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Life Span Psychology for IGNOU students


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Life Span Psychology for IGNOU students

  1. 1. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners MPC002/ASST/TMA/2014-15 IGNOU Assignment
  2. 2. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Life Span Psychology Solved Assignment - MAPC
  3. 3. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners 1000 words Section A 3
  4. 4. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Examine Piaget’s and Kohlberg’s theories of moral development during school years. Q1. 4
  5. 5. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Piaget’s and Kohlberg’s theories of moral development during school years 5 A1 Moral development refers to the changes in the ability to reason about what is right and what is wrong in a given situation (e.g., Carlo et al., 1996; Carpendale & Krebs, 1995). Lawrence Kohlberg was a developmental psychologist who, influenced by Piaget and others, outlined a theory of the development of moral thinking through looking at how people of various ages responded to stories about people caught up in moral dilemmas. Kohlberg and Piaget’s theories are discussed below: Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development Interest in how children think about moral issues was stimulated by Piaget (1932), who extensively observed and interviewed children from the ages of 4 through 12. Piaget watched children play marbles to learn how they used and thought about the game’s rules. He also asked children about ethical issues—theft, lies, punishment, and justice, for example. Piaget concluded that children go through two distinct stages, separated by a transition period, in how they think about morality. 1. Heteronomous morality: From 4 to 7 years of age, children display heteronomous morality, the first stage of moral development in Piaget’s theory. Children think of justice and rules as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people. 2. Transition period: From 7 to 10 years of age, children are in a transition showing some features of the first stage of moral reasoning and some stages of the second stage, autonomous morality. 3. Autonomous morality: From about 10 years of age and older, children show autonomous morality, Piaget’s second stage of moral development. They become aware that rules and laws are created by people, and in judging an action, they consider the actor’s intentions as well as the consequences. Because young children are heteronomous moralists, they judge the rightness or goodness of behavior by considering its consequences, not the intentions of the actor. For example, to the heteronomous moralist, breaking twelve cups accidentally is worse than breaking one cup intentionally. As children develop into moral autonomists, intentions assume paramount importance.
  6. 6. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development contd. 6 A1 The heteronomous thinker also believes that rules are unchangeable and are handed down by all-powerful authorities. When Piaget suggested to young children that they use new rules in a game of marbles, they resisted. By contrast, older children—moral autonomists—accept change and recognize that rules are merely convenient conventions, subject to change. The heteronomous thinker also believes in immanent justice, the concept that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately. The young child believes that a violation is connected automatically to its punishment. Thus, young children often look around worriedly after doing something wrong, expecting inevitable punishment. Immanent justice also implies that if something unfortunate happens to someone, the person must have transgressed earlier. Older children, who are moral autonomists, recognize that punishment occurs only if someone witnesses the wrongdoing and that, even then, punishment is not inevitable. They also realize that bad things can happen to innocent people. Piaget argued that, as children develop, they become more sophisticated in thinking about social matters, especially about the possibilities and conditions of cooperation. Piaget reasoned that this social understanding comes about through the mutual give-and-take of peer relations. In the peer group, where others have power and status similar to the child’s, plans are negotiated and coordinated, and disagreements are reasoned about and eventually settled. Parent-child relations, in which parents have the power and children do not, are less likely to advance moral reasoning, because rules are often handed down in an authoritarian way.
  7. 7. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development 7 A1 Kohlberg (1973) proposed three levels of moral development, or the knowledge of right and wrong behavior. Although these stages are associated with certain age-groups, adolescents and adults can be found at all three levels. For example, a juvenile delinquent tends to be pre-conventional in moral thinking. Kohlberg’s Three Levels of Morality are: 1. The Pre-conventional Level: At the first level of moral development, the pre-conventional level, children judge morality largely in terms of consequences: Actions that lead to rewards are perceived as good or acceptable; ones that lead to punishments are seen as bad or unacceptable. For example, a child at this level might say, “The man should not steal the drug, because if he does, he’ll be punished.” It involves two stages: a. Punishment and obedience orientation: Morality judged in terms of consequences b. Naive Hedonistic Orientation: Morality judged in terms of what satisfies own needs or those of others. 2. The Conventional Level: As cognitive abilities increase, Kohlberg suggests, children enter a second level of moral development, the conventional level. Now they are aware of some of the complexities of the social order and judge morality in terms of what supports and preserves the laws and rules of their society. Thus, a child at this stage might reason: “It’s OK to steal the drug, because no one will think you are bad if you do. If you don’t, and let your wife die, you’ll never be able to look anyone in the eye again.” It involves two stages: a. Good boy- good girl orientation: Morality judged in terms of adherence to social rules or norms with respect to personal acquaintances. b. Social order-maintaining orientation: Morality judged in terms of social rules of laws applied universally, not just to acquaintances. 3. The Post-conventional Level: Finally, in adolescence or early adulthood many—though by no means all— individuals enter a third level known as the post-conventional level, or principled level. Persons who attain this stage often believe that certain obligations and values transcend the rules or laws of society.
