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Plastic Deformation And Alloys

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Plastic Deformation And Alloys

  1. 1. Plastic Deformation & Alloys Keyword: Malleable, Elastic Deformation, Plasticity, Ductile
  2. 2. Malleable <ul><li>A temporary shape change that is self-reversing after the force is removed, so that the object returns to its original shape, is called elastic deformation . In other words, elastic deformation is a change in shape of a material at low stress that is recoverable after the stress is removed. This type of deformation involves stretching of the bonds, but the atoms do not slip past each other. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Plastic Deformation <ul><li>Beyond the elastic limit the material undergoes plastic deformation. Unlike elastic deformation , plastic deformation is not recoverable, i.e. the change is permanent. </li></ul><ul><li>Ductile materials undergo large plastic deformations and waisting before fracturing ; brittle materials undergo very little plastic deformation. </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as placticity </li></ul>
  4. 4. Plastic Deformation Failure by plastic deformation Use the info link to see examples of designs and materials testing, using rapid prototyping
  5. 5. Plastic Deformation
  6. 6. Alloys <ul><li>A mixture containing two or more metallic elements or metallic and non-metallic elements usually fused together or dissolving into each other when molten; &quot;brass is an alloy of zinc and copper </li></ul><ul><li>Ferrous and nonferrous alloys </li></ul>
  7. 7. Alloys <ul><li>Change the melting point </li></ul><ul><li>Increase strength, hardness & ductility </li></ul><ul><li>Change colour </li></ul><ul><li>Give rise to better casting </li></ul><ul><li>Change electrical and thermal properties </li></ul>
  8. 8. Iron & Carbon <ul><li>Stainless Steel is an alloy of Carbon and Iron </li></ul><ul><li>Stainless steel is one of the fastest growing metals. Today, it is difficult to imagine life without this most durable and versatile material. And, it is 100% recyclable. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Steel <ul><li>Stainless steel (steel and 18% chromium, 8% nickel, 8% magnesium) </li></ul><ul><li>High-speed steel (steel and tungsten) </li></ul><ul><li>Mild steel (iron and 0.15-0.35% carbon) </li></ul><ul><li>Medium carbon steel (0.4-0.7% carbon) </li></ul><ul><li>High-carbon steel (0.8-1.5% carbon) </li></ul><ul><li>High tensile steel (low carbon steel & nickel) </li></ul><ul><li>Manganese steel (1.5% manganese) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Task 1 <ul><li>Explain the term ‘alloy’ and give examples of two ferrous and two non-ferrous alloys. </li></ul><ul><li>Give one example of how the following metals might be used and state which of the material’s characteristics makes it particularly appropriate for the application that you have given. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cast iron Copper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aluminium Brass </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. In search of superalloys
  12. 13. Superalloys <ul><li>A superalloy , or high-performance alloy , is an alloy that exhibits excellent mechanical strength and creep resistance at high temperatures, good surface stability, and corrosion and oxidation resistance. Superalloys typically have an austenitic face-centred cubic crystal structure. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Superalloys <ul><li>A superalloy's base alloying element is usually nickel , cobalt , or nickel-iron. Superalloy development has relied heavily on both chemical and process innovations and has been driven primarily by the aerospace and power industries. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Superalloys <ul><li>Typical applications are in the aerospace industry, eg. for turbine blades for jet engines </li></ul>
  15. 16. Task 2 <ul><li>Define the following words and add a suitable images to illustrate your answer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic deformation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elastic deformation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superalloys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creep </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxidisation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malleable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ductile </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Links and Revision <ul><li>http://www.materialseducation.org/students/mainpage.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Materials/Structure/deformation.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ornl.gov/.../Pages/Alloy-Development.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.estane.com/technology/alloys.asp </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.thefreedictionary.com/alloy </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.bssa.org.uk/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superalloys </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/2003/nickel.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/.../superalloys.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/2002/1510.mpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.doitpoms.ac.uk/tlplib/creep/printall.php </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.jfe-21st-cf.or.jp/chapter_3/3a_3.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://info.wkmp.tuwien.ac.at/2003-rp_coll/ </li></ul>

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