Lesson 4 Sentence Combining


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Lesson 4 Sentence Combining

  1. 1. Lesson Four Sentence Combining Neijiang Normal University - Week Five - Brent A. Simoneaux
  2. 2. Re view
  3. 3. A sentence base is the minimum required for a sentence. The most basic sentence contains a noun phrase (NP) and a verb phrase (VP). Sentence Bases
  4. 4. Sentence Base We can also add the following optional third elements to the clause: an object (O) a complement (C) and/or an adverbial (AV). We add these elements to the clause to make a more informative sentence
  5. 5. Sentence Expansion Coordination means “ being of equal structural rank.” Coordination occurs when we use a coordinator (or, and, but, nor, yet, so) to connect parts of a sentence together.
  6. 6. Sentence Expansion Subordination means ‘being of lower structural rank.’ Words that are added to the bare sentence base are said to be subordinate because they are grammatically secondary to the main elements.
  7. 7. Sentence Expansion Subordination 1. Relative Clauses 2. Appositive Phrases 3. Adverbial Clauses 4. Participial Phrases 5. Absolute Phrases
  8. 8. Relative Clauses <ul><li>Relative clauses enable the writer to embed a complete subject/predicate into a noun phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>Relative = relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Relative Clauses are introduced by either a relative pronoun (that, who, or which) or a relative adverb (where, when, why) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Appositive Phrases <ul><li>An appositive phrase is a reduced sentence headed by a noun, functioning, just like a relative clause, to define or restrict the noun by adding definition-like details to it. </li></ul><ul><li>Appositive phrases rename nouns or noun phrases. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Adverbial Clauses <ul><ul><li>Adverbial clauses (subordinating) are clauses that modify verbs using a subordinator. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of subordinating words: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>if, since,when, while, although, even though, after, before as if, as long as, as soon as </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Sentence Expansion 4. Participial Phrases Participial phrases are verb phrases headed by the – ing or the – en / –– ed form of the verb which function as adjectives. They enable you to work concrete details into your sentences without actually increasing the number of sentences needed.
  12. 12. Sentence Expansion 4. Participle Phrases Two Types of Clauses: Restrictive Clauses Non-Restrictive Clauses
  13. 13. Restrictive Clauses <ul><li>Necessary Information </li></ul><ul><li>Essential to sentence meaning </li></ul><ul><li>No commas </li></ul>
  14. 14. Non-Restrictive Clauses <ul><li>Extra </li></ul><ul><li>Non-essential to the meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Does not limit of define the word it modifies </li></ul><ul><li>Uses commas </li></ul>
  15. 15. Examples <ul><li>Restrictive: People who habitually brag about their cars often get upset over minor scratches. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-restrictive: Aubrey, who habitually bragged about her car, was upset about the scratch on her fender. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sentence Expansion 4. Non-restrictive Participial Phrases <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Mark stood next to Tracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Mark felt helplessly nervous. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Sentence Expansion 4. Non-restrictive Participial Phrases We can combine these sentences: Feeling helplessly nervous, Mark stood next to Tracy.
  18. 18. Sentence Expansion 4. Non-restrictive Participial Phrases What happens when we move the participial phrase? Mark stood next to Tracy, feeling helplessly nervous. The focus of the sentence has shifted to the participial phrase.
  19. 19. Sentence Expansion 4. Non-restrictive Participial Phrases It is important, however, to note that nonrestrictive participial phrases can open or close the sentence only if it modifies the subject—that is, when the subject of the participle is also the subject of the sentence and is in regular subject position. Otherwise, the participle will “dangle.”
  20. 20. Sentence Expansion 4. Non-restrictive Participial Phrases Dangling participle: Feeling helplessly nervous, the scene was suspenseful, as if it had been taken directly out of a movie.
  21. 21. Sentence Expansion 5. Absolute Phrases An absolute phrase is a noun phrase—a noun headword with a post-noun modifier that adds specific, concrete detail to the idea of the whole sentence.
  22. 22. Sentence Expansion 5. Absolute Phrases <ul><li>You must remember the following about absolute phrases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They can consist of just subject and a participle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They do not modify any particular word, but instead, they modify the entire sentence to provide more information to the reader . </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Sentence Expansion 5. Absolute Phrases Example: Mark finally kissed Tracy, face blushing. Legs running, Mark finally kissed Tracy.
  24. 24. Sentence Expansion 5. Absolute Phrases Think of a movie camera focusing in on a specific detail in the scene. Notice that the absolute phrase seems to be the focus of the sentence no matter where we position it in the sentence.
  25. 25. Sentence Combining Activity 1. The fire raced through the abandoned warehouse. The fire leveled it in an hour. Example: The fire raced through the abandoned warehouse, leveling it in an hour.
  26. 26. Next Week: Sentence Expansion & Sentence Combining
  27. 27. Writing Assignment Write and describe different characteristics you look for in a husband/wife, or boyfriend/girlfriend. You audience is me, ad since it is personal subject matter, informal style is fine. 200-300 words
  28. 28. Turn in your writing notebook . Class 6 20060540261 20060540272 20060540274 20060540282 20060540270 20060540271 20060540265 20060540208 20060540264 20060540260
  29. 29. Turn in your writing notebook . Class 1 20060540036 20060540027 20060540015 20060540013 20060540045 20060540043 20060540048 20060540024 20060540019 20060540040
  30. 30. Turn in your writing notebook . Class 2 20060540050 20061341026 20060540070 20060540078 20060540065 20060540091 20060540083 20060540087 20060540060 20060540089
  31. 31. Turn in your writing notebook . Class 4 20050540163 20050540162 20050540161 20050540160 20050540134 20050540132 20050540131 20050540130 20050540129 20050540128
  32. 32. Turn in your writing notebook . Class 5 20050540270 20050540269 20050540266 20050540265 20050540264 20050540260 20050540259 20050540258 20050540257 20050540256
  33. 33. Turn in your writing notebook . Class 6 20050540289 20050540282 20050540279 20050540278 20050540275 20050540274 20050540286 20050540271 20050540268 20050540267