  8. 8. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development contd., Summary and Sources 8 A1 The principles such individuals follow are abstract and ethical, not concrete like the Ten Commandments, and are based on inner conscience rather than on external sources of authority. It involves two stages: a. Legalistic orientation: Morality judged in terms of human rights, which may transcend laws. b. Universal ethical principle orientation: Morality judged in terms of self-chosen ethical principles. * * * To summarize, Piaget and Kohlberg proposed theories in the area of moral development - changes in the ability to reason about what is right and what is wrong in a given situation. Piaget concluded that children go through two distinct stages – heteronomous morality and autonomous morality - separated by a transition period, in how they think about morality. Kohlberg proposed three levels of moral development – the pre-conventional level, the conventional level and the post-conventional level – each having two sub-stages. These theories form the basis of our understanding of moral development in children. Sources: Psychology, Saundra K. Cicarelli and Glenn E. Meyer (Click for eBook) Psychology, Robert Baron (Click for eBook) Life-Span Development, John W. Santrock (Click for eBook)
  9. 9. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Elucidate the cognitive changes during middle adulthood. Q2. 9
  10. 10. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Cognitive changes during middle adulthood 10 A2 During middle adulthood, cognition begins to stabilize, reaching a peak around the age of 35. The various components of the human cognitive structure that undergoes changes during middle adulthood includes – intelligence (fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence and practical intelligence), memory (short term and long term memory) and creativity. These are discussed in detail below: 1. Intelligence · Instead of declining sharply with age, many intellectual abilities seem to remain quite stable across the entire life span. In fact, they show relatively little change until persons are well into their sixties, seventies, or beyond. Some abilities even seem to increase. · Crystallized intelligence – the ability to draw on previously learned information as a basis for making decisions or solving problems - grows steadily throughout middle adulthood and even after that. (e.g., Lerner, 1990; Willis & Nesselroade, 1990). · Fluid intelligence – the ability to form concepts, reason, and identify similarities - is more dependent on basic information processing skills and starts to decline even prior to mid-adulthood. It increases upto early 20s and then gradually declines. · Cognitive processing speed slows down during this stage of life, as does the ability to solve problems and divide attention. · Practical intelligence increases with age (e.g., Sternberg et al., 1995). These skills are necessary to solve real-world problems and figure out how to best achieve a desired goal. · Intellectual abilities do not decline overall, although speed of processing (or reaction time) does slow down. Compared to a younger adult, a middleaged person may take a little longer to solve a problem. However, a middle- aged person also has more life experience and knowledge to bring to bear on a problem, which counters the lack of speed.
  11. 11. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Cognitive changes during middle adulthood 11 A2 · In one study (Salthouse, 1984), for example, older typists were found to outperform younger typists, even though they typed more slowly than the younger subjects. The older typists, because of years of practice, had developed a skill of looking farther ahead in the document they were typing, so that they could type more continuously without looking back at the document. This allowed them to complete their typing more quickly than the younger typists. 2. Memory Changes in memory ability are probably the most noticeable changes in middle-aged cognition. · Research on short-term memory indicates that older people seem able to retain just as much information in this limited-capacity system as young ones—seven to nine separate items (Poon & Fozard, 1980). · When information in short-term memory must be processed—as, for example, when you try to solve anagrams (word puzzles) in your head—older persons sometimes perform more poorly than younger ones (Babcock & Salthouse, 1990). · If they must perform several short-term memory tasks in a row, older persons often show a greater decline on later tasks than young persons (e.g., Shimamura & Jurica, 1994). · As we grow older, our ability to deal with the effects of proactive interference—interference with materials we are currently entering into short-term memory from materials we entered earlier—declines (e.g., Shimamura et al., 1995). · Thinking about the positive events of the past aids the formation of newer memories—the areas of the brain that are linked to processing emotional content seem to have a strong connection to the areas of the brain responsible for memory formation (Addis et al., 2010). · Long –term memory: Where relatively meaningless information such as nonsense syllables is concerned, young people do sometimes have an edge. This is especially true with respect to recall—the ability to bring previously memorized information to mind. Performance on such tasks does seem to decline with age (Hultsch & Dixon, 1990). The differences are smaller and less consistent with respect to recognition—the ability simply to tell whether or not information being presented has been presented before.
  12. 12. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Cognitive changes during middle adulthood 12 A2 · For many tasks involving long-term memory, there does seem to be some decline in performance with increasing age. Such effects are less apparent, however, when the information being committed to memory is meaningful—for instance, when it has some connection to individuals’ everyday life or to information they want to remember. Here differences between younger and older persons are much smaller and in some studies do not appear at all (e.g., May, Hasher, & Stoltzfus, 1993). 3. Creativity Creativity refers to the ability to generate novel methods of dealing with old situations or the ability to deal with novel situations. As measured by standard laboratory tasks (such as coming up with novel ways of using everyday objects), creativity does decline with age (Simonton, 1990). While the age at which peak creativity occurs varies greatly across fields, many creative persons—for example, psychologists—make their key contributions when they are in their forties and fifties (Simonton, 1990). While the number of creative accomplishments decreases with age, their quality does not. Preventing negative impact of age on cognitive abilities People who exercise their mental abilities have been found to be far less likely to develop memory problems or even more serious senile dementias, such as Alzheimer’s, in old age (Ball et al., 2002; Colcombe et al., 2003; Fiatarone, 1996). “Use it or lose it” is the phrase to remember.Working challenging crossword puzzles, for example, can be a major factor in maintaining a healthy level of cognitive functioning. Reading, having an active social life, going to plays, taking classes, and staying physically active can all have a positive impact on the continued well-being of the brain (Bosworth & Schaie, 1997; Cabeza et al., 2002; Singh-Manoux et al., 2003).
