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Lesson Two Dimensions   of Language
Rhetoric   修辞学   `re-tə-rik (noun) : “ The skill of using language in speech or writing in a special way that influences o...
Subject Purpose Audience The  Writing   Triangle
Dimensions  of Language Dimension:  any point that take up space: has    measurement
Dimensions  of Language Cultural Dimension Syntagmatic Dimension Paradigmatic Dimension
Paradigmatic  Dimension <ul><li>Vertical ( 垂直的 )  dimension of language </li></ul><ul><li>Lexical choices; choices in dict...
Syntagmatic  Dimension <ul><li>Horizontal  ( 平的 )  dimension of language </li></ul><ul><li>Choices in syntax  ( 造句 ) </li>...
Cultural  Dimension <ul><li>Readers ’  cultural expectations or assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Invisible on paper </li></ul...
1.   Formal     Informal 2.  Standard     Nonstandard 3.  General     Specific 4.  In Group     Out Group Word  Categories
<ul><li>Formal:  I am applying for the receptionist position advertised in the local paper. I am an excellent candidate fo...
Formal      Informal <ul><li>Informal:  Hi! I read in the paper that ya'll were looking for a receptionist. I think that I...
<ul><li>Formal:  I am applying for the receptionist position advertised in the local paper. I am an excellent candidate fo...
<ul><li>Formal </li></ul>Formal    Informal Informal Correct and effective use of words <ul><li>Academic writing </li></ul...
Standard     Nonstandard Overview Standard   refers to common words. Nonstandard   refers to slang, jargon, dialectal word...
Standard     Nonstandard Examples Standard Nonstandard <ul><li>am not, is not, has not </li></ul><ul><li>very good </li></...
<ul><li>Standard </li></ul>Standard     Nonstandard Nonstandard Correct and effective use of words Closely related to form...
General     Specific Overview Generality  makes reference to words that involve, relate to, or apply to every member of a ...
Examples General     Specific General Specific <ul><li>animal </li></ul><ul><li>laugh </li></ul><ul><li>big </li></ul><ul>...
Correct and effective use of words General     Specific General Specific <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization ...
Jargon ( 行话 ) In Group     Out Group Jargon ( 行话 ) is   any in-group or specialized language used by small groups of like-...
Example In Group     Out Group Individuals who study Music History or Music Theory would use special words like  dynamics,...
Example In Group     Out Group Situation  One : If you are writing a paper explaining concepts and style of a John Philips...
Example In Group     Out Group Situation  Two : If you are writing a conference paper for a group of people who have studi...
<ul><li>Native texts </li></ul>2.  Dictionaries 3.  Thesauri  ( 类属词典 )  Reference  Tools
Writing  Assignment <ul><li>Write one paragraph in which you describe your future career goals and intellectual interests ...
Reading  Assignment <ul><li>Look over Chapter 3; pages 43 – 56 </li></ul>
Turn in your  homework .
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Lesson 2 Dimensions Of Language

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Lesson 2 Dimensions Of Language

