Benazir’s duplicity against the United States of America of forming a Trans-Asian anti- US alliance while mouthing platitudes on democracy during Washington visits
Trans nation axis: an anti-US radical alliance stretching from the Mediterranean to North East Asia.* Pakistan would serve as centre for defence production for the Islamic bloc. This would also incorporate nuclear weapon technologies.* Pakistan would be the financial centre for laundering Islamist drug money.* Pakistan would acquire legally or illegally sophisticated western technology for its Islamic and other allies.
Cooperation reached its high point during the 1979-89 Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. A deterioration in U.S.-Pakistan ties in recent years stems from the U.S. cutoff of aid to Pakistan because of its nuclear weapons program. In October 1990, U.S. aid and most arms sales to Pakistan were suspended when President Bush could not certify to Congress, as required under Section 620E(e) of the Foreign Assistance Act (FAA) (the so-called "Pressler amendment"), that Pakistan does not possess a nuclear explosive device. The Pressler amendment is Pakistan-specific and does not apply to India.Both the Bush and Clinton administrations have considered good relations with Pakistan as key to U.S. interests in both South and Southwest Asia, and sought more flexibility in dealing with Pakistan than allowed under the Pressler amendment. Although Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto attended a state dinner held in her honor at the White House, the first President Bush used the old “nuclear ambitions” excuse to cut off foreign aid to her administration. He even imposed economic sanctions. This was a bitter pill to swallow for most Pakistanis given the blood, sweat and tears they had shed to help America win the Cold War against Russia. The relationship with the United States appeared to resemble that of Cinderella and her Stepmother, as Bhutto struggled to make the World Bank and IMF loan payments. With the Soviet pullout from Afghanistan, the CIA drew down its covert Afghan operation in Islamabad, leaving the new head of state in the position of
The free and peaceful elections of October 1993, which brought to power Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and her Pakistan People's Party, were welcomed as an important step in reaffirming democracy. Congress and the Administration, however, continue to be concerned about reported terrorist activity, regional dissidence, and human rights abuse, particularly in Sindh Province and its capital, KarachiIn February 1996, the President signed aw the Foreign Operations Appropriations Act for FY1996, which includes provisions that relax restrictions on economic assistance to Pakistan and permit a one-time release of $368 million in military hardware ordered by Pakistan prior to the aid cutoff. The nuclear issue aside, U.S. interests strongly support a stable, democratic, economically thriving Pakistan that would serve as a model for the volatile and/or newly independent countries of West and Central Asia.. The United States is strongly supportive of Pakistan's economic reform efforts, including privatization of public sector industries, trade liberalization policies, and efforts to attract international investmentBack in Pakistan, Bhutto took a hard line on the extremists, shutting down the Islamic university in Peshawar and later handing over terrorist RamsiYusef to the FBI. Yusef was one of the planners of the 1993 attack on the World Trade Towers.
Pakistan-United Sates Relations
Zulfiqar General Zia’s History Bhutto’s Era EraSarah EjazUroosa Jeelani Zara Naeem Hyder Hasan MuftiAhmed Qamar Umer Fariq Unstable Musharraf’s Democratic Era and Post Governments 9/11 M. Haseeb Siddiqui Sohaib Bin Shahid Omer Farooq Butt M. Saad Afridi Danish Ali Kazmi
•The foreign policy of Pakistan aims to: o Develop friendly relations. o Safeguard vital security. o Resolve core issues. o Portray a strong image. o Augment economic and commercial interests. o Protect interests of Pakistanis abroad
• US established diplomatic relations with Pakistanon October 20, 1947.• These relations developed against the backdrop ofthe Cold War and since then this relationship hasbeen based on economic and military assistance.• Pakistans relations with the US improved in early1950s‟ when President Eisenhower came to power
• In 1954, Pakistan signed a Mutual DefenceAgreement the US and subsequently becamemembers of SEATO and CENTO.• These treaties put Pakistan under US influenceand thus Pakistan was used as a base for militaryreconnaissance flights over Soviet territory.
SEATOSouth East Asian Treaty Organization September‟ 8, 1954
• Members: Australia, France, NewZealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, United Kingdomand the United States.• Purpose: oEstablish a collective security arrangement for Southeast Asia. o Enhance trade relationships.•Reasons for its failure: o Lack to willingness to resolve issues. o Ultimate inability of the other SEATO nations to act militarily.
