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Psychodiagnostics for IGNOU students


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Psychodiagnostics for IGNOU students

  1. 1. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners MPCE-012/ASST/TMA/2015-16 IGNOU Assignment
  2. 2. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Solved Assignment - MAPC Psychodiagnostics
  3. 3. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners 1000 words Section A 3
  4. 4. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Describe the various sources for psychological assessment. Q1. 4
  5. 5. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Sources for Psychological Assessment 5 A1 Psychological assessment comprises a variety of procedures that are employed in diverse ways to achieve numerous purposes. Assessment has sometimes been equated with testing, but the assessment process goes beyond merely giving tests. Psychological assessment involves integrating information gleaned not only from test protocols, but also from interview responses, behavioral observations, collateral reports, and historical documents. Listed below are the various sources for Psychological Assessment: 1. Recorded Data: Every human being can be assessed based on some factors such as age, gender, etc. which play a crucial role in their psychological makeup. The data about the person covering various actuarial and biographical aspects such as life history, educational, professional and medical record are typically a part of his file. This data is easy to capture and validate. The high reliability makes it indispensable to the assessment process. Apart from this, the case history of the patient is also recorded and plays a crucial part in the assessment. 2. Interviews: A clinical interview is a dialogue between psychologist and patient that is designed to help the psychologist diagnose and plan treatment for the patient. It is often called 'a conversation with a purpose.' Most psycho-diagnostic assessments include an interview for establishing personal contact and an atmosphere of trust. Typically interviews have four major functions: administration, treatment, research and prevention. As a rule clinical assessments will start out with an exploratory interview in which the psychologist will seek to focus the problem at hand and collect information for deriving assessment hypothesis. Intake interview and Mental Status Examination are two types of interviews. 3. Question Inventories: Questionnaires have several strengths. They are inexpensive, easily administered, and easily interpreted. Furthermore, there are a vast number of questionnaires that can be used to evaluate a wide array of target behaviors (e.g., see Hersen & Bellack, 1988, for a compilation of behavioral assessment inventories). Questionnaires can be used for a number of behavioral assessment goals, including operationalization, identification of functional relationships, and treatment design. MMPI, STAI, BDI etc. make use of question inventories.
  6. 6. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Sources for Psychological Assessment 6 A1 4. Projective Techniques: A projective test is a “relatively unstructured task, that is, a task that permits almost an unlimited variety of possible responses. In order to allow free play to the individual’s fantasy, only brief, general instructions are provided”. The responses to projective tests are content analyzed for meaning rather than being based on presuppositions about meaning, as is the case with objective tests. The common variants include Rorshach’s Test, Holtzman’s Inkblot test, Thematic Apperception Test, Draw-A- Person test, Animal Metaphor Test, Sentence Completion Test, Picture Arrangement Test, Word Association Test etc. 5. Behavior-related techniques: These techniques are related to the behavior of the individual. They involve observing and understanding the various aspect of behavior using various techniques. These can be structure or unstructured. Here’s the list of various techniques: 1. Behavioral assessment interviewing: the assessor structures questions that prompt the client to provide information about the topography and function of target behaviors. Topographical questions direct the client to describe the mode and parameters of target behaviors, causal factor occurrences, or both. Functional questions direct the client to provide information about how target behaviors may be affected by possible causal factors. 2. Behavior ratings: The person is asked to rate his or her own behavior or the behavior of someone else on a given rating scale. The rating scale could be a set of characteristics, judgement scales, or checklist items. This methods helps the psychologist to assess the mental representations of the person who is doing the rating. 3. Expressive Behavior: The term expressive behavior refers to the expressions of a person in various states. By observing the expressive behavior the psychologist can draw explicit of implicit inferences about the person’s state of mind, emotional tension, feeling state etc. The expressive behavior is not only limited to facial expressions but also includes gross bodily movement expression.
  7. 7. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Sources for Psychological Assessment 7 A1 4. Observation: Systematic observations can be conducted by nonparticipant observers and participant observers. Because observation relies on visual recording, this method is restricted to the measurement of observable actions. Nonparticipant observers are trained observation technicians who record target behaviors and causal factors using any of the sampling methods. Professional observers, research assistants, and volunteers have been used to collect observational data in treatment outcome studies. 5. Trace: This method has not been proved to be very strong in terms of acceptable validity criteria. It refers to the physical traces of human behavior like handwriting specimens, products of art and expression, left- overs after play in a children’s playground, stule of self-devised living environment at home, attributes of a person’s appearance and attire. 6. Less-structured methods: Include asking clients to think aloud, observing private speech of children, asking clients to articulate their thoughts, production and endorsement methods, thought listing, thought sampling and event recording. 6. Computerised assessment: Using the advanced technological tools for NeuroImaging to assess the activities in the brain and correlate them to the condition of the patient and his behavior helps in the process of psychological assessment. 7. Psycho-physiological Techniques: Based on the idea that monitoring psycho physiological system parameters relating to variations in behavior can be used for psychological assessment. In one kind of psycho physiological assessment one or several of the psycho physiological parameters are recorded while the person is shown different stimuli. Example: One measures the orienting response in electric skin conductance to simple tones of medium intensity. It’s been shown that schizophrenic patients will follow more frequently than normals a non- responder pattern showing less clear orienting reactions than normals to these stimuli. A recent innovation in psycho physiological assessment refers to stable, genetically linked biological covariants of personality and aptitude development.
