General information regarding the stages These four stages have been found to have the following characteristics: * They apply to thought rather than children * Although the timing may vary, the sequence of the stages does not. * Universal (not culturally specific) * Generalizable: the representational and logical operations available to the child should extend to all kinds of concepts and content knowledge * Stages are logically organized wholes * Hierarchical nature of stage sequences (each successive stage incorporates elements of previous stages, but is more differentiated and integrated) * Stages represent qualitative differences in modes of thinking, not merely quantitative differences
There is a developmental stage which is associated with an approximate age & each stage has characteristic behaviour associated with it.
1. Sensorimotor Stage In the earliest stage of development, children experience six sub-stages of spatial and sensory learning and growth. The first sub-stage as outlined is the reflex schema stage comprises the first six weeks of life. According to Gruber and Vaneche, this stage is characterized by the development of three key reflexes. One is the ability to suck, which is required for nursing activity that allows the child to access and drink milk or other fluids.
2. Preoperational Stage Piaget’s theory denotes the preoperational stage as the second level of cognitive development. Late in the second year of a child’s development, mental function changes to reveal a higher-order thinking skill. In this stage a child takes action on a particular object. This stage occurs between the ages of two and seven, and includes the following processes: -Animism is demonstrated when children attribute living qualities to inanimate objects, like toys. -Centration involves a child’s response to one aspect of a situation or object, such as the height versus the height and diameter of an object. -Classification allows a child to combine similar objects in basic clusters according to shared criteria like size and color.
For example, a wide cup and a tall cup holding the same amount of liquid could look different to a child eying the difference in height.
Intuitive thought reveals belief in something without understanding why one believes in it. . This is a critical area for the development of trust and faith in what others tell the child
T he Concrete Operational Stage The third stage of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, the concrete operational stage, occurs between the ages of seven and eleven, and illustrates logical thought processes. -Conservation evolves so that a child retains the understanding of quantity, length or numbers associated with an object or process. -Decentering is a child’s ability to comprehend multiple aspects of a problem while solving it. -Elimination of egocentrism lets a child understand another person’s perspective, whether or not they are in agreement. -Reversibility is the understanding that an object or number can change and then reverse into its original state. The concrete operational stage is often the period of a child’s development when he understands the concepts of fairness, sharing, empathy, and compassion for another person’s plight. She learns to focus more on alternative perspectives and can see other possibilities to the problems or situations she faces.
S/he learns to focus more on alternative perspectives and can see other possibilities to the problems or situations
Formal Operational Stage Piaget’s fourth and last stage of cognitive development begins at age 11 and continues into adulthood. This is the phase where children entering puberty begin to think abstractly and create meaning from available data. This critical fourth stage is responsible for creating global problem solvers and creative thinkers who can analyze a situation and not be confined by concrete ideas or previously accepted logic. Successful completion of the formal operational stage is evidenced by appreciation for dissenting views, a general lack of discrimination, creative viewpoints, and a confidence in one’s differences from the mainstream. These are the children who are marching to the beat of their own drum, even at an early age, or are comfortable coloring outside the lines not because they haven’t mastered their sensorimotor skills, but rather because they like the way the new lines look. As could be surmised, some experts believe that many people fail to successfully complete this stage to varying degrees. Many adults are bound by a rigid sense of order or sequential thinking that prohibits alternative solution development or limits their creative processes.
Each of the four stages comprises new learning that builds upon: prior skills prior abilities prior knowledge.