  13. 13. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Summary and Sources 13 A2 The overall pattern of evidence suggests that few intellectual abilities decline sharply with age. Some do decrease— especially ones closely related to speed of responding. But others remain quite stable over many years, and others may actually increase as individuals gain in experience. While there is a decline in some aspects of memory, in generally exercising memory reduces the impact. While fluid intelligence may decline, crystallized intelligence remains stable and practical intelligence improves with age. Laboratory experiments suggest a decline in creativity with age. Aging is inevitable, but our minds can remain active until the very end of life. Sources: Psychology, Saundra K. Cicarelli and Glenn E. Meyer (Click for eBook) 14/adulthood-74/cognitive-development-in-adulthood-288-12823/ Psychology, Robert Baron (Click for eBook)
  14. 14. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Discuss the ageing issues and challenges in adulthood. Q3. 14
  15. 15. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Ageing issues and challenges in adulthood 15 A3 Ageing is the organic process of growing older and showing the affects of increasing age. In the present day society, with increasing health consciousness, both men and women want to be physically and mentally fit. With advancing age certain inevitable and universal changes such as chemical changes in cells or gradual loss of adaptive reserve capacity take place. There are also certain cognitive changes taking place from middle adulthood onwards. These changes are slow and gradual. Normally people see aging as a period of physical and mental health decline. These changes are mainly physical and cognitive in nature and may result in various issues and challenges for a person as discussed below: 1. Physical issues and challenges during adulthood and old age: · It has been found that the body organs of most persons show a 0.8 to 1 percent decline per year in the functional ability after the age of 30 years. Part of this decline is normal, some are disease-related and some caused by factors such as stress, occupational status, nutritional status and many other environmental factors. · The major physical changes associated with aging are described as external changes, internal changes and changes in the sensory capacities and cognitive abilities. Let us understand these changes. o External Changes: This refers to the symptoms of growing old that can be seen in an individual. With many individuals the symptoms of aging can be seen as graying hair, aging skin, shift in posture and appearance of wrinkles and age spots and other changes. Decrease in strength and coordination – muscles wane out, flexibility and reaction time decrease. o Internal Changes: These changes refer to the symptoms of growing old that are not visible. These include changes in the respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular system, and central nervous system. o Changes in Sensory Capacities: With advancing age, there is gradual slow down in the sensory abilities. Ability to hear high-pitched noises disappears, hearing loss becomes perceptible around 40. There is a decline in vision – ability to focus declines and subjects need to be brightly lit to be seen properly. Losing in any of the senses can have profound psychological and social consequences. Age related diseases such as cataract, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma begin appearing in late adulthood.
  16. 16. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Ageing issues and challenges in adulthood 16 A3 · Diseases: During middle adulthood various diseases begin appearing especially due to the stressful lives that people live today. Heart diseases, Cancer, Diabetes, Goiter, Gout and Arthritis are common occurrences. During late adulthood diseases like Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Cancer begin appearing. · Sexual changes: Women experience Menopause during middle adulthood, while males experience decrease in fertility. · Obesity: Commonly observed in adults above 60 years of age. · Immunity: Immunity also decreases with age causing increased susceptibility to infections. 2. Emotional and personality issues and challenges during adulthood and old age · During early adulthood, individuals need friends to share the thoughts and feelings, typically individuals in a similar situation. The individual also needs to cope with the issue of multiple selves – personality changing from one situation to another. · During middle adulthood, relationships are about intimacy and commitment rather than physical passion. A high incidence of divorce has been found to be linked to heart-related issues for men. Due to the load of responsibilities the number of friends usually decreases in this phase. Family responsibilities also become challenging – managing both children and parents (commonly dependant). · During late adulthood, the loss of spouse may be a major cause of emotional insecurity. · Intimacy versus isolation occurs around the age of 20, and continues into a person's 30's and beyond. During this time in life, people face the crisis of being alone versus being involved in meaningful relationships. · Generativity versus stagnation, as suggested by Erikson, occurs around the age of 25-30 and lasts into a person's mid to late 50's. During this time, people think about the contribution they are making to the world. · Integrity versus despair occurs around the age of 50 and continues until the end of a person's life. During this time, people reflect back on the life they have lived, and they decide if their life was meaningful or not. · About 10 percent of middle aged adults go through what is known as a "mid-life crisis", an emotional period of doubt and anxiety sometimes experienced by people who realize that their life is already half over.
