History extension

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History extension

  1. 1. History Extension Topic 2:The Origins and Early History of Israel
  2. 2. History is a PROCESSAt its most basic, history is an attemptto record what has happened in thepast. (Webb, p.1)
  3. 3. There are many processes for recordinghistory..... Documentaries Time Life’s Lost Civilisations Inscriptions Artwork Tel Dan Stele Mesha Stele Merneptah Stele Archaeological Process of Epigraphical digs recording evidence History Arad Lachish letters Modern Films historians The 10 Finkelstein & Commandments The Silberman; Miller & Hayes Bible
  4. 4. KNOW THEHISTORIAN E. H. CARR
  5. 5. The Origins & Early History of IsraelPrincipal focusStudents investigate changinginterpretations of the evidence relatingto the origins and early history of Israel (BOS p.15)
  6. 6. Origins & Impact of naming archaeological of evidence Hebrews Origins & Early Conquest or settlement? History of Israel Areas of debate Emergence of Textual the monarchyproblems & kingdom of of the Israel biblicalnarratives
  7. 7. Textual problems of the Biblical narrativesources dating authenticity inconsistencies
  8. 8. Textual problems of the Biblical narrativeBiblical references to be considered for this case study are:GenesisThe emergence of Abraham and the Jewish Patriarchs in the Land of IsraelExodus, Numbers & DeuteronomyEnslavement in Egypt, the Exodus and journeys in Sinai and Trans-JordanJoshua & JudgesInvasion and settlement in Canaan-IsraelSamuel, Chronicles & KingsDetailed accounts of the emergence of the monarchies of the united JewishKingdom and the successor states of Judah and Israel.
  9. 9. Sources
  10. 10. First 5 books of the Bible are considered tobe ‘divine’ – directly from the mouth ofGod.Moses is credited in the Bible as author.Much of the Bible was developed throughoral traditions such as poetry, recitationand storytelling.Documentary Hypothesis: The 4 originalwriters of the Pentateuch• J (9th century BCE, Judah)• E (8th century BCE, Israel)• D (7th century BCE, Judah)• P (5th century BCE, possible exile)
  11. 11. J&EThe oldest sources – sometimes difficult to separate. They often tell thesame or similar stories. Easiest way to differentiate is through the name usedfor the deity. J uses YHWH. E first uses Elohim, and after the name isrevealed to Moses at the burning bush then moves to YHWH.PThis source is more easily identifiable, as it tends to show a priestly interest.The style is very formal and focuses on things like genealogies, numbers, cultand religion, purity and holiness. Entire books such as Leviticus have beenassigned to P.DThis has been suggested to be (by some scholars such as De Witte) the bookof law referred to in 2 Kings 22:8-13.
  12. 12. dating
  13. 13. Dates for the original oral sources cannotbe confirmed.Dating of first written compilationbelieved to be have been 1000 BCE and650 BCE.Reliance on fragments over a greatperiod of time.
  14. 14. inconsistencies
  15. 15. I am Abraham, I mean Isaac, and this is my wife, ahh... sister, Sarah, I mean, Rebekah...Did Isaac try this trick too?
  16. 16. Genesis 1:27 Genesis 2:18-22So God created man in his own And the rib, which the LORD Godimage, in the image of God created had taken from man, made he ahe him; male and female he woman, and brought her unto thecreated them . man.(created simultaneously) (created man first)
  17. 17. How will WE decide what constitutesAuthenticity in regards to the Bible?
  18. 18. Modern BiblicalScholarship to beconsidered for this areaof debate:
  19. 19. referencesBloch-Smith, E., ‘Israelite ethnicity in iron I: Archaeology preserves what is remembered and what is forgotten in Israel’s history’ in Journal of Biblical Literature 122:3 (2003) pp.401-425Bridge, E., HST155 Archaeology and the Early History of Israel, Macquarie University 2010, Lectures 1 & 3Dever, W., ‘Archaeology and the emergence of early Israel’ in J. Bartlett (ed) Archaeology and Biblical Interpretation (1997) pp.20-50Finkelstein, I. & Silberman, N., The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origins of Its Sacred Texts (The Free Press, New York: 2001)Fritz, V., ‘Conquest or Settlement? The Early Iron Age in Palestine’ in Biblical Archaeologist 50:2 (1987) pp.84-100Ian Lacey, ‘The Origins and Early History of Israel’ in Teaching History 42:2 (2008) pp. 38-42Miller, J. & Hayes, J., A History of Ancient Israel and Judah, 3rd ed. (John Knox Press, Westminster: 2006)NSW Board of Studies, History Extension Syllabus, (NSW BOS, Sydney: 2009)Rendsburg, G. ‘The date of Exodus and the conquest/settlement: the case for the 1100s’ in Vetus Testamentum 42:4 (1992) pp. 510-527Webb, K., Extension History: The Historians (History Teachers’ Association of NSW, Annandale: 2006)ImagesAnenberg, J., Ancient Bridge in the Eilat Mountains, retrieved from flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/redsea_eilat/293183807/Asquith, P., Moses in Myer’s Park Auckland, retrieved from flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/wasabicube/3516719963/Conger, S., Tel Dan022 Ancient Dan, retrieved from flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/dukie1/3449591489/Costa, E., [Israel] retrieved from flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/edo-finelight/2394087158/Cranach, L., Paradise, 1536, retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lucas_Cranach_d._%C3%84._035.jpgEnos, J., Old Bible Text, retrieved from flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/notjake13/2393304429/jamestraceur, Arch, Dome of the Rock, Israel, retrieved from flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/deivorytower/204735986/LollyKnit, Uncovering Pottery shards at Beth Shemesh, Israel retrieved from flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/lollyknit/425316237/Patsy, Bible with Questions and Answers, 2011 http://patty-patcards.blogspot.com/2011_01_01_archive.htmlSmolianitski, A., bible text, retrieved from flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/smolianitski/3908339519/

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