  1. 1. Lesson Two Dimensions of Language
  2. 2. Rhetoric 修辞学 `re-tə-rik (noun) : “ The skill of using language in speech or writing in a special way that influences or persuades people”
  3. 3. Subject Purpose Audience The Writing Triangle
  4. 4. Dimensions of Language Dimension: any point that take up space: has measurement
  5. 5. Dimensions of Language Cultural Dimension Syntagmatic Dimension Paradigmatic Dimension
  6. 6. Paradigmatic Dimension <ul><li>Vertical ( 垂直的 ) dimension of language </li></ul><ul><li>Lexical choices; choices in diction ( 措辞 ) </li></ul>Paradigmatic Dimension Lexical : of or relating to words or the vocabulary of a language as distinguished from its grammar and construction Paradigm : example or pattern, showing a word in all of its forms
  7. 7. Syntagmatic Dimension <ul><li>Horizontal ( 平的 ) dimension of language </li></ul><ul><li>Choices in syntax ( 造句 ) </li></ul>Syntagmatic Dimension Syntax: order that we place words in, the structure of our sentences.
  8. 8. Cultural Dimension <ul><li>Readers ’ cultural expectations or assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Invisible on paper </li></ul>Cultural Dimension Audience Belief Political/Government Economic Social
  9. 9. 1. Formal Informal 2. Standard Nonstandard 3. General Specific 4. In Group Out Group Word Categories
  10. 10. <ul><li>Formal: I am applying for the receptionist position advertised in the local paper. I am an excellent candidate for the job because of my significant secretarial experience, good language skills, and sense of organization. </li></ul>Formal Informal
  11. 11. Formal Informal <ul><li>Informal: Hi! I read in the paper that ya'll were looking for a receptionist. I think that I am good for that job because I've done stuff like it in the past, am good with words, and am incredibly well organized. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Formal: I am applying for the receptionist position advertised in the local paper. I am an excellent candidate for the job because of my significant secretarial experience, good language skills, and sense of organization. </li></ul>Formal Informal Informal: Hi! I read in the paper that ya'll were looking for a receptionist. I think that I am good for that job because I've done stuff like it in the past, am good with words, and am incredibly well organized.
  13. 13. <ul><li>Formal </li></ul>Formal Informal Informal Correct and effective use of words <ul><li>Academic writing </li></ul><ul><li>Business letter </li></ul><ul><li>Job application </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><li>Journal entries </li></ul><ul><li>Personal letter </li></ul><ul><li>Narratives </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul>
  14. 14. Standard Nonstandard Overview Standard refers to common words. Nonstandard refers to slang, jargon, dialectal words, obsolete words, and idiomatic expressions.
  15. 15. Standard Nonstandard Examples Standard Nonstandard <ul><li>am not, is not, has not </li></ul><ul><li>very good </li></ul><ul><li>very </li></ul><ul><li>to play a trick </li></ul><ul><li>you all </li></ul><ul><li>ain’t </li></ul><ul><li>cool </li></ul><ul><li>damn </li></ul><ul><li>to pull one’s leg </li></ul><ul><li>ya’ll </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Standard </li></ul>Standard Nonstandard Nonstandard Correct and effective use of words Closely related to formality <ul><li>Academic writing </li></ul><ul><li>Business letter </li></ul><ul><li>Job application </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><li>Written </li></ul><ul><li>Journal entries </li></ul><ul><li>Personal letter </li></ul><ul><li>Narratives </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><li>Spoken </li></ul>
  17. 17. General Specific Overview Generality makes reference to words that involve, relate to, or apply to every member of a class, kind or group. Specificity makes reference to words that are encompassed by a more general catergory.
  18. 18. Examples General Specific General Specific <ul><li>animal </li></ul><ul><li>laugh </li></ul><ul><li>big </li></ul><ul><li>scientist </li></ul><ul><li>tiger, horse, fox </li></ul><ul><li>chuckle, giggle, roar </li></ul><ul><li>huge, large, vast </li></ul><ul><li>physicist, chemist, </li></ul><ul><li>biologist </li></ul>
  19. 19. Correct and effective use of words General Specific General Specific <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul>
  20. 20. Jargon ( 行话 ) In Group Out Group Jargon ( 行话 ) is any in-group or specialized language used by small groups of like-minded individuals. This terminology is usually specialized to the function of the group, and will be used by and among group members as a sign of belonging, status, and for keeping out outsiders.
  21. 21. Example In Group Out Group Individuals who study Music History or Music Theory would use special words like dynamics, dissonance, rondo, coda, forte, march . To non-musians, these words have different meanings or no meanings at all.
  22. 22. Example In Group Out Group Situation One : If you are writing a paper explaining concepts and style of a John Philips Sousa March to an audience of non-musicians, you might introduce and explain a few important terms. But you wouldn't use those terms without an explanation or in a way your audience wouldn't understand.
  23. 23. Example In Group Out Group Situation Two : If you are writing a conference paper for a group of people who have studied music or a term paper for a college-level music theory course, you should use in-group jargon to help show that you understand the concepts and can discuss them in ways other linguists can.
  24. 24. <ul><li>Native texts </li></ul>2. Dictionaries 3. Thesauri ( 类属词典 ) Reference Tools
  25. 25. Writing Assignment <ul><li>Write one paragraph in which you describe your future career goals and intellectual interests to the faculty of the English Department. </li></ul><ul><li>Write another paragraph in which you describe your future career goals and intellectual interests to a Canadian third-year university student. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Reading Assignment <ul><li>Look over Chapter 3; pages 43 – 56 </li></ul>
  27. 27. Turn in your homework .

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