Image of Jericho looking west from tell: Eddie Bridge HST155 Lecture 3 notes
Recap – remind students that we are building on what they have discovered from the source book readings. Assess prior knowledge of topic – brainstorm with students sources that could be used for this topic.Caption: Ken Webb, Extension History: The Historians, 2006, History Teachers’ Association of NSW, Annandale. Image:LollyKnit, flickr, Uncovering Pottery shards at BethShemesh, Israel. http://www.flickr.com/photos/lollyknit/425316237/
Know the personal context of the historian. Recap factors to consider with the students* identity of historians: biographical details, personal values and beliefs, philosophy of history, approaches to the construction of history, bias* the context of historians: gender, class, ethnicity, time, place, social and economic structures/change, political constraints, official and unofficial status (History Extension Syllabus p.12)
Board of Studies Extension History Syllabus p.15Image: Edoardo Costa, flickr, [Israel] http://www.flickr.com/photos/edo-finelight/2394087158/
Origin and naming of Hebrews: Biblical account tells of Patriarchs (Abraham, etc) and the Exodus. Naming of Hebrews – Ivri, or Hebrew, appears in Genesis 14:13; Habiru appears in the Tel El-Amarna Letters; Israel appears in both Genesis 32:28 and Merneptah Stele (Egyptian)Impact of archaeological evidence: Finkelstein and Silberman suggest that “a series of spectacular discoveries and decades of steady archaeological excavation and interpretation suggested to many that the Bible’s accounts were basically trustworthy in regard to the main outlines of the story of ancient Israel.” p.15 The Bible Unearthed. Excavation of tels has revealed much about the agriculture, living conditions and society and culture of these settlements. However, there are definite contradictions between what archaeology has revealed and the biblical account. – how influenced are archaeologists and other historians by the Biblical account when analysing archaeological finds?Conquest or settlement – this leads on from the impact of archaeological evidence debate – the book of Joshua speaks of a large military invasion. Albright bases his invasion or conquest hypothesis on Joshua, stating that migrant Israelites gained control of the land by conquest – this is not supported by any archaeological evidence. i.e. No defensive walls.Noth, Weippert and Alt support an infiltration hypothesis – Israelites were a nomadic tribe who eventually settled into a stationary life – counter to biblical but supported by archaeological evidence. Mendenhal, Gottwalt and de Geus support a revolution hypothesis whereby a social reorganisation among the people in Canaan and group from Egypt have a social reorganisation. Supported by biblical Exodus, the el-Armana letters.Emergence of monarchy and kingdom of Israel: Biblical – Samuel 8:10-19 speaks of people demanding a king – Saul. Looks into the obvious bias by the biblical authors against and for certain monarchs, including Saul. Looks at artwork (including cathedrals, sculpture, etc) representing these monarchs. Look at archaeological and epigraphical evidence to support/contradict the biblical evidence. Consult modern scholarship such as ‘David and Solomon’ by Finkelstein and Silberman.
Image: Jacob Enos, flickr, Old Bible Text, http://www.flickr.com/photos/notjake13/2393304429/
Ian Lacey, ‘The Origins and Early History of Israel’ in Teaching History 42:2 (2008) pp. 38-42
Image: Steve Conger, Tel Dan022 Ancient Dan, Flickr, 2006, http://www.flickr.com/photos/dukie1/3449591489/
Image: Peter Asquith 2009, Moses in Myer’s Park Auckland, flickrhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/wasabicube/3516719963/
Adapted from notes by Eddie Bridge, HST155 Archaeology and the Early History of Israel, Macquarie University 2010, Lecture 1.
Image: JudithAnenberg 2006, Ancient Bridge in the Eilat Mountains, flickr, http://www.flickr.com/photos/redsea_eilat/293183807/
Image: Alexander Smolianitski, flickr, bible text, http://www.flickr.com/photos/smolianitski/3908339519/
Image: jamestraceur, Arch, Dome of the Rock, Israel, Flickr, 2006, http://www.flickr.com/photos/deivorytower/204735986/
There are many cases of repeats and contradictions contained in the Bible.Image: Patsy, Bible with Questions and Answers, 2011http://patty-patcards.blogspot.com/2011_01_01_archive.html
Keeping in mind that the Bible as we have it today has been translated from Hebrew, Greek, Old Latin, Vulgate and Peshitta, as well as the 4 ‘authors’ of the Documentary Hypothesis, consider these two apparently contradictory stories of Genesis as told in Genesis 1 and Genesis 2.Image: Lucas Cranach,Paradise, 1536, retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lucas_Cranach_d._%C3%84._035.jpg
Students will need to consider what they understand ‘authenticity’ to be.