  8. 8. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Summary and Sources 8 A1 Psychological assessment includes assessing the psychology of an individual. This can be achieved by using various sources such as Recorded data, Interviews, Question Inventories, Projective Techniques, Behavior related techniques (which further include behavior assessment interviewing, behavior ratings, expressive behavior, observation, behavioral traces, and other less structured methods), computerized assessment techniques and Psycho physiological techniques. Often these techniques are not used in isolation. They are used in tandem with one or more of the techniques – ex. the question inventory may be conducted together with an interview. * * * Sources: The International Handbook of Psychology edited by Kurt Pawlik, Mark R Rosenzweig (free preview)
  9. 9. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Present an overview of tests measuring conceptual thinking. Q2. 9
  10. 10. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Tests to measure Conceptual Thinking (1/4) 10 A2 Tests of conceptual thinking differ from most other mental tests in that they focus on the quality or process of thinking more than the content of the response. Many of these tests have no ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ answers. Their scores stand for qualitative judgements of the extent to which the response was abstract or concrete, complex or simple, apt or irrelevant. Tests with right and wrong answers belong in the category of tests of abstract conceptualization to the extent that they provide information about how the patient thinks. Patients with moderate to severe focal or multiple lesions or with significant diffuse injury tend to do poorly on all tests of abstract thinking, regardless of their mode of presentation or channel of response. However, patients with mild, modality specific, or subtle organic defects may not engage in concrete thinking generally, but only on those tasks that directly involve an impaired modality, are highly complex, or touch upon emotionally arousing matters. The major conceptual thinking tests are as follows: 1. Tests in Verbal formats: 1. Proverbs: They require the subject to translate a concrete statement into its abstract, metaphorical meaning. The Gorham’s proverbs test, Luria’s tests, Wechsler tests, the L-M edition of the Stanford-Binet scales, and Mental Status Examinations include proverb interpretation items. 2. Analogies: Verbal analogies involve comparison between two subjects or concepts based on their relations (ex. similarities). Example: The Raven Progressive Matrices Test contains analogy items, even though they use pictorial matter. 2. Assessment in Visual formats/pattern recognition: 1. Halstead Category Test: In this, 208 pictures consisting of geometric figures are presented. For each picture, individuals are asked to decide whether they are reminded of the number 1, 2, 3, or 4. They press a key that corresponds to their number of choice. If they chose correctly, a chime sounds. If they chose incorrectly, a buzzer sounds. The pictures are presented in seven subtests.
  11. 11. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Tests to measure Conceptual Thinking (2/4) 11 A2 2. Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) and Advanced Progressive Matrices: RPM is a 60 item test used in measuring abstract reasoning and regarded as a non-verbal estimate of fluid intelligence. The format is designed to measure the test taker’s reasoning ability, the eductive component of Spearman’s g. RCPM and APM are variants of RPM. RCPM is designed for children, elderly and mentally and physically impaired individuals. APM is designed for adults and adolescents of above average intelligence. 3. Symbol patterns: Deductive reasoning combines with ability for conceptual sequencing in symbol pattern tests. Ex: Thurstone’s Reasoning Tests in Primary Mental Abilities battery. 1. Abstraction subtest of Shipley institute of Living Scale: A series of 20 sequential completion items comprises the test. They include variations on word meanings and constructions, and number and letter patterns. 3. Sorting and other similar tests: Subject must sort collections of objects, blocks, tokens or other kinds of items into subgroups following instructions. Most sorting tests assess the ability to shift concepts as well as the ability to use them. 1. Kasanin-Hanfmann Concept Formation Test (Vygotsky Test): Purpose is to “evaluate an individual’s ability to solve problems by the use of abstract concepts and provide information both on the subject’s level of abstract thinking and his preferred type of approach to problems. 2. Modified Vygotsky Concept Formation Test: Divides the above into two parts – convergent thinking test and divergent thinking test and introduces a shifting request. 3. Card sorting: This test uses two sets of 32 3X5 cards with a word printed on each card. Four cards from each of eight categories make up one set; the second set consists random words. The subject is simply asked to group the shuffled cards. Performance is evaluated on the basis of the number and appropriateness of the sorts.
