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How to Suceed in Your Green Infrastructure Project

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With a growing interest in sustainability as a whole, many communities have adopted performance standards and incentives to promote sustainable design. As sustainable design becomes more desirable among communities, barriers and challenges are introduced as well. We address these barriers and suggest strategies to overcome them, providing insight on how to choose the ideal green infrastructure practice.

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How to Suceed in Your Green Infrastructure Project

  1. 1. How to Succeed with Your Green Infrastructure Project March 26th, 2015 Presented by: Kari Mackenbach, CFM, BCES Melissa Hess, PE, CFM
  2. 2. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Agenda 10:00-10:15 Welcoming Remarks and Overview 10:15-10:45 Steps to a Good Green Infrastructure Project 10:45-11:15 Focused Lessons Learned from Communities’ 11:15-11:30 O&M Dictates the Type of Practice to Install 11:30-11:45 Common Pitfalls of Green Infrastructure Projects 11:45-12:00 Wrap-up and Questions/Answers 2
  3. 3. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Overview of Green Infrastructure 3
  4. 4. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Definition of Green Infrastructure (GI) No standard definition, but described as addressing:  Storm water management  Energy efficient buildings  Climate change  Heat stress  Biodiversity  Food production/urban agriculture  Air quality  Clean water and healthy soils  Quality of life through recreation, shade, and shelter in and around towns and cities 4
  5. 5. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 American River’s Definition Green infrastructure is an approach to water management that:  Protects,  Restores, or  Mimics the natural water cycle 5
  6. 6. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 EPA Definition of Green Infrastructure Also known as low-impact development principles:  Preserving and recreating natural landscape features  Minimizing effective imperviousness to create functional and appealing site drainage  Treating storm water as a resource rather than a waste product 6
  7. 7. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 What else is Green Infrastructure?  Helping communities come closer to attaining the CWA standards  Public Perception (sustainable cities)  Helps with your floodplain management strategies  Leverage State and Federal Program Dollars  Opportunity to “marry” multiple public work efforts (streetscaping, sidewalks, parks, floodplain & stormwater management)
  8. 8. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 8 Natural Water Cycle: Pre-Development 8
  9. 9. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Natural Water Cycle: Post-Development  Increased imperviousness increases flows  Puts structures and people in harm’s way 9
  10. 10. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Distributed Stormwater Features Traditional Regional Technique Distributed Stormwater Controls Close to Runoff Sources Integrated Stormwater Controls
  11. 11. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 11 How much does an individual home affect stormwater runoff? Street Driveway House Stormdrain
  12. 12. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 12 How much does an individual home affect stormwater runoff? Street In a 1” rainfall Potential Runoff: 5,422 gallons 2,500 s.f. “impervious” x 1” rain = 1,542 gallons of runoff Stormdrain 1,500 s.f. house (& patio) x 1” rain = 925 gallons of runoff + “Green Concrete” Compacted Lawn 8,390 s.f. “impervious” x 1” rain (if infiltrates first ¼” of rain) = 3,880 gallons of runoff 1,000 s.f. driveway x 1” rain = 617 gallons of runoff
  13. 13. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 13Photos: David Dods, URS Consequences • Property Loss • Public Safety Hazard • Damage to Public Infrastructure • Major Sediment Source
  14. 14. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 14 How is Green Infrastructure & Flooding Connected? Seeing the Significance of the Hydrologic Impacts of Urbanization Over Time
  15. 15. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 How is GI Important for Floodplain Management?  Combining with water quality projects/initiatives – NPDES permits – Storm water utility fees – Erosion issues (due to high flow volumes)  Land use planning  Post-flood rebuilding  Mitigation projects  Require for development in the floodplain  Reducing flows from development  Other? 15
  16. 16. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Green Infrastructure Flood Benefits  Not going to impact: – 100-year flood  May impact: – 1-year flood – Frequent nuisance flooding – Frequent storms  Often significant financial benefit for controlling frequent storms 16
  17. 17. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 AFTER BEFORE • Residential Neighborhood • Rain Garden Retrofits • Long-Term Monitoring 2006 Neighborhood Application
  18. 18. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Burnsville, MN Paired Study of Residential Street Runoff Control
  19. 19. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 17 Rain Gardens Installed Diagram courtesy of the City of Burnsville, MN from their Burnsville Stormwater Retrofit Study • 5.3 acres treated and 7.5 acres controlled • Average treated lot < .5 acres • Average total rain gardens < 1 acre
  20. 20. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Blue: Control Red: With Rain Gardens Diagram courtesy of the City of Burnsville, MN from their Burnsville Stormwater Retrofit Study
  21. 21. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Steps to a Good Green Infrastructure Project 21
  22. 22. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 22
  23. 23. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015
  24. 24. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 24
  25. 25. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Project Goals  CSO/SSO mitigation  Storm water concerns  Distressed Parcels  Community Reinvestment  Floodplain Management  Visual impacts  Other CIP projects  Costs
  26. 26. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Selected Sites Overview – Putting the Puzzle Together  Is the land public?  What are the limiting factors?  Does it make cost effective sense?  Is it an all green solution?  How much do I have to capture?  What about maintenance?  Is it already functioning as green?
