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Green Industries in SYRIA
SECTOR PROFILE
SEBC
iNTRODUCTION
• Renewable energy resources in the Syrian Arab
Republic are surveyed. Potential of solar, wind and
bio-mass ...
Syria in Figures I
• Area: 185,180 km2
• Population: 21,101,163
• Natural resources: Petroleum, Phosphates, Chrome and
Man...
Syria in Figures II
PRODUCED ENERGY M.K.W.H (in 2009)
Ministry Of
Electricity
Industrial
Establishments
Total
Water 1866 0...
Syria in Figures III
Solar Energy
• Average rate of the solar
radiation (insolation) is about 5
kWh/m2 (equivalent to 1825
kWh/m2 per year over...
Wind Energy
• A Wind Atlas for Syria
was published in 1999
through cooperation
between Syrian
officials and the
Danish RIS...
Biomass Energy
• Several studies have been carried out with ESCWA support, and
extensive data have been collected on bioma...
Hydro Energy
• Hydropower is the only significant renewable energy contribution to
Syria’s energy supply at the current ti...
Organization structure
Investment in Syria
• Investment Law No. 10 (1991) and its amending Decree No. 7 (2000) were the
SARG's initial attempts t...
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Green industries in syria

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Green industries in syria

  1. 1. Green Industries in SYRIA SECTOR PROFILE SEBC
  2. 2. iNTRODUCTION • Renewable energy resources in the Syrian Arab Republic are surveyed. Potential of solar, wind and bio-mass resources and their promising applications are analyzed. The annual average long-term solar radiation on a horizontal plane is measured and found to be 5.2 kWh/m2 per day. Wind speed measurements were conducted in more than twenty stations spread all over the country. The prospects of these measurements indicate that wind is another promising source of renewable energy in Syria. The registered annual mean daily wind speed in some regions of the country reaches more than 13 m/sec. Theoretical study estimates that the biogas production of the daily wastes of humans, animals and agriculture is higher than 300 million cubic meters per year
  3. 3. Syria in Figures I • Area: 185,180 km2 • Population: 21,101,163 • Natural resources: Petroleum, Phosphates, Chrome and Manganese Ores, Asphalt, Iron Ore, Rock Salt, Marble, Gypsum, Hydropower • GDP : $49 billion • GDP -real growth rate: 4.3 % • GDP -per capita (PPP): $2,333 • GDP -composition by sector: agriculture: 24.8%, industry: 25.1%, services: 50.1%
  4. 4. Syria in Figures II PRODUCED ENERGY M.K.W.H (in 2009) Ministry Of Electricity Industrial Establishments Total Water 1866 0 1866 Steam 22429 446 22875 Gas & Disel 18022 643 18665 TOTAL 42317 1089 43406 ELECTRICAL ENERGY CONSUMED UNIT M.K.W.H (in 2009) Ministry Of Electricity Industrial Establishments Total For lighting 18081 732 18813 For industry 8827 357 9184 Total consumption 26908 1089 27997 Energy sold outside the country 611 0 611 Loss and self consumption 14798 0 14798 TOTAL 42317 1089 43406
  5. 5. Syria in Figures III
  6. 6. Solar Energy • Average rate of the solar radiation (insolation) is about 5 kWh/m2 (equivalent to 1825 kWh/m2 per year over the entire area of the Syrian land). • The number of sunny hours, in which solar radiation can actually be utilized, varies from 2820 to 3270 hours/year. • The number of cloudy days varies from 38 to 45 days/year
  7. 7. Wind Energy • A Wind Atlas for Syria was published in 1999 through cooperation between Syrian officials and the Danish RISO Institute. The Atlas is mainly based on data collected by 49 wind- monitoring stations established around Syria. These have collected data for many years (5-12 years) at each site in the period 1965-93. Annual averages of wind speeds at 50 m height in SYRIA Site m/sec Qonaitra 6.2 Kattiene 5.2 Daraa 4.7 Asry 4.5 Safita 4.3 Tadmur 4.3 Tanf 4.3 Raka 4.0 Soueda 3.9 Damascus 3.6 Nabek 3.6 Aleppo 3.6 Kamishly 3.6 Boukamal 3.4
  8. 8. Biomass Energy • Several studies have been carried out with ESCWA support, and extensive data have been collected on biomass resources. Estimates of the main biomass resources carried out in the year 1999 show that there are about 577365 tons of dry animal dung; 360000 tons of dry chicken droppings; 230000 tons of dry human waste; and 34000 tons of dry kitchen residues available every year. Studies indicate that 357 million m3 of biogas could be produced annually in Syria. This amount of biogas can produce about 2380 GWh per year (211000 toe/year).
  9. 9. Hydro Energy • Hydropower is the only significant renewable energy contribution to Syria’s energy supply at the current time. The Al-Thawra Dam (880 MW) and newly commissioned Tishreen Dam (630 MW), both on the Euphrates, provide around 90 % of the hydroelectric supply. The Al-Baath Dam on the Euphrates (75 MW) and 5 other small hydro plants make up the total of 1620 MW installed.
  10. 10. Organization structure
  11. 11. Investment in Syria • Investment Law No. 10 (1991) and its amending Decree No. 7 (2000) were the SARG's initial attempts to stimulate foreign direct investment in Syria; • Decrees Nos. 8 and 9 in January 2007 replaced pre-existing laws enabling investors, whether Syrians, Arabs, or non-Arab foreigners, to own or lease the land required for their projects, and provides for free repatriation of profits, dividends and invested capital on condition that all tax liabilities have been met. • SARG passed a law in September 2009 exempting investment projects located in he underdeveloped eastern region from taxes and fees for a period of ten years, provided the projects were licensed before December 31, 2012. • SARG passed Law 32 in November 2010 allowing private sector investment in the generation and distribution of electricity in both traditional and renewable energy fields. Public-private partnerships are also permitted under Law 32. Accordingly

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