did you decide to leave, and how was the departure handled?
    204. 204. Why former members are important? • Assets • Activists • A word of mouth • Supporter (financial, …) • Connections (i.e. lobbying) • … Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs204
    205. 205. Layoffs • Layoff are not terminations. • Temporary layoffs occur when: • There is no work available for employees. • Management expects the no-work situation to be temporary and probably short term. • Management intends to recall the employees when work is again available.
    206. 206. Bumping/Layoff Procedures • Seniority is usually the ultimate determinant of who will work. • Seniority can give way to merit or ability, but usually only when no senior employee is qualified for a particular job. • Seniority is usually based on the date the employee joined the organization, not the date he or she took a particular job. • Companywide seniority allows an employee in one job to bump or displace an employee in another job, provided the more senior person can do the job without further training.
    207. 207. Alternatives to Layoffs • Voluntarily reducing employees‘ pay to keep everyone working. • Concentrating employees‘ vacations during slow periods. • Taking voluntary time off to reduce the employer‘s payroll. • Taking a ―rings of defense approach‖ by hiring temporary workers that can be let go early. • Offering buyout packages to find enough volunteers to avoid dismissing people.
    208. 208. The Assignment Within your organization, you are asked to do the following: 1. Evaluate the HR system applied (types of people, size, management, level) and explain how HRP is done. 2. Evaluate your recruitment Policy (Personnel policies, sources, recruiter) then how is selection is done 3. What you do to retain members and the relations with people (EEO). 4. Describe how exits are managed NB: use as much metrics as you can. Syrian NGO Development Programme (SNDP) - Wave A (Damascus) - Human Resource Management of NGOs208