  27. 27. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 27
  28. 28. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 28 Green Infrastructure Types
  29. 29. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Rain Gardens Retrofit between existing curb & sidewalk URS PictureURS Picture
  30. 30. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Photo URS Rain Gardens Slow the Water Down & Innovative Plant Media URS PictureURS Picture
  31. 31. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 31 Sediment & Trash Control at Inlet
  32. 32. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Photo: Lisa Treese, KCMO Water Services Permeable Pavement Retrofit between existing curb & sidewalk URS Picture URS Picture
  33. 33. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 33 Permeable Pavement Within the ROW URS PictureURS Picture
  34. 34. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Permeable Pavement Within the ROW URS Picture URS Picture
  35. 35. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Photos: URS Curb Extensions With below-grade storage
  36. 36. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Commercial Street Pavers, below-grade storage, bioretention Pervious Sidewalks Below Grade Storage URS Picture URS Picture
  37. 37. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Tree Boxes Below-grade storage, multiple applications
  38. 38. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 38
  39. 39. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Step by Step 4 3 1/ 2 5 1 2 3 4 5
  40. 40. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 What is it going to look like? 40
  41. 41. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Evaluate the Limiting Factors
  42. 42. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Trees….We Love Them and Hate Them!
  43. 43. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Soil conditions is a key consideration GI can work well in clay soils but………
  44. 44. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 44
  45. 45. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Green Infrastructure Quantification
  46. 46. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Green Infrastructure Quantification  Impervious land uses  Change land use characteristics without changing the land use
  47. 47. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 47
  48. 48. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Right-Sizing or Other Evaluation 48
  49. 49. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Photo URS Neighborhood Improvements Photos URS
  50. 50. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Photo URS Neighborhood Improvements Photos URS
  51. 51. Neighborhood Improvements Photos URS
  52. 52. Neighborhood Improvements Photos URS
  53. 53. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Photo URS Photos URS Neighborhood Improvements
  54. 54. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Photo URS Photos URS Neighborhood Improvements
  55. 55. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015
  56. 56. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Focused Lessons Learned from Other Communities’ 56
  57. 57. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Columbus Blue Print Areas
  58. 58. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Blueprint Columbus Schematic (City of Columbus) Defining Green Infrastructure for LOS Investigation
  59. 59. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 59
  60. 60. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 O&M Dictates the Type of Practice to Install 60
  61. 61. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Design with the end in mind….. Key Green Infrastructure Considerations
  62. 62. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Consideration: Evaluate the Existing Conditions of the Area Trees are great but…….. URS PictureURS Picture
  63. 63. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Consideration: Interconnection of Systems Rain Garden, Gravel Parking, Bioswale, & Below Grade Storage Photo URS URS Picture
  64. 64. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Consideration: Purpose of GI Stormwater by-passes GI feature entirely URS PictureURS Picture
  65. 65. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Consideration: Location & Maintenance Leaves & debris kill grass if not cleaned URS PictureURS Picture
  66. 66. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Consideration: Long-term Maintenance Sediment affects performance URS Picture
  67. 67. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Consideration: Long-term Maintenance Sediment affects performance URS PictureURS Picture
  68. 68. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Consideration: Skilled Construction Oversight and Construction Sequencing GI is still new to most construction contractors URS PictureURS Picture
  69. 69. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Considerations: Inlet and Outlet Designs Inlet designs for debris management are key URS PictureURS PictureURS Picture
  70. 70. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Consideration: Knowledgeable Maintenance Crew GI Maintenance is different URS Picture URS Picture
  71. 71. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Consideration: Trash will find its way into the GI Practice Whether at the Inlet or Outlet or Outright in your Practice URS PictureURS Picture
  72. 72. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Consideration: Small spaces can equal great impact Small footprint GI Practices work if you have good infiltration URS PictureURS Picture
  73. 73. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Consideration: Location soil conditions is a key consideration GI can work well in clay soils but………
  74. 74. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Consideration: Pilot Tested Design Details Inlets, Fore-bays, Edging and Filter Strips…..Oh my!