  17. 17. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Ageing issues and challenges in adulthood 17 A3 · Younger people can experience a "quarter-life" crisis, in which they struggle to find their place in the world, and worry they will not have an impact or be successful. 3. Cognitive and mental health issues and challenges during adulthood and old age · During adulthood and aging various aspects of cognition like memory, learning, attention and speed of performance get adversely affected. The aged people often report forgetfulness, difficulty in learning new techniques and acquiring skills. Their concentration, and, responsiveness to environmental stimulus decreases. · Dementia and Alzheimers are important diseases of old age. Depression is considered to be a natural condition of old age, often related to retirement and all of the factors that we discussed in physical and emotional challenges related to ageing. Ageing is a biological process. This process gets affected by many other things such as stress, tension, habit, undisciplined life, ill health work habits etc. Leading a disciplined life means giving the body enough time to rest, proper work habits, less tension, proper nutrition and spirituality. One must not deny and accept one’s age and act in a realistic but optimistic manner. Various coping strategies are present to help in the cause. Mental or physical decline does not necessarily have to occur. Persons can remain vigorous, active and dignified until their eighties or even nineties. This is quite possible if they take adequate care of themselves right from their middle age years. The older persons have vast reservoir of knowledge, experience and wisdom on which the community can draw upon.
  18. 18. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Summary and Sources 18 A3 Ageing is the process of growing old. During this process of growing old an individual faces various challenges and issues. These can be broadly categorized into three categories – physical issues (ex: change in sensory capacities and age-related diseases), emotional and personality issues (ex: dealing with multiple selves and loss of loved ones) and cognitive and mental health related issues (ex: memory, attention, learning capacity etc.). In case a person is not able to successfully cope with the various physical and emotional challenges faced by him/her they may become depressed. However, coping with these challenges can result in happiness unto death. Sources: NIOS study material- 12. Adulthood and Ageing 14/adulthood-74/the-challenges-of-adulthood-286-12821/
  19. 19. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners 400 words Section B 19
  20. 20. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners What do you understand by growth and development? Q4. 20
  21. 21. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Growth and development 21 A4 Growth and development are often used as synonymous terms. But growth is more on the physical aspect while development is more on the mental aspect. These two processes are highly correlated with each other. If a child has good physical health, most likely the child also has above average mental capacity. With good physical growth, a child can be more sociable with other people, too. Both are important characteristics of a living organism and go on simultaneously. · Growth is “the physical change that a particular individual undergoes.” · Development is “the overall growth of humans throughout their lifespan.” Development includes the understanding of how and why people change in terms of physical growth, intellectual, emotional, social, and other aspects of human growth. The term growth is used in purely physical sense. It refers to an increase in size, length, height and weight. Changes in the quantitative aspects come into the domain of growth. Development implies overall changes in shape, form or structure resulting in improved working or functioning. It indicates the changes in the quality or character rather than in quantitative aspects. · Growth is one part of developmental process. Development in its quantitative aspect is termed as growth. Development is a wider and comprehensive term. It refers to overall changes in the individual. · Growth describes the changes which take place in particular aspects of the body and behaviour of an organism. Development describes changes in the organism as a whole and does not list the changes in parts. · Growth does not continue throughout life. It stops when maturity has been attained. Development is a continuous process. It goes from womb to tomb. It does not end with the attainment of maturity, the changes however small they may be, continue throughout the life span of an individual.
  22. 22. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Growth and development contd., Summary and Sources 22 A4 · The changes produced by growth are the subject of measurement. They may be quantified. Development implies improvement in functioning and behaviour and hence brings qualitative changes which are difficult to be measured directly. Both heredity and environment impact the growth and development of a child. The environmental factors include nutrition, climate, family environment, social environment, culture, the roles they have to play and other etc. The growth and development of a child happens in the following respects: 1. Physical 2. Psychological and Cognitive 3. Social and emotional 4. Sexuality and gender identity * * * Growth refers to change in size; development implies overall changes in the individual. The principles of development state that it is a continuous process; it follows a pattern; it proceeds from general to specific responses; it proceeds at different rates for different parts of the body; there are individual differences in development; it is both quantitative and qualitative and it is often predictable. There are internal, external and other factors that affect the growth and development of the child. The two main phases of the process of development are phase of before Birth and the phase of after Birth. Sources:
  23. 23. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners How can environmental influences affect the development of infant? Q5. 23
  24. 24. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Affect of environmental influences on the development of infant 24 A5 An infant or toddler has a time-limited period during which her experiences will affect her brain function and development. Nutrition, talking, singing, playing and protection from stress or the dangers of toxins and drugs are important requirements for healthy brain development in infants and toddlers. The environmental influences affecting development of an infant are listed below: · Socio-economic status of the family: It has an indirect impact on development as it impacts most of the other factors discussed below. Ex: nutrition, exposure to toxins, etc. · Child’s nutrition: Feeding of baby appropriately during the first year of life is extremely important, as more growth occurs during your baby's first year than any other time in her life. Starting good eating habits at this early stage will help set healthful eating patterns for life. · Drugs, Toxins, Radiation and Disease: A number of substances such as drugs (heroin, alcohol, cocaine etc.), diseases and radiation can affect infant brain development. Exposure to alcohol while in the womb can cause fetal alcohol syndrome, which may result in delayed development in thinking, speech, movement or social skills, as well as physical defects. Viruses such as HIV and rubella and environmental toxins such as mercury or lead may also have a negative effect on brain development. · Climate and season: Exposure to extreme climates can impact the physical health of the infant, which in turn can also impact cognitive development · Adequate Sleep: Infants need between nine and 12 hours of sleep per night for optimal health. When they get this sleep depends, as nap times of infants vary, with most taking 30-minute to 2-hour naps one to four times a day. · Family environment: Child’s ordinal position in the family, Number of siblings in the family, Family structure (single parent or extended family etc.) etc. can impact various factors discussed below: · Stimulation and Interaction: Infants need lots of stimulation and interaction, which is essential for their cognitive and emotional development. Talking, singing, playing music, carrying on "conversations", reading stories with babies builds their vocabulary, demonstrates emotions, and teaches problem-solving skills.
