Ww 2 salzer


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Ww 2 salzer

  1. 1. World War II Notes
  2. 2. What was WWII? <ul><li>Largest war in human history. </li></ul><ul><li>Involved countries, colonies, and territories around the entire world. </li></ul><ul><li>By the end, between 45-60 million were dead. Perhaps even more. </li></ul><ul><li>It lasted from 1939 until 1945. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Causes <ul><li>W WI and the Treaty of Versailles </li></ul><ul><li>A ppeasement </li></ul><ul><li>R ise of Totalitarianism </li></ul>
  4. 4. WWI and the Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>Germany lost land to surrounding nations </li></ul><ul><li>War reparations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allies collect $ to pay back war debts to US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans are bankrupt, embarrassed, guilt ridden, and angry. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desperate people turn to desperate leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler clear vision and knows who to blame for “our troubles.” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Appeasement <ul><li>Giving someone something to make them happy and leave you alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler demanded land that wasn’t Germany’s and others just gave it to him. Parts of Austria and Czechoslovakia. </li></ul><ul><li>Nations were trying to prevent war…it didn’t work. (Isolationism) </li></ul><ul><li>Appeasement just showed Hitler that he could do whatever he wanted. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>“Peace in Our Time!” </li></ul><ul><li>says </li></ul><ul><li>British </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister, </li></ul><ul><li>Chamberlain. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Rise of Totalitarianism <ul><li>A system in which the state and its leader have nearly TOTAL control. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual rights are not viewed as important as the needs of the nation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No right to vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No free speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government controlled economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often a police state </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Totalitarianism USSR : Communist Dictatorship Germany & Italy : Fascist Dictatorship Japan : Military Dictatorship
  9. 9. Adolf Hitler-Germany Hideki Tojo - Japan Benito Mussolini-Italy Josef Stalin-USSR
  10. 10. What is Fascism? <ul><li>Political belief that says the individual is less important than the nation. </li></ul><ul><li>Glorifies violence, believes it is needed to “prove” strength of a people. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses nationalism and racism. </li></ul><ul><li>Dictatorships. </li></ul><ul><li>Italy and then Germany became fascist. Later Spain after it’s Civil War. </li></ul>
  11. 13. How did WWII start? <ul><li>Germany invaded Poland to get lebensraum </li></ul>
  12. 14. What did Hitler Want ? <ul><li>Militarism - soon after becoming chancellor he begins rearming Germany breaking the Treaty of Versailles </li></ul><ul><li>Rhineland- moves troops into the Rhineland territory again breaking the Treaty of Versailles </li></ul><ul><li>Lebensraum - “living space” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Austria - annexed peacefully in 1938 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudetenland – territory in Czechoslovakia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Given to Germany by Great Britain and France </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler then invades the rest of Czechoslovakia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On to Poland </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. How did WWII start? <ul><li>Germany invaded Poland. </li></ul><ul><li>Allies declare war on Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany then invades France, Belgium, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Then Hitler invades Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Germans use “blitzkrieg” to overwhelm other armies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blitzkrieg means “lightening war” in German. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surround with tanks and troops in trucks. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Who was on each side? <ul><li>Axis Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Allied Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>United States, late </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrendered to Germany in 1940 after 6 weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China </li></ul></ul>
  15. 19. What about the Pacific War? <ul><li>The US (mostly) fought the Japanese. </li></ul><ul><li>December 7, 1941 Japan bombed Pearl Harbor in Hawaii to sink US ships there. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two hours = most US navy destroyed and 2,000 sailors killed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japan surrenders after US drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. </li></ul>
  16. 25. Role of Women and Minorities Rosie the Riveter Dr. Charles Drew, plasma and bloodmobiles
  17. 26. Japanese Internment in US Executive Order 9066, signed by president FDR 1942 110,000 Japanese Americans arrested without warrant or hearing and resettled in camps for duration of war years 1989, US acknowledges it did wrong and pays survivors and families $1.6 billion
  18. 29. How did WWII end in Europe? <ul><li>Operation Overlord- Allied invasion of France. Also called D-Day. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within a month 1 million Allied troops were stationed in Europe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany is surrounded with the USSR to the east </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germany surrenders in 1945 after Hitler commits suicide. </li></ul>
  19. 34. How did WWII end in Europe? <ul><li>Allies divide Germany up between them. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This helps start the Cold War. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trials are held in Nuremberg,Germany (and Japan) to try the people responsible for the war. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many are executed and jailed for war crimes. </li></ul></ul>UNITED NATIONS is formed
  20. 35. What was the Holocaust? <ul><li>Nazi plan to kill all Jews. </li></ul><ul><li>Why? Hitler’s provided a to Germany’s problems </li></ul><ul><li>6 million Jews murdered in camps in Europe. 40% </li></ul><ul><li>5 million others ( gypsies, mentally ill, homosexuals) </li></ul><ul><li>Total of 11 million exterminated </li></ul><ul><li>What is genocide? </li></ul><ul><li>Purposely trying to exterminate an entire group of people (ethnic, religious, racial). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Armenians 2/3 1915, 1923 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East Timorese 1/3 1975-1982 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rwanda 1/5 100days in 1994 </li></ul></ul>
  21. 36. West Germany East Germany
  22. 37. Post War <ul><li>Both Germany and Japan are occupied </li></ul><ul><li>Marshall Plan, US plan to rebuild Europe with billions of dollars of loans from US </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Named after US Secretary of State George Marshall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps US economy and control by US of European, Middle East, and parts of Asian economic growth </li></ul></ul>US and Soviets emerge as chief world powers – set stage for Cold War
  23. 38. Quick Facts <ul><li>War Costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US Debt 1940 - $9 Billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US Debt 1945 - $98 Billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WWII cost $330 billion – 10 times the cost of WWI & equivalent to all previous federal spending since 1776 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 39. Losses of the Major Wartime Powers in WWII, 1939-1945 <ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4.5 million military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 million civilian </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 million military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>350,000 civilians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>400,000 military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100,000 civilian </li></ul></ul><ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5 million military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7.4 million civilians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USSR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 million military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 million civilians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Great Britain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>300,000 military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50,000 civilians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>250,000 military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>350,000 civilian </li></ul></ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>274,000 military </li></ul></ul>