Ayub‟s Era(1952-1969)• Beginning of a cosy relationship with the US...• 1953- Food Crisis Aid• 1954-Mutual Defence Assistance Agreement – First military assistance from the US – „exclusively to maintain our internal security...and legitimate self-defence‟
• Members: Iran, Iraq, Turkey and United Kingdom.• Purpose: o U.S. pressure and promises of military and economic aid were key in the negotiations leading to the agreement. o Counter the threat of Soviet expansion in Middle East oil producing countries.• Reasons for failure: • Did not intervene in the Arab-Israeli Conflict. • Was unable to prevent Soviet expansion in member states (Egypt, Syria, Iran, etc)
Ayub‟s Era(1952-1969)• Pakistan as a strategic partner in completing the ring of containment around Soviet Union.• Significance of SEATO and CENTO – Military aid increased to $500 million by 1957 – Further strengthening of US-Pak relationship – Became United States "most-allied ally" in Asia.
Ayub‟s Era(1952-1969)• U2 Crisis of 1960 – July 1957 - U.S. requested permission from Pakistan for the establishment of a secret U.S. intelligence facility in Pakistan – Location: Badaber, 10 miles from Peshawar – April 9, 1960 - U-2 spy plane of the special CIA unit crossed the national boundary of the Soviet Union and flew over four Soviet top secret military objects but was detected by the Soviet Air Defence Forces .
Ayub‟s Era(1952-1969)• U2 Crisis of 1960 – Pakistan became a „wholehearted ally‟ which undertook „real responsibilities and risks‟ by providing facilities „highly important to US national security‟. – Compromise on Pakistans security and worsened relations with the Soviet Union – Soviet Union threatened the nuclear annihilation of Pakistani cities.
Ayub‟s Era(1952-1969)• Indus Water Treaty in 1960 and half a billion in US funds.• Pakistan‟s growing friendship with communist China after the 1962 Sino-Indian war irked the U.S• The 1965 Indo-Pakistani War – embargo on arms shipments to Pakistan and India – The ban remained in place during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
Pakistan-U.S Relations During 1969 and 1971• Army Chief General Yahya took over power from President Ayub Khan in March 1969. The country had been in a pseudo military rule since 1958.• Political representation had been insufficient and regional succession movements were strengthening in the country especially in the eastern Pakistan province of Bengal.• Elections were held in the country in 1970 with the East Pakistani party Awami League taking a majority in the elections.• The military government did not hand over power to the winning party and in a political deadlock, unleashed a crackdown against the East Pakistan population.• This led to a limited civil war in 1971 and India siding with the dissidents launched a war in December 1971. After a fortnight of fighting, the Pakistani forces in East Pakistan accepted default and the state of Bangladesh was established• During the war between Pakistan and India . The US policy in this debacle was aligned with the military establishment of Pakistan due to its earlier links and defense relationships.
• On the other hand, President Nixon used the Pakistani links with China to start a secret diplomacy with China which culminated with Henry Kessinger‟s secret visit to China in July 1971 while he was visiting Pakistan .• The Chinese relationship was vital for the US as it was trying to fix the mess in its Vietnam policy.• With thes`e concerns, the US administration neglected the internal domestic issues of Pakistan and allowed the dictator to have its way in East Pakistan.• Rather than focusing on their domestic problems and working effectively to find solutions, the military rulers in Pakistan had been focusing in international affairs and the Great Game and considered the close relationship with the US as a guarantee for their own domestic survival.• America supported Pakistan throughout the war and supplied weapons to West Pakistan although Congress had passed a bill suspending exporting weapons to the nation.
• United States-Pakistani relations preceding the 1971 war were characterized by poor communication and much confusion.• The administration of President Richard M. Nixon was forced to formulate a public stance on the brutal crackdown on East Pakistanis by West Pakistani troops that began in March 25, 1971.• It maintained that the crackdown was essentially an internal affair of Pakistan in which direct intervention of outside powers was to be avoided.• The Nixon administration expressed its concern about human rights violations to Pakistan and restricted the flow of assistance.• Despite the United States widely publicized "tilt" toward Pakistan during the 1971 war, Pakistans new leader, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, felt betrayed.• In his opinion, the United States could have prevented India from intervening in Pakistans civil war, thereby saving his country the trauma of defeat and dismemberment. Bhutto now strove to lessen Pakistans dependence on the United States.