  25. 25. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Affect of environmental influences on the development of infant contd., Summary and Sources 25 A5 · Secure Attachment: is at the heart of healthy child development and lays the foundation for relating intimately with others, including spouses and children. It affects parents' abilities to nurture and be responsive to their children. · Abuse, Neglect and Stress: Negative experiences can also affect brain development. Abuse, neglect and chronic stress can cause synaptic development, but the child who results may be violent and overly aggressive. Exposure to violence during the formative years teaches children to expect danger rather than security. These children may have problems with self-control later in life. * * * Environmental influences can significantly impact the development of an infant. It can impact the physical health of the child, and, directly or indirectly impact the mental development. Some of the factors include: Nutrition, exposure to drugs and disease and family environment. Sources: 3414.html
  26. 26. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Discuss the main components of language development in children. Q6. 26
  27. 27. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Main components of language development in children 27 A6 The language hierarchy involves five systems of rules – phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics. (Morphology and Semantics together form Grammar) Therefore, these form the main components of language development in children and are discussed in detail below: 1. Phonology and Morphology During the preschool years, most children gradually become more sensitive to the sounds of spoken words and become increasingly capable of producing all the sounds of their language (National Research Council, 1999). By the time, children are 3 years of age, they can produce all the vowel sounds and most of the consonant sounds (Menn & Stoel-Gammon, 2009). By the time children move beyond two-word utterances, they demonstrate a knowledge of morphology rules (Tager- Flusberg & Zukowski, 2009). Children begin using the plural and possessive forms of nouns, appropriate endings on verbs, prepositions, articles, and various forms of the verb to be. Overgeneralization of rules, ex: “foots” instead of “feet,” or “goed” instead of “went” serves as evidence of children’s use of morphological rules. 2. Syntax and Semantics Preschool children also learn and apply rules of syntax (Lidz, 2010; Tager-Flusberg & Zukowski, 2009). They show a growing mastery of complex rules for how words should be ordered, but they take much longer to learn the auxiliary- inversion rule. Thus, preschool children might ask, “Where Daddy is going?” and “What that boy is doing?” Gains in semantics also characterize early childhood. Vocabulary development is dramatic (Diesendruck, 2010; Pan & Uccelli, 2009). Between 18 months and 6 years of age, young children learn approximately one new word every waking hour (Carey, 1977; Gelman & Kalish, 2006)! It is estimated that first graders know about 14,000 words (Clark, 1993). Children who enter elementary school with a small vocabulary are at risk for developing reading problems (Berninger, 2006).
  28. 28. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Main components of language development in children contd., Summary and Sources 28 A6 3. Pragmatics Changes in pragmatics characterize young children’s language development (Bryant, 2009; Siegal & Surian, 2010). A 6- year-old is simply a much better conversationalist than a 2-year-old is. Young children begin to engage in extended discourse (Akhtar & Herold, 2008). They become increasingly able to talk about things that are not here (ex: Grandma’s house) and not now (ex: what happened yesterday or might happen tomorrow). At about 4 years of age, children develop a remarkable sensitivity to the needs of others in conversation. At around 4 to 5 years of age, children learn to change their speech style to suit the situation. They speak differently to an adult than to a same-aged peer, using more polite and formal language with the adult (Shatz & Gelman, 1973). And they speak differently with a child. * * * To summarize, during pre-school years, improvements in phonology lead to children becoming sensitive to speech sound and start producing all sounds of their own language. They also demonstrate a knowledge of morphology rules. They learn and apply rules of syntax to arrange words into sentences. They develop semantics to accurately express themselves. By 6 yrs, children have gained reasonable pragmatic ability for proper language use. Sources: Life-Span Development, John W. Santrock (Click for eBook)
  29. 29. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Describe motor development that takes place during middle childhood. Q7. 29
  30. 30. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Motor development during middle childhood 30 A7 Motor development refers to the development of motor skills in children – the ability to co-ordinate muscles for different types of movements. Motor skills are of two types – Gross motor skills and Fine motor skills. We briefly look at what they are and their development during middle childhood. Gross motor skills Gross motor skills are skills that involve large-muscle activities, such as moving one’s arms and walking. During middle and late childhood, children’s motor development becomes much smoother and more coordinated than it was in early childhood. Running, swimming, and skating are few of the many physical skills elementary school children can master. When mastered, these physical skills are a source of great pleasure and a sense of accomplishment. A study of 9-year-olds revealed that those who were more physically fit had a better mastery of motor skills (Haga, 2008). In gross motor skills involving large-muscle activity, boys usually outperform girls. As children move through the elementary school years, they gain greater control over their bodies and can sit and pay attention for longer periods of time. However, they are far from being physically mature, and they need to be active. Elementary school children become more fatigued by long periods of sitting than by running, jumping, or bicycling (Rink, 2009). Physical action is essential for these children to refine their developing skills. Children benefit from exercise breaks periodically during the school day on the order of 15 minutes every two hours (Keen, 2005). Fine Motor Skills Fine motor skills involve finely tuned movements that require finger dexterity. Example: using a spoon or buttoning a shirt.