History Extension Topic 2:The Origins and Early History of Israel
History is a PROCESSAt its most basic, history is an attemptto record what has happened in thepast. (Webb, p.1)
There are many processes for recordinghistory..... Documentaries Time Life’s Lost Civilisations Inscriptions Artwork Tel Dan Stele Mesha Stele Merneptah Stele Archaeological Process of Epigraphical digs recording evidence History Arad Lachish letters Modern Films historians The 10 Finkelstein & Commandments The Silberman; Miller & Hayes Bible
The Origins & Early History of IsraelPrincipal focusStudents investigate changinginterpretations of the evidence relatingto the origins and early history of Israel (BOS p.15)
Origins & Impact of naming archaeological of evidence Hebrews Origins & Early Conquest or settlement? History of Israel Areas of debate Emergence of Textual the monarchyproblems & kingdom of of the Israel biblicalnarratives
Textual problems of the Biblical narrativesources dating authenticity inconsistencies
Textual problems of the Biblical narrativeBiblical references to be considered for this case study are:GenesisThe emergence of Abraham and the Jewish Patriarchs in the Land of IsraelExodus, Numbers & DeuteronomyEnslavement in Egypt, the Exodus and journeys in Sinai and Trans-JordanJoshua & JudgesInvasion and settlement in Canaan-IsraelSamuel, Chronicles & KingsDetailed accounts of the emergence of the monarchies of the united JewishKingdom and the successor states of Judah and Israel.
First 5 books of the Bible are considered tobe ‘divine’ – directly from the mouth ofGod.Moses is credited in the Bible as author.Much of the Bible was developed throughoral traditions such as poetry, recitationand storytelling.Documentary Hypothesis: The 4 originalwriters of the Pentateuch• J (9th century BCE, Judah)• E (8th century BCE, Israel)• D (7th century BCE, Judah)• P (5th century BCE, possible exile)
J&EThe oldest sources – sometimes difficult to separate. They often tell thesame or similar stories. Easiest way to differentiate is through the name usedfor the deity. J uses YHWH. E first uses Elohim, and after the name isrevealed to Moses at the burning bush then moves to YHWH.PThis source is more easily identifiable, as it tends to show a priestly interest.The style is very formal and focuses on things like genealogies, numbers, cultand religion, purity and holiness. Entire books such as Leviticus have beenassigned to P.DThis has been suggested to be (by some scholars such as De Witte) the bookof law referred to in 2 Kings 22:8-13.
I am Abraham, I mean Isaac, and this is my wife, ahh... sister, Sarah, I mean, Rebekah...Did Isaac try this trick too?
Genesis 1:27 Genesis 2:18-22So God created man in his own And the rib, which the LORD Godimage, in the image of God created had taken from man, made he ahe him; male and female he woman, and brought her unto thecreated them . man.(created simultaneously) (created man first)
How will WE decide what constitutesAuthenticity in regards to the Bible?
Modern BiblicalScholarship to beconsidered for this areaof debate:
referencesBloch-Smith, E., ‘Israelite ethnicity in iron I: Archaeology preserves what is remembered and what is forgotten in Israel’s history’ in Journal of Biblical Literature 122:3 (2003) pp.401-425Bridge, E., HST155 Archaeology and the Early History of Israel, Macquarie University 2010, Lectures 1 & 3Dever, W., ‘Archaeology and the emergence of early Israel’ in J. Bartlett (ed) Archaeology and Biblical Interpretation (1997) pp.20-50Finkelstein, I. & Silberman, N., The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origins of Its Sacred Texts (The Free Press, New York: 2001)Fritz, V., ‘Conquest or Settlement? The Early Iron Age in Palestine’ in Biblical Archaeologist 50:2 (1987) pp.84-100Ian Lacey, ‘The Origins and Early History of Israel’ in Teaching History 42:2 (2008) pp. 38-42Miller, J. & Hayes, J., A History of Ancient Israel and Judah, 3rd ed. (John Knox Press, Westminster: 2006)NSW Board of Studies, History Extension Syllabus, (NSW BOS, Sydney: 2009)Rendsburg, G. ‘The date of Exodus and the conquest/settlement: the case for the 1100s’ in Vetus Testamentum 42:4 (1992) pp. 510-527Webb, K., Extension History: The Historians (History Teachers’ Association of NSW, Annandale: 2006)ImagesAnenberg, J., Ancient Bridge in the Eilat Mountains, retrieved from flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/redsea_eilat/293183807/Asquith, P., Moses in Myer’s Park Auckland, retrieved from flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/wasabicube/3516719963/Conger, S., Tel Dan022 Ancient Dan, retrieved from flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/dukie1/3449591489/Costa, E., [Israel] retrieved from flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/edo-finelight/2394087158/Cranach, L., Paradise, 1536, retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lucas_Cranach_d._%C3%84._035.jpgEnos, J., Old Bible Text, retrieved from flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/notjake13/2393304429/jamestraceur, Arch, Dome of the Rock, Israel, retrieved from flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/deivorytower/204735986/LollyKnit, Uncovering Pottery shards at Beth Shemesh, Israel retrieved from flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/lollyknit/425316237/Patsy, Bible with Questions and Answers, 2011 http://patty-patcards.blogspot.com/2011_01_01_archive.htmlSmolianitski, A., bible text, retrieved from flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/smolianitski/3908339519/