  12. 12. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Tests to measure Conceptual Thinking (3/4) 12 A2 4. Object Sorting Test (Goldstein and Scheerer): Its design to measure “abstract attitude” is based on the same principles as the block and token sorting tests and generally follows the same administration procedures. 5. Sorting Test (ST) (Delis, Kaplan and Kramer): It was designed to provide separate measures of initiation, concept formation, problem solving, cognitive flexibility, perseverative responding, and regulation 6. Wisconsin card sorting test: This test begins with color as the basis of sorting, shifts to form, then to number, returns again to color, and so on. 7. Modified Card Sorting Test (MCST): This modification of the WCST eliminates all cards from the pack that share more than one attribute with a stimulus card. 8. Colour Sorting Tests: The subject is asked to select as skein of her or his preference, and to pick out the other skeins that can be grouped with it. 9. Twenty Questions Task: The subject in this test has to self initiate sorting strategies– strategies for narrowing the possibilities to arrive at the correct answer. 4. Arithmetic and Estimation assessment: 1. Arithmetic story problems: Luria used arithmetic problems of increasing difficulty to examine reasoning abilities. These problems do not involve much mathematical skill. They implicitly require the subject to make comparisons between elements of the problem, and they contain intermediate operations that are not specified. 2. Block counting (Cube analysis/Cube counting): The subject must count the total number of blocks in each pile by taking into account the ones hidden from view. 3. Estimations: Estimations of sizes, quantities, etc. test patients’ ability to apply what they know, to compare, to make mental projections and to evaluate conclusions. Examples include the set of Cognitive Estimation questions by Shelly and Evan.
  13. 13. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Tests to measure Conceptual Thinking, Summary and Sources (4/4) 13 A2 5. Practical Strategy Tasks and other methods: 1. Practical strategy Tasks: Participant forms a strategy to perform a task in a optimally effective and successful way. Ex: Multiple errands test and Modified Six Elements Test. 2. Calculations: These tests give the patients an opportunity to demonstrate that they recognize the basic arithmetic symbols and can use them to calculate problems mentally and on paper. Examples include arithmetic subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT), Calculations of the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Achievement and Graded Difficulty Arithmetic Test (GDA). 3. Generalisation: When the same response is made to a continuum of stimuli. 4. Equivalence Range: Assess an individual’s tolerance for variability in stimulus characteristics within some category. * * * The tests for assessing the conceptual thinking form an important part of the neuropsychological tests. They are of various types viz. tests in verbal formats, visual formats/pattern recognition, sorting and similar tests, arithmetic and estimation assessment and practical strategy tasks. The prominent ones are analogies and proverb tests, performance tests, colour sorting tests, Halstead category test and Wisconsin card sort test, the Haufmann Kasanin Concept Formation Test and the Twenty Questions task. Sources: Comprehensive Handbook of Psychological Assessment: Intellectual and Neuropsychological Assessment edited by Michel Hersen (free preview) Neuropsychological Assessment By Muriel Deutsch Lezak (free preview)
  14. 14. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Discuss in detail the different stages of psychological assessment. Q3. 14
  15. 15. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Stages of Psychological Assessment 15 A3 Psychological assessment is a process of testing that uses a combination of techniques to help arrive at some hypotheses about a person and their behavior, personality and capabilities. The process involves various stages or steps as outlined below. A psychological assessment can be most useful when it addresses specific individual problems and provides guidelines for decision making regarding these problems. Therefore, throughout these phases, psychologist integrates data and serves as an expert on human behavior rather than merely an interpreter of test scores. These steps are looked at separately so that they are easy to understand. However, practically they often occur together and may interact with each other: 1. Prepare for the assessment: The psychologist prepares to undertake the assessment. For this he understands the patient’s problem, evaluates the referral question and plans rest of the assessment process. 1. Understand the problem: The clinician goes through the history of the patient, and uses other methods to develop a perspective on the problem. Clinician is aware of the advantages and limitations of psychological tests, and they are responsible for providing useful information, therefore, it is his duty to clarify the received requests. He may need to uncover hidden agendas, unspoken expectations, and complex interpersonal relationships, as well as explain the specific limitations of psychological tests. 2. Evaluating the Referral Question: Many of the practical limitations of psychological evaluations result from an inadequate clarification of the problem. Clinicians rarely are asked to give a general or global assessment, but instead are asked to answer specific questions. To address these questions, it is sometimes helpful to contact the referral source at different stages in the assessment process. The information derived from such an observation might be relayed back to the referral source for further clarification or modification of the referral question. 3. Plan the assessment process: Based on his learning from the previous steps the clinician plans the rest of the assessment process. He needs to take decisions regarding gathering data, and how to interpret it and finally how to use the output.
  16. 16. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Stages of Psychological Assessment 16 A3 2. Gather Inputs: Once he has sufficient understanding of the problem, the next step for the clinician is to gather inputs related to the problem. For this he conducts a Mental Status Examination and deploys measures to acquire knowledge related to the content of the problem. The data collected during the process contributes to the differential diagnosis for the patient. 1. Mental Status Examination: MSE is a subjective method of collecting data about the patient. It starts with observing the patient the minute he enters the office and moves onto an interview. The clinician tries to gather data related to patient’s thought process, patient history, social history, the patient’s affect, his sensorium and cognition. 2. Build content knowledge: It is essential that clinicians have in-depth knowledge about the variables they are measuring or their evaluations are likely to be extremely limited. Clinicians may need to refer both the test manual and additional outside sources. Clinicians should be familiar with operational definitions for problems such as anxiety disorders, psychoses, personality disorders, or organic impairment so that they can be alert to their possible expression during the assessment procedure. Examiner also needs to consider the problem in relation to the adequacy of the test and decide whether a specific test or tests can be appropriately used on an individual or group. This demands knowledge in such areas as the client’s age, sex, ethnicity, race, educational background, motivation for testing, anticipated level of resistance, social environment, and interpersonal relationships. Finally, clinicians need to assess the effectiveness or utility of the test in aiding the treatment process. 3. Data Collection: Next the clinicians proceed with the actual collection of information. This may come from a wide variety of sources, the most frequent of which are test scores, personal history, behavioral observations, and interview data. Clinicians may also find it useful to obtain school records, previous psychological observations, medical records, police reports, or discuss the client with parents or teachers.
