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  1. 1. Lesson planning
  2. 2. What is lesson planning?
  3. 3. is one of those essential skills of the competent teacher Planning
  4. 4. What should teachers take into account when planning a lesson?
  5. 5. The students What the students need Who the students are What the students bring to class
  6. 6. The Content ?
  7. 7. The content depends on what the teacher wants to achieve in the lesson. Students who are interested in , involved in and enjoy what they are studying tend to make better progress and learn faster.
  8. 8. What elements are necessary for successful learning? ?
  9. 9. Harmer model Engage Activate Study
  10. 10. This means getting the students interested in the class. Engage
  11. 11. Every lesson usually needs to have some kind of language focus. Study
  12. 12. For students to develop their use of English they need to have a chance to produce it . Activate
  13. 13. Why is planning important? gives teacher confidence planning is generally good practice and a sign of professionalism gives the teacher the opportunity to predict possible problems and therefore consider solutions makes sure that lesson is balanced and appropriate for class
  14. 14. What are the advantages and disadvantages of having a course book? ?
  15. 15. Advantages They do provide a ready made structure for teaching material
  16. 16. Disadvantages The material was written for the teachers' particular students Each class is different and teachers need to be able to adapt material from whatever source
  17. 17. What are the principles of planning? Prepare thoroughly, but in class, teach the learners, not the plan .
  18. 18. Aims Teachers need to know what they want their students to be able to do at the end of the lesson that they couldn't do before <ul><ul><li>What do the students know already? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do the students need to know? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What did you do with the students in the previous class? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How well do the class work together? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How motivated are the students? </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Take into account the things they like to do. The learners:
  20. 20. What is the subject matter of the lesson The teaching point
  21. 21. Teachers indicate what the activity will be Teaching procedures
  22. 22. Involves students in a number of different types of activities and where possible introduces them to a wide selection of materials Materials and variety
  23. 23. What are the main elements of a Lesson?
  24. 24. How to plan a lesson PLANNING LEARNERS: What do they like doing? What topics interest them? CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT: How will the chairs be arranged What instructions will I give? What happens if they don’t understand my instructions? How long is the whole lesson? MATERIAL: What materials will be used for each activity? What do I need to make, photocopy, borrow? What page of the coursebook have we got to? What can be used for homework? AIMS: What are the aims of the lesson? What are the aims of each activity? TEACHING PROCEDURES: What activities will help the learners achieve the lesson objectives? How will the activities link together to make a whole lesson? How long will each activity last? TEACHING POINT: What items of language will be studied or used in the lesson? What topics, contexts will be used? Am I confident about these teaching points? What preparation/ study do I need to do?
  25. 25. In this session, we will focus on 5 lesson planning models for use in second language classrooms:
  26. 26. Each of these models have their benefits and drawbacks, yet all have utility and application in the second language classroom. <ul><li>1 . Presentation-Practice-Production (PPP); </li></ul><ul><li>Van Els et al., 1984 </li></ul><ul><li>2. Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) </li></ul><ul><li>Jane Willis </li></ul><ul><li>3. Engage-Study-Activate (ESA) </li></ul><ul><li>Jeremy Harmer </li></ul><ul><li>4. The ITB Model -- Into, Through and Beyond </li></ul><ul><li>Brinton and Holten, 1997, </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive model </li></ul><ul><li>Chamot </li></ul>
  27. 27. 1. Presentation , Practice - Production <ul><li>the opportunity to learn something in context, </li></ul><ul><li>have it modeled by the teacher, </li></ul><ul><li>practice it in a controlled way and then </li></ul><ul><li>practice it freely . </li></ul>It is perhaps the most commonly taught and used format. The main idea behind this is that it gives students :
  28. 28. Introduce the language and form(s) to be studied Explain concepts, provide definitions The students practice using the language and/or form(s) introduced by the teacher De-contextualized drilling, rote repetition Accuracy emphasized over fluency After students demonstrate successful use of language and/or form(s) in practice phase, the students are given an opportunity to use what they have learned in a less controlled setting
