Chapter 4 vocabulary


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Chapter 4 vocabulary

  1. 1. Vocabulary, People and Places
  2. 2. <ul><li>Agamemnon- </li></ul><ul><li>Mycenaean king who won the Trojan War </li></ul><ul><li>Places </li></ul><ul><li>Crete </li></ul><ul><li>Minoan civilization was located here, on this island southeast of the Greek mainland </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Mycenae </li></ul><ul><li>ancient city in Greece, home of one of the first civilizations of Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Peloponnesus </li></ul><ul><li>southern peninsula of Greece; Sparta is located on this peninsula </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>body of land that is surrounded by water on three sides </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>a settlement in a new territory that keeps close ties to its homeland </li></ul><ul><li>Polis </li></ul><ul><li>Greek city-state, or the town and the surrounding countryside </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Agora </li></ul><ul><li>open area or marketplace </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen </li></ul><ul><li>members of a political community who treat each other as equals and who have rights and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Hoplite </li></ul><ul><li>ordinary citizens who served as soldiers </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Acropolis </li></ul><ul><li>fortified area, usually at the top of a hill that provided a safe refuge in case of attacks </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>tyrant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone who takes power by force and rules with total authority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>oligarchy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule by a few </li></ul></ul><ul><li>democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a government controlled and run by the people(citizens) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>helots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Captive workers of the Spartans , (name comes from the Greek word for capture) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PLACES </li></ul><ul><li>Sparta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City-state in ancient Greece that primarily focused on its military(oligarchy/monarchy) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Athens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City-state in ancient Greece that was the birthplace of democracy; valued education and the arts </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Cyrus the Great </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled from 559 to 530 BCE, he started the Persian Empire and was known for treating his subjects well </li></ul><ul><li>Darius </li></ul><ul><li>Ruler of Persian Empire who reorganized it into 20 provinces ( satrapies) to make it run better. </li></ul><ul><li>Xerxes </li></ul><ul><li>Son of Darius, he vowed revenge against the Athenians and led the Persians in a new invasion of Greece in 480 BCE </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Satrapies </li></ul><ul><li>provinces(20 in number) in ancient Persia, created by Darius to make a more efficient government </li></ul><ul><li>Satrap </li></ul><ul><li>ruler of each province, he acted as judge, tax collector, chief of police, and recruiter for the army. All satraps answered to the king. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Zoroastrianism </li></ul><ul><li>-state religion of Persia for over 1000 years </li></ul><ul><li>-believed in supreme forces of good and evil </li></ul><ul><li>-believed humans had the right to choose between right and wrong </li></ul><ul><li>-good will triumph in the end </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Pericles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>general of Athens who ran their government successfully for over 30 years. He started rebuilding programs and strengthened Athens. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aspasia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>close friend of Pericles, she was not a native of Athens. She was a public speaker and had many influential friends </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>island headquarter of the Delian League, which was formed to protect Athens and its other members from Persia </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Direct democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people gather at mass meetings to decide on gov’t matters (all citizens can vote on laws and policies) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Representative Democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>citizens choose a smaller group to make laws and governmental decisions on their behalf </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Philosopher </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thinkers who ponder questions about life </li></ul></ul>