  17. 17. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Stages of Psychological Assessment 17 A3 The case history provides a context for understanding the client’s current problems and, through this understanding, renders the test scores meaningful. For specific problem solving and decision making, clinicians must rely on multiple sources and, using these sources, assess the consistency of the observations they make. 3. Processing the data and interpreting it to get the output: Once the data is collected. It is organized, analyzed and then interpreted to get output. Once the output is ready it is to be communicated and decisions on further clinical actions are made. The end product of assessment should be a description of the client’s present level of functioning, considerations relating to etiology, prognosis, and treatment recommendations. Further elaborations may also attempt to assess the person from a systems perspective - patterns of interaction, mutual two-way influences, and the specifics of circular information feedback. An additional crucial area is to use the data to develop an effective plan for intervention. The description should rather provide a deeper and more accurate understanding of the person which allows the examiner to perceive new facets of the person in terms of both his or her internal experience and his or her relationships with others. To develop these descriptions, clinicians must make inferences from their test data. The process of developing hypotheses, obtaining support for these hypotheses, and integrating the conclusions is dependent on the experience and training of the clinician. Maloney and Ward (1976) have conceptualized a seven-phase approach to evaluating data as explained below: Phase 1: Collect data about the client Phase 2: Develop inferences about the client Phase 3: Accept, reject or modify the inferences Phase 4: Develop and begin to elaborate on statements relating to the client. Phase 5: Integration and correlation of the client’s characteristics to develop a dynamic model of the person Phase 6: place this comprehensive description of the person into a situational context Phase 7: makes specific predictions regarding his or her behavior.
  18. 18. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Summary and Sources 18 A3 The various stages of psychological assessment are preparation for the assessment, gathering inputs, and the processing the data and interpreting it to get the output. Preparation includes understanding problem, evaluating referral question and planning the process. Gathering inputs includes a Mental Status examination, building content knowledge and data collection. The final stage of developing inferences involves generating and proving hypothesis that could help in further diagnosis. Unless inferences can be made that effectively enhance decision making, the scope and relevance of testing are significantly reduced. * * * Sources: Psychological Assessment: A Conceptual Approach, by M. P. Maloney and M. P. Ward, New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.
  19. 19. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners 400 words Section B 19
  20. 20. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Discuss psychological assessment for conducting and evaluating therapy. Q4. 20
  21. 21. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Psychological Assessment for Conducting and Evaluating Therapy 21 A4 Psychological testing/assessment is a way to quickly determine the nature and extent of problems, help clarify diagnoses, determine abilities and limitations, and help make decisions about coping abilities. A thorough psychological assessment can also provide information needed to help develop an effective therapeutic treatment program or intervention plan for a client. It helps in the processes of both conducting therapy and evaluating therapy as discussed below. Psychological assessment for conducting therapy Therapy is the process of treatment of psychological or mental disorders by psychological means. Psychological assessment plays a dual role in conducting therapy: 1. Objective of treatment: A new client will receive a formal psychological assessment to provide the psychologist a condition in which to begin his work. This assessment will guide the psychologist into determining the required path and provide a starting ground for continuous assessments. 2. Challenges in treatment: The process of psychological treatment is not always smooth. Often various factors affect the psychological characteristics of the patient in a manner that they in turn negatively impact the efficacy of the therapy. This could be something like interpersonal aversiveness slowing down the impact of therapy. Psychological assessment can help identify such challenges early and thus help the therapist. Psychological assessment for evaluating therapy One of the common uses of assessments is to determine an individual’s progress in regards to the therapy that he’s been receiving. It is important to assess the objective of the treatment and challenges in the beginning of therapy. Similarly, it is also important to assess the impact of the therapy, that is, to evaluate the therapy’s success.