  31. 31. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Motor development during middle childhood contd., Summary and Sources 31 A7 Increased myelination of the central nervous system is reflected in the improvement of fine motor skills during middle and late childhood. Myelination involves the covering of the axon with a myelin sheath, a process that increases the speed with which information travels from neuron to neuron. By middle childhood, children can use their hands adroitly as tools. · 6 yrs: can hammer, paste, tie shoes, and fasten clothes. · 7 yrs: children’s hands have become steadier. Children prefer a pencil to a crayon for printing, and reversal of letters is less common. Printing becomes smaller. · 8-10 yrs: children can use their hands independently with more ease and precision; children can now write rather than print words. Letter size becomes smaller and more even. · 10-12 yrs: children begin to show manipulative skills similar to the abilities of adults. The complex, intricate, and rapid movements needed to produce fine-quality crafts or to play a difficult piece on a musical instrument can be mastered. Girls usually outperform boys in fine motor skills. * * * To summarize, there is significant motor development during middle childhood. Due to improvement in gross motor skills children can now run, swim, skate etc. However, they need frequent exercise breaks to practice these skills. With increased myelination the fine motor skills such as writing, painting, needlework etc. show significant improvement. Sources: Life-Span Development, John W. Santrock (Click for eBook)
  32. 32. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Analyse Levinson’s theory and its features in adulthood development. Q8. 32
  33. 33. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Levinson’s theory and its features in adulthood development 33 A8 The Stage-Crisis View is a theory of adult development that was established by Daniel Levinson in his 1978 publication entitled "The Seasons of a Man's Life." According to his theory, various developmental tasks must be mastered as one progresses through each era; pre- adulthood, early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. Crises are also experienced throughout the lifecycle and occur when one become burdened by either internal or external factors, such as during the midlife crisis that occurs during the midlife transition from early adulthood to middle adulthood. At the center of Levinson's theory is the life structure. This is an underlying pattern of an individual's life at any given point in time. It is shaped mainly by their social and physical environment, and involves family and work. Other variables such as religion, race, and status are often important as well. There are two key concepts: 1. Stable Period - the time when a person makes crucial choices in life 2. Transitional Period - the end of a person's stage and the beginning of a new one. Life during these transitions can be either rocky or smooth, but the quality and significance of one’s life commitments often change between the beginning and end of a period. As per the theory, there are 6 stages of adulthood: 1. Early adult transition (17-22) - leave adolescence, make preliminary choices for adult life 2. Entering the adult world (22-28) - make initial choices in love, occupation, friendship, values, lifestyle 3. Age 30 transition (28-33) - changes occur in life structure, either a moderate change or, more often, a severe and stressful crisis 4. Settling down (33-40) - establish a niche in society, progress on a timetable, in both family and career accomplishments; are expected to think and behave like a parent so they are facing more demanding roles and expectations .
  34. 34. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Levinson’s theory and its features in adulthood development contd., Summary and Sources 34 A8 5. Mid-life transition (40-45) - life structure comes into question, usually a time of crisis in the meaning, direction, and value of each person's life. Neglected parts of the self (talents, desires, aspirations) seek expression. Men becoming increasingly aware of death and they are reminded of how short life really is. They become involved in trying to leave a legacy and this usually forms the core of the second half of his life. 6. Entering middle adulthood (45-50) - choices must be made, a new life structure formed. person must commit to new tasks. * Some sources also stated that there was a late adulthood stage during which time a man spent time reflecting on past achievements and regrets, and making peace with one's self and others (including God). * * * To summarize, Levinson’s theory suggests humans progress through various stages in life viz. early adult transition, entering the adult world, age 30 transition, settling down, mid-life transition and entering middle adulthood. The progression happens as they master various developmental tasks. Sources:
  35. 35. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners 50 words Section C 35
  36. 36. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Period of Zygote 36 A9 After a female egg is fertilized, the resulting one-celled organism becomes known as a zygote. Once this has occurred, the zygote begins a two-week period of rapid cell division and will eventually become an embryo. The zygote divides through a process known as mitosis, in which each cell doubles by dividing into two cells. This two- week stage is known as the germinal period of development and covers the time of conception to the implantation of the embryo in the uterus. In most cases, each male and female sex cell contain 23 chromosomes. When these two haploid cells join, they form a single diploid cell that contains a total of 46 chromosomes. The zygote begins a journey down the fallopian tube to the uterus where it must implant in the lining in order to obtain the nourishment it needs to grow and survive. The period of the zygote is the first stage of the prenatal period. And, it lasts for about four days. Around the fifth day, the mass of cells becomes known as a blastocyst. The germinal period will last for fourteen days, after which the embryonic period will begin. * * * Sources:
