Philosophy & Religion• Return to Confucian values• Buddhism arrives in China
Achievements• Chinese still refer to themselves as Han• Fertilizer• Acupuncture• Seismograph• Civil service exams
Dates Gov. Econ. Social People Philos. Achiev. Structure & ReligionEarly Pre Clan? Subsistence Clans Polytheist farmingPeople - Consensus? Agriculture Family All Yin/Yang Pottery 1650 Important Ancestor Irrigation Worship SilkShang 1650 Appointed Farming Hierarchy Wu Ding Same Calligraphy – Rulers Craftsmanship Oracle Bones Silk 1027 Chariots ChopsticksZhou 1027 Feudal Feudal Same but Confucius Confucianism Mandate of – Local lords gain Farming & Feudal Lao Zi Taoism Heaven 220 power over Commerce Han Fezi Legalism Iron time Trade Coins Population Books Growth AcupunctureQin 221 Bureaucracy Government Power shifts Shi Huangdi Legalist Public school – 36 Military Owned to emperor Book Burning Great wall 203 Provinces Uniform Taxes and his Mirrors Legalist Uniform military leaders Marble CoinageHan 202 Confucian Farming Same basic Liu Bang Confucian Canal&Road – officials Silk Road hierarchy Wudi Government 220 AD Civil Service Monopolies socially but Bodhiharma Intro to Monopoly Exams power now Buddhism Expansion held by educated
East Meets West• Marco Polo• The Crusades• Kow Tow• Silk, Tea, and Gun Powder• Opium
The Opium Wars• Treaty of Nanjing – China to pay 21 million dollars – Loss of Hong Kong – Loss of sovereignty
Revolution and Republic• Chinese rebels, supported by European powers, forced out the Emperor• Formed as a republic• Fell to warlords in 1916• Turned to Nationalism in 1928• War with Japan in 1937• Fell to Communists in 1949• Now Taiwan• A Quick History
Chiang Kai Shek• Took part in the 1911 revolution against Qing Dynasty.• Became nationalist leader in1928• Elected the first president under in 1948.• Fled to the island of Taiwan• There, he became president of a nationalist government and continued to promise re-conquest of the Chinese mainland until his death in 1975.
Mao Zedong• Born to a peasant family• Joined the Chinese Communist Party as a founding member in the 1920s• Led an uprising in 1927• Led the Red Army on the Long March.• Brought the communists to victory against the nationalists in 1949, after more than 20 years of civil war.
Red Army & the Long March• Came into being in August 1927.• Both a political and social role: from distributing propaganda among the masses to arming them and helping them establish revolutionary political power.• Forced to retreat in October 1934 by Nationalists, 0ne hundred thousand soldiers and party leaders braved bitter conditions …only 28,000 completed the trip• The marchers legendary discipline increased party prestige, and the movement grew rapidly.
Great Leap Forward• Mao proposed that China should make a "great leap forward" into modernization.• Began a militant Five Year Plan to promote technology and agricultural self-sufficiency.• Fertile rice fields were ploughed over, and factory construction work began.• Farming was collectivized• 23,500 communes were created• Farmers had no idea how to use the new factories• Massive famine in 1960 and 1961• Twenty million people starved
Cultural Revolution• A ten-year political campaign to recapture excitement of the revolution• Ideological cleansing began with attacks by young Red Guards on so-called "intellectuals" to remove "bourgeois" influences.• Millions were forced into manual labor, and tens of thousands were executed.• Cultural Revolution was declared officially to have ended with Mao’s death and the arrest of the Gang of Four.
Red Guard• People in their teens and 20s who supported the shake-ups within the Communist Party in the Cultural Revolution.• Mao urged workers to turn on their managers and students to turn against their teachers.• Entire schools were closed by units of Red Guard students,• Chinese people who were between the ages of 15 and 25 during the period of the Cultural Revolution are now referred to as the "lost generation", having missed out on a proper education.
Deng Xiaoping• A veteran of the Long March• Took over after the Gang of Four were purged• Dominated both the party and government throughout the 1980s• Instituted a variety of economic reforms aimed at decentralizing Chinas economy and opening the country to international trade• Resigned from his last party post in 1989, after supporting the use of suppressive military force in the upheaval of Tiananmen Square.• Died in 1997
Tiananmen Square• Started as a mass demonstration of mourning students• Demonstrators soon began to call for greater democracy• The authorities response was initially lenient• On 4 June 1989 troops and tanks of the Peoples Liberation Army stormed into Tiananmen Square and ended the peaceful protest with a massacre in which thousands were killed.
Tibet• 640 Tibet established as independent kingdom• 820 Peace treaty signed with China• 1270 Conquered by Kublai Khan• 1913 Dalai Lama claims independence• 1950 Invaded by China• 1959 Dalai Lama fled to India• 1995 Named Panchen Lama
Taiwan• Established as “The Republic of China” in 1949• One-Party system until 1987• Now a multi-party democracy• World export power• Reunification vs. independence