  22. 22. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Psychological Assessment for Conducting and Evaluating Therapy 22 A4 It can be classified as: 1. Evaluation during therapy: Data obtained from Psychological assessment can be used to monitor the progress of therapy. Periodic reevaluations can help to judge the difference that therapy is making. It also helps to indicate an appropriate termination point for therapy so that the process can be concluded. 2. Evaluation post conclusion: Psychological assessment can be done after the therapy has been concluded. The results can be compared with the results of the initial assessments or the ones during the therapy to objectively assess the overall impact of the treatment. This also helps in the process of justifying the financial cost for the treatment. * * * The psychological assessment test is immensely beneficial in enabling a complete assessment in determining a psychology patient’s progress while undergoing therapy. While conducting therapy it helps in two key ways – to determine the objective of the treatment and the challenges or the obstacles that may be faced during the treatment. Psychological assessments also help in the evaluation of the therapy – both during the therapy and after its conclusion. This helps in understanding the benefit the patient received from the treatment and thus, helps in justifying the cost of the treatment. Sources: Encyclopedia of Psychological Assessment edited by Rocio Fernandez-Ballesteros (free preview)
  23. 23. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Elucidate Wechsler Scales for children. Q5. 23
  24. 24. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Wechsler Scales for children 24 A5 David Wechsler supported the definition of intelligence as a global entity. He developed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) which belongs to the category of tests not derived from theory. The Fifth Edition (WISC-V) is the most current version. Structure The subscales are clustered in four categories as listed below: 1. Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI): 1. Vocabulary - asked to define a provided word. 2. Similarities - asked how two words are alike/similar. 3. Comprehension - questions about social situations or common concepts. 4. Information (supplemental) - general knowledge questions. 5. Word reasoning (supplemental)- a task involving clues that lead to a specific word 2. Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI): 1. Block Design — children put together red-and-white blocks in a pattern 2. Picture Concepts — children asked to determine which pictures go together from a series of pictures 3. Matrix Reasoning — children select picture that fits a missing picture in an array 4. Picture Completion (supplemental) - children identify missing part of an artwork/common object by pointing and/or naming. 3. Working Memory Index (WMI): 1. Digit Span - children asked to repeat orally given sequences of numbers, 2. Letter-Number Sequencing — children provide back to the examiner, in a predetermined order, a series of numbers and letters 3. Arithmetic (supplemental) - orally administered arithmetic questions.
  25. 25. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Wechsler Scales for children 25 A5 4. Processing Speed Index (PSI): 1. Coding — children under 8 mark rows of shapes with different lines according to a code, children over 8 transcribe a digit-symbol code. 2. Symbol Search — children asked to mark whether or not target symbols appear in given row of symbols. 3. Cancellation (supplemental)- children mark specific target pictures in a random and structured arrangements of pictures Administration WISC-V is an individually administered intelligence test for children between the ages of 6 and 16 inclusive that can be completed without reading or writing. It takes 48–65 minutes to administer. Variation in testing procedures and goals can reduce time of assessment to 15-20 minutes for the assessment of a single primary index, or increase testing time to three or more hours for a complete assessment, including all primary, ancillary, and complementary indices. Purpose and Scoring •It generates a Full Scale IQ (formerly known as an intelligence quotient or IQ score) which represents a child's general intellectual ability. •It also provides five primary index scores (i.e., Verbal Comprehension Index, Visual Spatial Index, Fluid Reasoning Index, Working Memory Index, and Processing Speed Index) that represent a child's abilities in more discrete cognitive domains. •Five ancillary composite scores can be derived from various combinations of primary or primary and secondary subtests. •Five complementary subtests yield three complementary composite scores to measure related cognitive abilities relevant to assessment and identification of specific learning disabilities, particularly dyslexia and dyscalculia.
  26. 26. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Summary and Sources 26 A5 The WISC, is an individually administered intelligence test for children between the ages of 6 and 16. It generates a full scale IQ and scores across four dimensions – Verbal Comprehension Index, Perceptual Reasoning Index, Working Memory Index and Processing Speed Index. Sources:
  27. 27. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Explain Torrance Test of Creativity Thinking. Q6. 27
  28. 28. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking 28 A6 Dr. E. Paul Torrance, “Father of Creativity,” is best known for developing the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). It was developed in 1966 building on J.P. Guilford's SOI assessments. It has been translated into more than 35 languages (Millar, 2002), is the most widely used test of creativity (Davis, 1997) and is the most referenced of all creativity tests (Lissitz & Willhoft, 1985). Structure The TTCT-Verbal (creative thinking with words) and the TTCT-Figural (creative thinking with figures) are two versions of the TTCT. 1. TTCT-Verbal: has two parallel forms, A and B, and consists of five activities: 1. ask-and-guess: includes three tasks Asking, Guessing causes and Guessing consequences for the pictured action 2. product improvement: subject modifies given toy to improve it 3. unusual uses: subject identifies different uses of an item 4. unusual questions: subject asks different questions about an item 5. just suppose: subject asked to list possible ramifications of an improbable situation The stimulus for each task includes a picture to which people respond in writing (Torrance, 1966, 1974). 2. TTCT-Figural: has two parallel forms, A and B, and consists of three activities: 1. picture construction: the subject constructs a picture using a pear or jellybean shape provided on the page as a stimulus (must be integral part of picture) 2. picture completion: the subject uses 10 incomplete figures to make an object or picture 3. repeated figures of lines or circles: composed of three pages of lines or circles that the subject is to use as a part of his or her picture (Torrance, 1966, 1974, 1990, 1998; Torrance & Ball, 1984).