  37. 37. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Time lag method 37 A10 The time lag design has been defined by Schaie (1965) as examining "whether there are differences in a give characteristic for samples of equal age but drawn from different cohorts measured at different times" (p. 95). In other words, only one age is studied but across different cohorts at different times. The time lag design could also be defined by Cook and Campbell (1979), as a separate sample design. As such, it also confounded by differences in generations or cohorts. According to Schaie (1970), the time lag method is designed to measure cultural change but confounds environmental treatments or normative history-graded influences with differences between cohorts. In simple words, this research method involves the comparison of people that are the same age, but from different cohorts. An example of this would be to analyze differences from 20 year olds that lived in the 70s, 80s and 90s. Strengths of this method are that it controls for cohort differences. Weaknesses are that this method is very expensive and you cannot control for age change effects or age differences. * * * Sources: +&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=in
  38. 38. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Smiling 38 A11 Smiling is critical as a means of developing a new social skill and is a key social signal (Campos, 2009). Two types of smiling can be distinguished in infants: - Reflexive smile: A smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli and appears during the first month after birth, usually during sleep. - Social smile: A smile that occurs in response to an external stimulus, typically a face in the case of the young infant. Social smiling occurs as early as 4 to 6 weeks of age in response to a caregiver’s voice (Campos, 2005). Daniel Messinger (2008) described the developmental course of infant smiling: - 2-6 months: infants’ social smiling increases considerably, both in self-initiated smiles and smiles in response to others’ smiles - 6-12 months: smiles that couple the Duchenne marker (eye constriction) and mouth opening occur during highly enjoyable interactions and play with parents -Second year: smiling continues to occur in positive circumstances with parents. Increase in smiling occurs when interacting with peers. Increased awareness of the social meaning of smiles. Anticipatory smiling occurs - communicating preexisting positive emotion by smiling at an object and then turning their smile toward an adult. * * * Sources: Life-Span Development, John W. Santrock (Click for eBook)
  39. 39. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Ego Integrity vs. Despair 39 A12 Integrity versus despair is the eighth and final stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. It occurs during late adulthood - age 65 through the end of life. During this period of time, we tend to slow down our productivity, and explore life as a retired person and come away with either a sense of fulfillment from a life well lived or a sense of regret and despair over a life misspent. Those who feel proud of their accomplishments will feel a sense of integrity. Successfully completing this phase means looking back with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. These individuals will attain wisdom. Wisdom enables a person to look back at life with a sense of closure and completeness, and accept death without fear. Erik Erikson believed if we see our lives as unproductive, feel guilt about our past, or feel that we did not accomplish our life goals, we become dissatisfied with life and develop regrets and consequently, feelings of bitterness and despair, often leading to depression and hopelessness. • Major Question: "Did I live a meaningful life?" • Basic Virtue: Wisdom • Important Event(s): Reflecting back on life * * * Sources:
  40. 40. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Egocentrism in adolescence 40 A13 Adolescent egocentrism is a term that David Elkind used to describe the phenomenon of adolescents' inability to distinguish between their perception of what others think about them and what people actually think in reality. His theory on adolescent egocentrism is drawn from Piaget’s theory on cognitive developmental stages, which argues that formal operations enable adolescents to construct imaginary situations and abstract thinking. Accordingly, adolescents are able to conceptualize their own thoughts and conceive of other people’s. However, Elkind pointed out that adolescents tend to focus mostly on their own perceptions – especially on their behaviors and appearance - because of the “physiological metamorphosis” they experience during this period. This leads to adolescents’ belief that other people are as attentive to their behaviors and appearance as they are of themselves. According to Elkind, adolescent egocentrism results in two consequential mental constructions, namely imaginary audience and personal fable. He believed that adolescent egocentrism was a temporary phenomenon that will gradually diminish as adolescents grow older because after entering the formal operational stage, no new mental systems would develop. Accordingly, the two mental constructions that result from egocentrism, will gradually be overcome and disappear as formal operations become mature and stable. * * * Sources:
  41. 41. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Moratorium 41 A14 Eriksonian researcher James Marcia (1980, 1994) proposes that Erikson’s theory of identity development contains four statuses of identity, or ways of resolving the identity crisis: identity diffusion, identity foreclosure, identity moratorium, and identity achievement. The search for an identity during adolescence is aided by a psychosocial moratorium, Erikson’s term for the gap between childhood security and adult autonomy. Identity moratorium is the status of individuals who are in the midst of a crisis but whose commitments are either absent or are only vaguely defined. They often begin to question their ideas and beliefs. During this period, society leaves adolescents relatively free of responsibilities and able to try out different identities. Adolescents search their culture’s identity files, experimenting with different roles and personalities. They may want to pursue one career one month (say lawyer) and another career next month (say doctor, actor, or astronaut). They may dress neatly one day, sloppily the next. This experimentation is a deliberate effort on their part to find out where they fit in the world. A recent meta-analysis of 124 studies revealed that identity moratorium status rose steadily to 19 years of age and then declined. (Kroger, Martinussen, & Marcia, 2010). * * * Sources: Life-Span Development, John W. Santrock (Click for eBook) Theories of Developmental Psychology, Patricia Miller Child Development, Neil J. Salkind