  29. 29. <ul><ul><li>In Tasks, meaning is considered the primary aim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A relationship exists between the task, and a comparable, real-world context. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks contain an information gap that must be resolved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learners learn to construct their own meanings. </li></ul></ul>A task is a goal-oriented activity with a clear purpose. It should achieve an outcome and create a final product. Some examples include : listing, ordering and sorting, comparing, problem-solving, sharing personal experiences, and creative tasks. 2. Task Based Learning
  30. 30. Pre – task <ul><li>The teacher : </li></ul><ul><li>introduces and defines the topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses activitiesto help students recall / learn useful words and phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures students understand task instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>May play a recording of others doing the same or similar task. </li></ul><ul><li>The students: </li></ul><ul><li>Note down useful words and phrases from the pre-task activities/ or the recording. </li></ul><ul><li>May spend a few minutes preparing for the task individually . </li></ul>
  31. 31. Task cycle <ul><li>Task: </li></ul><ul><li>The students : PREPARE </li></ul><ul><li>Do the task in pairs/ small groups. </li></ul><ul><li>It may be based on a reading / listening text. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher : </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as a monitor and encourages students </li></ul><ul><li>Planning : </li></ul><ul><li>The students : INTERACT </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare to report to the class how they did the task and what they discovered / decided. </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearse what they will say. Or draft a written version for the class to read </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures the purpose of the report is clear. </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as language adviser </li></ul><ul><li>Helps students rehearse oral reports or organize written ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Report : </li></ul><ul><li>The students: REPORT </li></ul><ul><li>Present their spoken reports to the class, or circulate / display their written reports. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher : </li></ul><ul><li>Act as a chairperson, selecting who will speak next, or ensuring all students read most of the written report. </li></ul><ul><li>May give brief feedback on content and form. </li></ul><ul><li>May play a recording of others doing the same or similar task </li></ul>
  32. 32. Language focus or Post task <ul><li>Analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>The students </li></ul><ul><li>Do conciousness-raising activities to identify and process specific language features from the task text and / or transcript. </li></ul><ul><li>May ask about other features they have noticed. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Reviews each analysis activity with the class. </li></ul><ul><li>Brings other useful words, phrases and patterns to students’ attention. </li></ul><ul><li>May pick up on language items from the report stage </li></ul><ul><li>Practice : </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Conducts practice activities after analysis activities where necessary, to build confidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Clarification : some feedback, error correction, pronunciation, extramaterial . </li></ul><ul><li>The students </li></ul><ul><li>Practise words , phrases and patterns from the analysis activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Practise other features occurring in the task text or report stage </li></ul><ul><li>Enter useful language items in their language notebooks </li></ul>
  33. 33. Jeremy Harmer's Engage-Study-Activate (ESA) <ul><li>Engage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arouse student interest by involving their emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The main focus in this stage is the construction of language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be explicit or implicit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities or exercises used with the aim of getting the students using the target language as freely and communicatively as possible </li></ul></ul>3. ESA
  34. 34. into Through beyond 4. Content based Instruction Brinton and Holten, 1997
  35. 35. We usually have one specific idea to teach, but we don’y simply give the students the material, This approach to sequencing is called ”Into Through Beyond” <ul><li>We lead them into the material </li></ul><ul><li>take them through it </li></ul><ul><li>Guide beyond it </li></ul>
  36. 36. into Through beyond <ul><li>reciprocal teaching </li></ul><ul><li>think pair and share </li></ul><ul><li>study guides </li></ul><ul><li>graphic organizers </li></ul><ul><li>confirm, revise predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Focus attention on the topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Elicit curiosity, activate </li></ul><ul><li>background knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>prepare for the main activity </li></ul><ul><li>practice </li></ul><ul><li>analysis </li></ul><ul><li>application </li></ul><ul><li>think pair and share </li></ul><ul><li>discussion </li></ul><ul><li>advance organizer </li></ul><ul><li>focusing question, predicting </li></ul><ul><li>KWL </li></ul><ul><li>Present material. </li></ul><ul><li>Students explore and </li></ul><ul><li>construct meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>graphic organizers </li></ul><ul><li>discussion, debates </li></ul><ul><li>role plays </li></ul><ul><li>compare/contrast </li></ul><ul><li>10 minute essay </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Activates background knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Prepares learners </li></ul><ul><li>Gives learners info they need. </li></ul><ul><li>Connects activity with learners’ lives </li></ul>Present review vocabulary What where who when how which why. Show an example of how the grammar is used. What’s the difference between the sentences. Discuss or explain subject Make a mind map / list What do you know about………? Show a picture What is .? What do you think about…? Have you? What happened? Compare X and ……. Title: what does it mean? Look at the pictures – What’s happening. Read first line – What is it about? <ul><li>Teaches </li></ul><ul><li>Gives new information </li></ul><ul><li>explains </li></ul>Grammar Vocabulary Listening Speaking Writing Reading Watching Can include a while activity <ul><li>learners practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Checks comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Helps learners use info in their lives . </li></ul>Exercises in the book Make a list /mind map Make a dialog or role play Retell Ask the FIVE question strategy Make an outline of ……………. What where who when how which why. Compare X and ……. Make an advertisement for… What do you think about? Why? Draw a picture of Mixed sentences Write a letter to Into Pre activity Through activity Beyond Post activity Why How
  38. 38. CALLA Chamot & O’Malley (1994)
  39. 39. Cognitive Learning Strategies Chamot & O’Malley (1994) Manipulating the material to be learned in a specific learning task. Linking new learning to prior knowledge related to particular concepts or processes Relating learning processes to linguistic demands in the domains of listening, speaking, reading and writing
  40. 40. Social/Affective Learning Strategies Chamot & O’Malley (1994) <ul><li>Interacting with others to assist </li></ul><ul><li>in learning </li></ul><ul><li>Developing cooperation and </li></ul><ul><li>collaboration skills and processes </li></ul><ul><li>Asking questions for clarification </li></ul><ul><li>Using affective control to </li></ul><ul><li>accomplish the learning task </li></ul>
  41. 41. Planning : Advanced organization; selective attention; self management Monitoring : Checking for comprehension; monitoring production, self-monitoring while speaking and writing Evaluating : Checking back; reflecting on what one has learned, judging how well the task has been accomplished Metacognitive Strategies Chamot & O’Malley (1994)
  42. 42. Resourcing : Using reference materials such as textbooks, dictionaries and encyclopedias Grouping : Classifying words, terminology, quantities, or concepts according to their attributes Note-taking : Writing down key words and concepts Elaboration : Relating new ideas and concepts to known information and making personal associations Cognitive Strategies Chamot & O’Malley (1994)
  43. 43. More Cognitive Strategies Chamot & O’Malley (1994) <ul><li>Summarizing : Making mental, oral or written </li></ul><ul><li>summary of information gained at certain points </li></ul><ul><li>in learning process </li></ul><ul><li>Deduction/Induction : Use a rule/Make a rule </li></ul><ul><li>Imagery : Make a mental picture from the </li></ul><ul><li>information </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory Representation : Mentally replay a </li></ul><ul><li>word, phrase or piece of information </li></ul><ul><li>Making Inferences : Use context clues to guess </li></ul><ul><li>meaning and predict upcoming information </li></ul>
  44. 44. (Taken from: “The Learning Strategies Handbook” by Anna Uhl Chammot, Sarah Barnhardt, Pamela Beard El-Dinary, and Jill Robbins) Mptovation Cognitive conflict <ul><li>Activate background knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Class time that expands through out the lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>Previous knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>- Example: Brainstorming </li></ul><ul><li>Life Experiences : Dialogs about students’ experiences related to the topic </li></ul>Building knowledge <ul><li>Explain, model </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Experiences : - Observation </li></ul><ul><li>- Stating the Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Experimentations: - Investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Exposition </li></ul><ul><li>Systematization: - Summary </li></ul><ul><li>- Visual Organizers </li></ul>Application Prompt Strategies, give feedback Working on exercises, practices, activities, etc. Evaluation Assess Strategies Metacognitive, auto-evaluation, co-evaluation, hetero-evaluation Expansion / Transference Support transfer For example: Using what has been learned in real life situations
  45. 45. Sequencing activities hard complex creative new unknown using the information production (speak, wrt) Learner centered general Freer activities Easy Simple Mechanical Given Known Understanding Comprehension Teacher centered Specific Guided activities
  46. 46. Good lesson planning is the art of mixing techniques, activities and materials in such a way that an ideal balance is created for the class. Conclusion
  47. 47. [email_address] [email_address] Thank you ….. for your time and effort !