  29. 29. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners TTCT – administration, purpose and scoring 29 A6 Administration TTCT can be administered as an individual or group test from the kindergarten level through the graduate level and beyond. It requires 30 min of working time, so speed is important, and artistic quality is not required to receive credit (Chase, 1985). Purpose Torrance (1966, 1974) suggested the following uses for the tests: 1. To understand the human mind and its functioning and development. 2. To discover effective bases for individualizing instruction. 3. To provide clues for remedial and psychotherapeutic programs. 4. To evaluate the effects of educational programs, materials, curricula, and teaching procedures. 5. To be aware of latent potentialities. Scoring The ‘Streamlined Scoring’ has the following scales: 1. Fluency: total number of interpretable, meaningful, and relevant ideas generated in response to the stimulus. 2. Originality: statistical rarity of the responses 3. Elaboration: amount of detail in the responses 4. Resistance to Premature Closure (based on Gestalt Psychology): examinee’s tendency to not immediately close the incomplete figures 5. Abstractness of Titles: level of abstractness of the titles
  30. 30. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Summary and Sources 30 A6 TTCT is the most famous and widely used of all creativity tests. It was created by Torrance with the objective of evaluating and enhancing creativity. It has two versions verbal and figural, both with two sets of forms A and B. The streamlined scoring looks at the fluency, originality, elaboration, resistance to premature closure and abstractness of titles. * * * Sources: Can We Trust Creativity Tests? A Review of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) Kyung Hee Kim Eastern Michigan University (free article)
  31. 31. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Differentiate between descriptive assessment and predictive assessment. Q7. 31
  32. 32. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Difference between descriptive and predictive assessment. 32 A7 Assessment Assessment in psychology refers to the process of identification of ‘abnormal’ behavior from ‘normal’ behavior so that appropriate classification of the individual can be arrived at and necessary interventions can be made. There are four clinical purposes of assessment – Descriptive assessment, Discriminative assessment, Predictive assessment and Evaluative assessment. Here we discuss the differences between descriptive and predictive assessment: 1. When is the assessment method preferred? • Descriptive assessment is undertaken to provide a description of the person’s current circumstances, past history, roles, habits, interests, level of occupational engagement, performance component skills and deficits, and desired outcomes. May be used to identify symptoms and problems to help aid diagnosis. • Predictive assessment is undertaken when therapists need to make predictions about a person's future function assessment or behavior. 2. What do the questions focus on? • Descriptive assessment questions focus on individuals, families, groups of people or person environment interactions to learn more about clients’ cognitive functioning, psychosocial functioning, academic achievement, personality, behavior or specific needs. • Predictive assessment questions focus on gathering information that may help make predictions about the future behavior of the person especially predictions of suicide risk, dangerousness etc.
  33. 33. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Difference between descriptive and predictive assessment. 33 A7 3. How is the result of the assessment used? • A descriptive assessment may be undertaken to gain information about environmental (physical, social, cultural-Institutional) barriers and facilitators may need to be optimized or overcome to ensure a successful intervention. Data is used to inform the development of aims and goals and negotiate outcomes and lead to intervention planning • In psychosocial practice areas, therapists may undertake predictive assessment for a number of reasons, including prediction of likely function when discharged home as part of a pre-discharge assessment (e.g. level of independence, ability to safely use appliances) and risk assessment (e.g., of harm to self or others, abuse, wandering, falls). 4. What are the requirements pertaining to reliability and validity? • Standardized descriptive tests should have adequate content, construct, and face validity. If they are to be administered by more than one therapist, a high level of inter-rater reliability is also important. • Standardized predictive tests should have established predictive validity. 5. Other differences: • The therapist may use the results of a predictive assessment undertaken in one environment to predict likely function in another environment. • Descriptive assessment may be undertaken on one occasion or over a period of time until sufficient information has been obtained to inform clinical decision making.
  34. 34. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Summary and Sources 34 A7 To summarize, the purpose of assessment in psychology is to differentiate the abnormal behavior from normal behavior, especially to identify potential areas of risk. The descriptive method contributes to this by describing the current situation of the client from various perspectives which helps understand the client and discover any abnormality present. The predictive method on the other hand contributes to this by making a prediction of the client’s future function assessment or behavior which helps identify potential areas of risk such as that of committing suicide. Sources: Psychosocial Occupational Therapy: An Evolving Practice by Elizabeth Cara, Anne MacRae
  35. 35. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners What is implicit memory? Elucidate the tests of implicit memory. Q8. 35
  36. 36. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Implicit Memory 36 A8 Implicit memory ("non-declarative" memory) is a type of long-term memory in which previous experiences aid the performance of a task without their conscious awareness. This memory isn't easy to verbalize, since it flows effortlessly in our actions. Procedural Memory - type of implicit memory that enables us to carry out commonly learned tasks like riding a bike, tying a shoe and washing dishes without consciously thinking about them. It's our "how to" knowledge. Priming - a process whereby subjects are measured by how they have improved their performance on tasks for which they have been subconsciously prepared. You are "primed" by your experiences; if you have heard something very recently, or many more times than another thing, you are primed to recall it more quickly. In the brain, the neural pathways representing things we have experienced more often are more salient than those for things with which we have fewer experiences.