  42. 42. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Exceptional Children 42 A15 Children exhibit differences from one another in terms of learning abilities. The differences among most children are relatively small, enabling these children to benefit from the general education program. The learning abilities of some children, however—those called exceptional children—differ from the norm (either below or above) so much that they require an individualized program of special education and related services to fully benefit from education. Modifications in curriculum and instruction are necessary to help them fulfill their potential. Thus, exceptional children is an inclusive term that refers to children with learning and/or behavior problems, children with physical disabilities or sensory impairments, and children who are intellectually gifted or have a special talent. At risk children are ones who, although not currently identified as having a disability, are considered to have a greater-than-usual chance of developing one. Exceptional children share certain physical characteristics and/or patterns of learning and behavior. These are: • Mental retardation (developmental disabilities) • Learning disabilities • Emotional and behavioral disorders • Autism • Communication (speech and language) disorders • Hearing impairments • Visual impairments • Physical and health impairments • Traumatic brain injury • Multiple disabilities • Giftedness and special talents Sources: children/?page=2
  43. 43. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery 43 A16 The Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery (WJ-PEB), originally published in 1977, measured cognitive abilities, scholastic aptitudes, academic achievement and scholastic and non-scholastic interests. It is an individually- administered, wide-age range, comprehensive set of standardized tests designed to identify learning disabilities. The Woodcock-Johnson® Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised (WJ-R®), was published in 1989. WJ III is the current version. It was normed from age 19mos to 100yrs+ and from K to gr 18.0. It consists of 42 tests divided into 2 parts: Tests of Cognitive Ability and Tests of Achievement. There are 8 timed tasks and 11 taped tasks. It is based on the Carroll-Horn-Cattell (CHC) Model. It provides a measure of general intellectual ability (g). It includes a Brief Intellectual Ability score. It provides a greater breadth of coverage of cognitive factors. It uses 2-3 tests that clearly measure different narrow aspects of a broader ability. It measures 5 clinical clusters (working memory, broad attention, cognitive fluency, executive processes and phonemic awareness). Individual tests are differentially weighted according to age. WJ III® is state-of-the-art and the best practice for identifying persons with learning disabilities and program- planning. * * * Sources:
  44. 44. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Sensori-motor Stage 44 A17 The sensorimotor stage lasts from birth to about 2 years of age. In this stage, infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences (such as seeing and hearing) with physical, motoric actions—hence the term “sensorimotor.” At the beginning of this stage, newborns have little more than reflexive patterns with which to work. At the end of the sensorimotor stage, 2-year-olds can produce complex sensorimotor patterns and use primitive symbols. By the end of the sensorimotor period, children understand that objects are both separate from the self and permanent. Object permanence is the understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched. Piaget divided the sensorimotor stage into six sub-stages: 1. Simple reflexes (Birth - 1 month): Coordination of sensation and action through reflexive behaviors 2. First habits and primary circular reactions (1- 4 months): Coordination of sensation and two types of schemas - habits (reflex) and primary circular reactions (reproduction of an event that initially occurred by chance). Main focus is still on infant's body. 3. Secondary Circular reactions (4-8 months): Infants move beyond self-preoccupation and become more object- oriented. 4. Coordination of secondary circular reactions (8-12 months): Coordination of vision and touch, schemes and intentionality. 5. Tertiary circular reactions, novelty and curiosity (12-18 months): Infants become intrigued by objects and experiments with new behavior, 6. Internalization of schemes (18-24 months): Infants develop the ability to use primitive symbols and form enduring mental representations. Sources: Life-Span Development, John W. Santrock (Click for eBook)
  45. 45. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners Retirement and leisure 45 A18 Retirement is the phase of one’s life when the lifelong job of earning a living, raising a family, and overcoming the day-to-day obstacles that affect one's income, status, and career comes to an end. The fundamental problem of retired people is essentially the substitution of these with a new set of personal values and new kinds of activity. Within post-retirement activities, leisure activities (e.g., Dorfman & Douglas, 2005; Reeves & Darville, 1994) are amongst the most beneficial to retirees’ psychological well-being. Further, when retirees work for generative reasons (i.e., working for teaching and sharing knowledge with the younger generation), they are more likely to experience improved psychological well-being (Dendinger, Adams, & Jacobson, 2005). Interest in leisure activities such as hobbies and volunteer activities should be developed, that can be pursued earnestly post-retirement. This has been shown to have a positive impact on the physical and mental health of the individual and is also related to reduced mortality. * * * Sources:
  46. 46. Psychology Super Notes© 2015, M S Ahluwalia Psychology Learners For more solved assignments visit M S Ahluwalia (MSA) is a psychology learner, artist, and photographer. Know more, visit Estudiante De La Vida or follow on Twitter or Facebook: For Super-Notes: Click Here