Piagets FourStages of CognitiveDevelopment
Piagets FourStages of CognitiveDevelopment Overview The stages of intellectual development formulated by Piaget appear to be related to major developments in brain growth. We often expect children to think like adults when they are not yet capable of doing so. The human brain is not fully developed until late adolescence or in the case of males sometimes early adulthood. 2
Piagets FourStages of CognitiveDevelopment We often expect children to think like adults Theyre not and they cant. It is important that parents, teachers and tutors know what to expect from the child as they develop. Expectations for a given age need to be realistic. 3
Piagets FourStages of CognitiveDevelopment Each Developmental Stage has an Approximate Age Range And Characteristic Behaviors 4
Piagets Four 1Stages of CognitiveDevelopment Sensorimotor Stage Infancy ( (0 - 24 months) In the first post natal stage of development, children experience six sub-stages of spatial and sensory learning and growth. 6
1 S Sensorimotor Stage (0 - 24 months) Developmental Stage & Characteristic Behaviour Approximate AgeReflexive Simple reflex activity such as grasping, sucking.(0-2 months)Primary Circular Reactions Reflexive behaviours occur in stereotyped repetition(2-4 months) such as opening and closing fingers repetitively.Secondary Circular Reactions Repetition of change actions to reproduce(4-8 months) interesting consequences such as kicking ones feet to more a mobile suspended over the crib.Coordination of Secondary Reactions Responses become coordinated into more complex(8-12 months) sequences. Actions take on an "intentional" character such as the infant reaches behind a screen to obtain a hidden object.Tertiary Circular Reactions Discovery of new ways to produce the same(12-18 months) consequence or obtain the same goal such as the infant may pull a pillow toward him in an attempt to get a toy resting on it.Invention of New Means Evidence of an internal representational systemThrough Mental Combination symbolizing the problem-solving sequence before(18-24 months) actually responding. Deferred imitation. 7
Piagets FourStages of Cognitive 2Development The Preoperational Stage Toddler & Early Childhood ( (2-7 years) There are 2 sub-stages or phases here: Preoperational 2-4 years Intuitive 4-7 years 8
Piagets FourStages of Cognitive Preoperational StageDevelopment (2-7 years) The whole Preoperational Stage is characterised by the following processes: Animism demonstrated when children attribute living qualities to inanimate : objects, like toys Centration: involves a child’s response to one aspect of a situation or object, such as the height versus the height and diameter of an object. Classification: allows a child to combine similar objects in basic clusters according to shared criteria like size and colour. 9
Piagets Four 2Stages of CognitiveDevelopment The Preoperational Stage The First Phase (2-4 years) Egocentrism: the child’s self-preoccupation and personal view that does not readily accept another person’s view. Conservation - lack of: the inability to conserve reflects a child’s difficulty with concepts of volume, mass and number. Beginning of Symbolic Functioning: the ability to understand the meaning of something that is not physically there. Belief in magical increase, decrease, disappearance. 10
Piagets Four 2Stages of CognitiveDevelopment The Preoperational Stage The Intuitive Phase (4 -7 years) Intuitive thought reveals belief in something without understanding why one believes in it. Intuitive grasp of logical concepts in some areas Tendency to focus attention on one aspect of an object while ignoring others Belief in magical increase, decrease, disappearance. The rise of imagination 11
Piagets Four 3Stages of CognitiveDevelopment Concrete Operational Stage ( (7-11 years) Operational thinking develops, moving from the concrete towards the abstract 12
Piagets FourStages of CognitiveDevelopment Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years) Conservation evolves so that a child retains the understanding of quantity, length or numbers associated with an object or process. This stage is characterized by 7 types of conservation: number length liquid mass area volume 13
Piagets FourStages of CognitiveDevelopment Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years) Decentering the child’s ability to comprehend multiple aspects of a problem while solving it. Decreasing Egocentrism the child begins to understand another person’s perspective, whether or not they are in agreement. speech becomes more social, less egocentric. The pronoun WE starts to get a workout. Understanding Reversibility an object or number can change and then reverse into its original state. 14
Piagets Four 3Stages ofCognitiveDevelopment Concrete Operational Stage ( (7-11 years) This stage is often the period of a child’s development when s/ he begins to engage with the concepts of: fairness sharing empathy compassion 15
Piagets Four 4Stages of CognitiveDevelopment Formal Operational Stage (11-15+ years) This stage continues into adulthood. This is the stage where children, ` entering puberty, begin to think abstractly and create meaning from available data. 16
Piagets Four 4Stages of CognitiveDevelopment Formal Operational Stage (11-15+ years) Thought becomes more abstract, incorporating the principles of formal logic. The ability to generate abstract propositions, multiple hypotheses and their possible outcomes is evident. Thinking becomes less tied to concrete reality. Formal logical systems can be acquired. Prepositional logic, as-if and if-then steps can be used. Can handle proportions, algebraic manipulation, other purely abstract processes. If a + b = x then a = x - b. Can use aids such as axioms to enhance comprehension. 17
Piagets FourStages of Cognitive Formal Operational StageDevelopment (11-15+ years) This critical fourth stage is responsible for creating global problem solvers and creative thinkers who can analyze a situation a n d n o t b e c o n f in e d b y concrete ideas or previously accepted logic. 18