  75. 75. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Consideration: Evolution of GI Practices GI Science is evolving…… 75 URS PictureURS Picture
  76. 76. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Lessons Learned and Leveraged Devil is in the Details 76 1. Be thoughtful of your current surroundings. 2. Get out from behind your computer and experience your basin. 3. Not all green infrastructure will work in every location, you have to be flexible. 4. You will run into utilities‘, you have to be flexible. 5. Design with the end in mind. Operation and Maintenance of these practices are still evolving. 6. When in doubt go with something that is tried and true!
  77. 77. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Common Pitfalls of Green Infrastructure Projects 77
  78. 78. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Bioinfiltration URS PictureURS Picture
  79. 79. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 79 Rain Gardens Bioretention Cheaper but requires more space in tight soils More to go wrong but can require less space
  80. 80. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 80 “On-Line” vs. “Off-Line” Designs On-Line Off-Line Off-Line Reduces Erosion Problems
  81. 81. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 81 Curb Cut Curb Cut Details Inlet
  82. 82. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 82 Maintaining Infiltration Keep Equipment out of Garden
  83. 83. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 83 Soil Preparation to Maintain Infiltration
  84. 84. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Underdrain Designs Filter Fabric only wraps the drain layer. This design allows plant roots to penetrate subsoils, and improve infiltration with time
  85. 85. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Underdrain Designs An Older Design Approach Gravel & Filter Fabric Prevent Root Penetration to Subsoils. This may be appropriate in some situations, but detrimental in others.
  86. 86. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 86 Engineered Soils (Bioretention or Biofiltration Systems)
  87. 87. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Bad Soil Mix Contractor substituted on-site soil for compost in the mix to save money
  88. 88. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 88 Plant Selections Illustration: Dan Shaw •Proper plants improve infiltration • Rain gardens are not wetlands • Remember planting zones • Use pots & plugs, Not seed
  89. 89. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 89 Maintenance – Weeding & Mulching Routine maintenance is required Ease of maintenance begins with thoughtful design
  90. 90. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Photo: Lisa Treese, KCMO Water Services Pervious Pavements URS Picture URS Picture
  91. 91. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Construction Pervious Concrete 91  Works well when turf grass is used in conjunction with practice  Collector of sediment and fines  Tends to clog and get permanently clogged in areas of high sediment and fines  Aesthetic concerns by residents  Can be costly  Long term maintenance research has not be addressed
  92. 92. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Permeable Pavement– Maintenance
  93. 93. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Permeable Pavement Exfiltration rate varies with water depth and strata. With deep trenches acting as the storage gallery, it appears that more exfiltration occurs through the sidewalls than through the bottom.
  94. 94. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Permeable Pavement • Differential settlement occurred due to aggregate getting into arch of articulated concrete block • Some vendors are still new to market and have steep learning curve
  95. 95. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Tree Boxes
  96. 96. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Construction Tree Boxes  Choosing the correct variety of tree  Interconnected tree boxes vs. individual boxes  Proprietary boxes vs. custom design  Infiltration considerations  Less surface area  Media type – Water quality or water quantity only  Pretreatment/trash and debris Enclosing the tree storage area • Grated boxes • Curbs • Railings • Mulch or pea gravel
  97. 97. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 In Summary… 97
  98. 98. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Maintenance  No BMP (green or gray) is maintenance free  Selecting the appropriate type of practice based on maintenance considerations  Long term maintenance plan  Frequency of maintenance  Equipment need  Routine maintenance  As needed maintenance  Maintenance based on monitored performance  Re-evaluation of practice types  Skilled maintenance providers 98
  99. 99. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 $ $ $ GREEN DOES NOT REPLACE GRAY… Can reduce the capital costs and O & M costs of gray technology.
  100. 100. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 Acknowledgements 100  URS  AECOM  Burnsville, Minnesota  David Dods, AECOM  BARR Engineering  US EPA  City of Columbus, DOSD  CDM  NY DEP  Louisville MSD  Anyone else that we forgot to mention…..Thank you for helping us promote the wise use of Green Infrastructure!
  101. 101. | West Virginia Construction & Design Exposition | March 25th and 26th, 2015 For more information… 101 Contact Kari Mackenbach info@msconsultants.com 614.898.7100

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