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Consumer Behavior- Consumer Attitude Formation and Change


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Consumer Behavior- Consumer Attitude Formation and Change

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Consumer Attitude Formation and Change Consumer Behavior, tenth ed., SCHIFFMAN & KANUK
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>What Are Attitudes? </li></ul><ul><li>The attitude “object” </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Models of Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies of Attitude Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude and Behavior </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Are Attitudes? <ul><li>A learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The attitude “object” <ul><li>It include specific consumption-or marketing related concepts such as product, product category ,brand, service, possessions, product use, price, package… etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer attitude towards online shopping </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer attitude towards mobile services </li></ul>
  5. 5. Attitudes characteristics <ul><li>Attitudes are a learned predisposition </li></ul><ul><li>That means attitudes are formed as a result of prior direct experience with the object, word-of-mouth, information acquired from others, or from advertising. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Attitudes characteristics <ul><li>Attitudes have consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes are relatively consistent with the behavior they reflect. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Attitudes characteristics <ul><li>Attitudes occur within a situation </li></ul><ul><li>Events or circumstances that, at a particular point in time, influence the relationship between an attitude and behavior. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Structural Models of Attitudes <ul><li>Tricomponent Attitude Model </li></ul><ul><li>Multiattribute Attitude Models </li></ul><ul><li>The Trying-to-Consume Model </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model </li></ul>
  9. 9. A Simple Representation of the Tricomponent Attitude Model Figure 8.2 Cognition : The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources Source: Consumer Behavior, tenth ed., SCHIFFMAN & KANUK
  10. 10. A Simple Representation of the Tricomponent Attitude Model Figure 8.2 Affect : A consumer’s emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand Conation : The likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object Source: Consumer Behavior, tenth ed., SCHIFFMAN & KANUK
  11. 11. Multiattribute Attitude Models <ul><li>Attitude models that examine the composition of consumer attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs </li></ul>
  12. 12. Multiattribute Attitude Models <ul><li>The attitude-toward-object model </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude is function of evaluation of product-specific beliefs and evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>The attitude-toward-behavior model </li></ul><ul><li>Is the attitude toward behaving or acting with respect to an object, rather than the attitude toward the object itself </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Theory-of-reasoned-action model </li></ul><ul><li>Includes cognitive, affective, and conative components </li></ul><ul><li>Includes subjective norms in addition to attitude </li></ul>Source: Consumer Behavior, tenth ed., SCHIFFMAN & KANUK Multiattribute Attitude Models
  14. 14. The Trying-to-Consume Model <ul><li>An attitude theory designed to account for the many cases where the action or outcome is not certain but instead reflects the consumer’s attempt to consume (or purchase). </li></ul>
  15. 15. Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model <ul><li>A model that proposes that a consumer forms various feelings (affects) and judgments (cognitions) as the result of exposure to an advertisement, which, in turn, affect the consumer’s attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the brand. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model Source: Consumer Behavior, tenth ed., SCHIFFMAN & KANUK
  17. 17. Issues in Attitude Formation <ul><li>How attitudes are learned </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditioning and experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge and beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources of influence on attitude formation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct marketing and mass media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personality factors </li></ul>
  18. 18. Strategies of Attitude Changes <ul><li>Changing the Basic Motivational Function </li></ul><ul><li>Associating the Product with an Admired Group or Event </li></ul><ul><li>Resolving Two Conflicting Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model </li></ul><ul><li>Changing Beliefs about Competitors’ Brands </li></ul>
  19. 19. Four Basic Attitude Functions <ul><li>The Utilitarian Function </li></ul><ul><li>The Ego-defensive Function </li></ul><ul><li>The Value-expressive Function </li></ul><ul><li>The Knowledge Function </li></ul>
  20. 20. Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) <ul><li>A theory that suggests that a person’s level of involvement during message processing is a critical factor in determining which route to persuasion is likely to be effective </li></ul>
  21. 21. Why Might Behavior Precede Attitude Formation? Cognitive Dissonance Theory Holds that discomfort or dissonance occurs when a consumer holds conflicting thoughts about a belief or an attitude object Attribution Theory Behave (Purchase) Form Attitude Form Attitude
  22. 22. Why Might Behavior Precede Attitude Formation? Attribution Theory A theory concerned with how people assign casualty to events and form or alter their attitudes as an outcome of assessing their own or other people’s behavior. Behave (Purchase) Form Attitude Form Attitude
  23. 23. Issues in Attribution Theory <ul><li>Self-perception Theory </li></ul><ul><li>A theory that suggests that consumers develop attitudes by reflecting on their own behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive Attribution </li></ul><ul><li>A theory that suggests consumers are likely to accept credit for successful outcomes (internal attribution) and to blame other persons or products for failure (external attribution). </li></ul>
  24. 24. Thank you Prepared by Mohammed Salem [email_address]