  37. 37. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Tests of Implicit Memory 37 A8 In these tests the subjects are asked to respond to stimuli without referring to prior events. They include: 1. Perceptual memory tests - challenge the perceptual system by presenting impoverished test stimuli to which participants respond. Examples: 1. Word stem completion test – the word stem is provided and subject is asked to complete it. 2. Word identification test - presenting words very briefly and having participants guess what they are 3. Word/Picture fragment completion - naming words from fragments such as l_p_a_t or completing pictures. The measure in all cases is priming–as reflected by more accurate or faster completion of the target when it has been studied relative to when it has not been studied. 1. Conceptually driven tests - lay emphasis on meaning of the events, when people are trying to retrieve past events. Examples: 1. General knowledge test: Responses to questions such are "What is the name of the ship that carried the pilgrims to America in 1620?" 2. Free association tests: "say the first word that you think of to the stimulus word tusk" 3. Category association tests: "list as many African animals as you can in thirty seconds". 2. Procedural memory Tests - aspire to assess procedural memory – a subset of implicit memory. Examples: 1. Pursuit rotor task - participant follows a moving object with a cursor or stylus (on a computer). 2. Serial reaction time task - observes the speed and accuracy of the participant's ability to retain and acquire new skills. 3. Mirror tracing task: Participants learn a new motor skill involving hand–eye coordination - to draw the image in the mirror. 4. Weather prediction task: Participants are asked to predict the outcome of a card game.
  38. 38. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Summary and Sources 38 A8 Implicit memory aids the performance of a task without its conscious awareness. It results in priming. The three types of tests for implicit memory are: Perceptual memory tests such as word identification test, conceptually driven tests such as free association tests and Procedural memory tests such as Mirror Tracing Task. * * * Sources:
  39. 39. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners 50 words Section C 39
  40. 40. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Types of direct observation 40 A9 Direct observation techniques involve obtaining actual samples of the individual’s behavior (Cohen & Swerdik, 2002). The various types of direct observation are as follows: 1. Naturalistic observation: involve viewing the individual’s behavior in real-life settings (e.g, psychiatric hospitals, work settings, and classrooms). 2. Controlled observations: involve evaluating behavior in more structured situations (i.e, a laboratory room.) 3. Role playing: which combines the naturalistic and controlled observational method, involves a person playing an assigned role for the purpose of assessing the individual’s behavior in various situations They can also be classified as: 1. Time allocation: Researchers randomly visit selected locations to observe people performing tasks without their knowledge. 2. Continuous monitoring: Researchers observe the subject(s) and record their behavior either manually, electronically, or in both ways, to the maximum possible extent. * * * Sources: The Psychology of Personality: Viewpoints, Research, and Applications By Bernardo J. Carducci
  41. 41. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Mismatched validity 41 A10 If the tests are not well-matched to the task, individual, and situation at hand, we will have a case of mismatched validity. Some tests are useful in diverse situations, but no test works well for all tasks with all people in all situations. In his classic 1967 article, Gordon Paul helped psychotherapists move away from the oversimplified search for effective therapies toward a more difficult but meaningful question: "What treatment, by whom, is most effective for this individual with that specific problem, and under which set of circumstances?" Selecting assessment instruments involves similarly complex questions, such as: "Has research established sufficient reliability and validity (as well as sensitivity, specificity, and other relevant features) for this test, with an individual from this population, for this task (i.e., the purpose of the assessment), in this set of circumstances?" It is important to note that as the population, task, or circumstances change, the measures of validity, reliability, sensitivity, etc., will also tend to change. * * * Sources:
  42. 42. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Raven’s Progressive Matrices 42 A11 Raven's Progressive Matrices (often referred to simply as Raven's Matrices) are multiple choice intelligence tests of abstract reasoning, originally developed by Dr. John C. Raven in 1936. In each test item, the subject is asked to identify the missing item that completes a pattern. Many patterns are presented in the form of a 4x4, 3x3, or 2x2 matrix, giving the test its name. The matrices are posed in three different forms for participants of different ability: Standard Progressive Matrices, Coloured Progressive Matrices and Advanced Progressive Matrices. In addition, so-called "parallel" forms of the standard and coloured progressive matrices were published in 1998. Raven's Progressive Matrices and Vocabulary tests measure the two main components of general intelligence (originally identified by Charles Spearman): the ability to think clearly and make sense of complexity, which is known as eductive ability (from the Latin root "educere", meaning "to draw out") and the ability to store and reproduce information, known as reproductive ability. * * * Source:
  43. 43. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners SOI 43 A12 Sociosexuality as a concept was introduced by Alfred Kinsey to describe differences in individuals’ tendency to engage in uncommitted sexual relationships. Simpson and Gangestad constructed the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI) in 1991. The SOI was constructed as a one dimensional bipolar measure that consisted of 7 items regarding past sexual behaviors, expected number of future sexual partners, frequency of sexual fantasies, and attitudes toward casual sex. Sociosexuality was assumed to be a one dimensional construct, and the SOI score was calculated by aggregating all items using a formula proposed by the scale’s authors (Simpson & Gangestad, 1991). At one end of the continuum are highly restrictive individuals who require greater closeness and emotional bonding with a partner prior to engaging in sexual activities. At the other end of the continuum are highly unrestrictive individuals who require less emotional bonding with a partner before engaging in sexual intercourse. They feel comfortable engaging in one-night stands and having short-term relationships without emotional involvement (Gangestad & Simpson, 1990; Simpson & Gangestad, 1991). * * * Sources:
  44. 44. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners BRIEF-P 44 A13 The BRIEF-P is the first standardized rating scale designed to specifically measure the range of behavioral manifestations of executive function in preschool-aged children--thus facilitating intervention at earlier stages of development. It consists of a single Rating Form used by parents, teachers, and day care providers to rate a child's executive functions within the context of his/her everyday environments--home and preschool. The original Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) was the basis for the development of the BRIEF-P. Consequently, the BRIEF-P is an ecologically valid and efficient tool for screening, assessing, and monitoring a young child's executive functioning and development. The hand-scorable BRIEF-P Rating Form consists of 63 items that measure various aspects of executive functioning: Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Working Memory, and Plan/Organize. The clinical scales form three broad indexes (Inhibitory Self-Control, Flexibility, and Emergent Metacognition) and one composite score (Global Executive Composite). The BRIEF-P also provides two validity scales (Inconsistency and Negativity). * * * Sources:
  45. 45. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners DSM IV-TR 45 A14 The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA), offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders. It is used, or relied upon, by clinicians, researchers, psychiatric drug regulation agencies, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, the legal system, and policy makers. The DSM evolved from systems for collecting census and psychiatric hospital statistics, and from a United States Army manual. DSM-IV-TR, was published in 2000. It was organized into a five-part axial system. The first axis incorporated clinical disorders. The second axis covered personality disorders andintellectual disabilities. The remaining axes covered medical, psychosocial, environmental, and childhood factors functionally necessary to provide diagnostic criteria for health care assessments. It states that "there is no assumption that each category of mental disorder is a completely discrete entity with absolute boundaries dividing it from other mental disorders or from no mental disorder" (APA, 1994 and 2000). There are attempts to adjust the wording for the upcoming DSM-V. * * * Sources:
  46. 46. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Sentence Completion Test 46 A15 Sentence completion tests (Ex: Rotter & Wilierman 1947) are a class of semi-structured projective techniques. Sentence completion tests typically provide respondents with beginnings of sentences, referred to as “stems,” and respondents then complete the sentences in ways that are meaningful to them. The responses are believed to provide indications of attitudes, beliefs, motivations, or other mental states. It enables the respondents to disclose their concealed feelings. Herman Ebbinghaus is generally credited with developing the first sentence completion test in 1897. It was used as part of an intelligence test. The SCT typically consists of thirty to one hundred brief sentence stems which the subject is instructed to complete with the first words that come to mind. The tests are usually administered in booklet form where respondents complete the stems by writing words on paper. The technique is considered most efficient in assessing the content of personality (attitudes, motives, and conflicts) at a more conscious or manifest level than such instruments as the Rorschach or TAT. * * * Sources:
  47. 47. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners The Edwards Personal Preference Schedule 47 A16 Developed by psychologist and University of Washington professor Allen L. Edwards, the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) is a forced choice, objective, non-projective personality inventory. The target audience in between the ages of 16-85 and takes about 45 minutes to complete. Edwards derived the test content from the human needs system theory proposed by Henry Alexander Murray, which measures the rating of individuals in fifteen normal needs or motives. The EPPS was designed to illustrate relative importance to the individual of several significant needs and motives. It is useful in counseling situations when responses are reviewed with the examinee. The 15 personality variable scales are Achievement, Deference, Order, Exhibition, Autonomy, Affiliation, Intraception, Succorance, Dominance, Abasement, Nurturance, Change, Endurance, Heterosexuality, and, Aggression. The inventory consists of 225 pairs of statements in which items from each of the 15 scales are paired with items from the other 14 plus the other fifteen pairs of items for the optional consistency check. This leaves the total number of items at 210. * * * Sources:
  48. 48. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Rorschach Inkblot Method 48 A17 Rorschach test is a psychometric tool that uses a series of inkblots shown to a subject, and elicits verbal responses as to what the individual sees in the images. It consists of ten symmetrical inkblots. The cards are presented individually and in a set order. Subject is instructed to report what the figures resemble or suggest to him. Responses to each card are recorded verbatim and reaction times are noted. Then an inquiry is conducted where the subject identifies the characteristics of the stimuli which affected his associations. Subject responses are used to determine a set of variables, which are used to define their personality along a set of various axes. Various aspects of responses are scored ex: location, relative size of the blot area, use of color and shading, presence of movement etc. Weiner (1991) suggested that the Rorschach Test be categorized as a method of data collection, not a test as it does not test anything. * * * Sources:
  49. 49. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners ‘Pull’ of TAT Cards 49 A18 The TAT cards tend to draw certain patterns of response that constitute their “card pull”. Some key aspects of card pull are: 1. most people take note of certain features of each card e.g. the violin in Card (1), but rarely mention certain other features e.g. the horse in Card (2). 2. TAT pictures commonly suggest certain themes or plots in the stories that are told to them. 3. many of the pictures remind people of issues in their lives (e.g.. parent-child relationships) or particular concerns they have e.g. managing anger. Familiarity with the frequently noted features, commonly elicited story lines, and issues often tapped for each card provides a backdrop for grasping the meaning of the stories people tell. * * * Sources: Handbook of Personality Assessment by Irving B. Weiner and Roger L. Greene
  50. 50. IGNOU MAPC material© 2016, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners For more solved assignments visit M S Ahluwalia (MSA) is a psychology learner, artist, and photographer. Know more, visit Estudiante De La Vida or follow on Twitter or Facebook: For Super-Notes: Click Here