• The signing of the India-Soviet Union Treaty of Peace, Friendship, and Cooperation in August 1971, while not a mutual security treaty, was viewed in Washington as a blank check to India in its confrontation with Pakistan. President Nixon warned Soviet officials not to encourage India and informed India that if it started a war with Pakistan, the United States would cut off aid.• On November 22 1971, India launched an offensive against East Pakistan. The Nixon Administration cut off economic aid to India, and Nixon himself decided to "tilt" toward Pakistan.• This pro-Pakistan policy included support of Pakistan in the United Nations and pressure on the Soviets to discourage India, with accompanying hints that U.S.-Soviet détente would be in jeopardy if Moscow did not comply. When Nixon learned that Indian war plans were designed to liberate "Bangladesh" and southern Kashmir, and to destroy Pakistan‟s military armored and air strength.
• He ordered the U.S. carrier Enterprise and its escorts into the Bay of Bengal. At the President‟s instruction, Kissinger met with Peoples Republic of China Ambassador to the United Nations Huang Hua to brief him on the crisis and U.S. actions, and to suggest that China make military moves in support of Pakistan.
Relations before and during 1971 war• Poor Communication and much confusion.• President Nixon formulated a public stance on the crackdown by West Pakistani troops in East Pakistan.• Military aid to Pakistan was suspended which resulted in the cooling of relationship.
Bhutto‟s Presidency (1971-1973)• After 1971 war Pakistan once again realized that US can support India against China but can‟t support Pakistan against India.• Bhutto now strove to lessen Pakistans dependence on the United States.• Pakistan withdrew from Southeast Asia Treaty organization (SEATO) in 1972.• He reluctantly sustained the country‟s role in the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) but later on he cut Pakistan ties with CENTO too.
Bhutto as a Prime Minister (1973-1977)• Bhutto re-evaluated the nature of Pak-US relations.• Indo-Soviet Treaty of 1971, China-US rapprochement and the Pakistan military‟s need for the US equipment forced him to call for a continued alliance with USA.• In 1976, Pakistan ran in trouble with the US over the issue of acquisition of a nuclear processing plant.• After Pakistan‟s nuclear deal with France, the relations between the Bhutto regime and the US deteriorated and military aid from USA was again suspended.
The Soviet- Afghan war• General Zia seized power in Pakistan in a 1977 coup. US opposed this dictatorship and stopped all economic and military aid to Pakistan as a result• Also under Section 669 of the (FAA) aid was suspended because of Pakistan‟s secret construction of a uranium enrichment facility• However after Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in Dec 1979, Pakistan became a frontline state against Soviet expansionism. Fighting a proxy war for the US.
The Soviet- Afghan War• An offer to Pakistan of $400 million in economic and security aid by the Carter Administration in early 1980 was turned down by President Zia-ul Haq as “peanuts.”• In September 1981 Reagan Administration negotiated a $3.2 billion, 5-year economic and military aid package with Pakistan – Pakistan‟s superior negotiation !• Congress added Section 620E to the FAA, giving the President authority to waive Section 669 for Pakistan on grounds of national interest.
Arms and Narcotics aid• Pakistan became a funnel for arms supplies to the Afghan resistance, as well as a camp for three million Afghan refugees.• Nov 1982: the latest radar systems for Pakistan‟s F-16 fighter planes transferred to Pakistan by President Wilson.• Wilson negotiated a major weapons deal with Pakistan on behalf of the Israelis to support the Afghan war. The deal included delivery of T-55 tanks – enemies turn friends?• 1982-1989: US Turns Blind Eye to Pakistani Government Involvement in Heroin Trade
Economic Aid to Pakistan• Between 1977 and 1986, the country experienced an average annual growth in the GNP of 6.8%, one of the highest in the world at that time.• 1981 - $3.2 billion, 5-year economic and military aid package with Pakistan.• A $4 billion, 6-year aid package for Pakistan was signed in 1986.
Economic Aid to Pakistan• October 1990, under the provisions of the Pressler amendment, President Bush suspended most economic and all military aid to Pakistan as well as deliveries of major military equipment suspended.• One major loss was the non delivery of some 71 F-16 fighter aircraft ordered in 1989.• Narcotics assistance of $3-5 million annually was exempted from the aid cutoff.
Sharing of Intelligence Networks• Pakistans ISI and Special Service Group cooperated with the CIA and the United States Army Special Forces to support the armed struggle against Soviets.
Military Aid• In 1981, the Reagan Administration sent the first of 40 F-16 jet fighters to the Pakistanis.• October 1980: Former President Nixon Indicated Pakistan‟s Nuclear Weapons Program may continue• The way forward … Zia began a series of “highly secretive meetings to explore trading its nuclear technology to other countries. The urgency of this project was felt as the Soviet Union decided to end the Afghan war in 1986 and Pakistan realized US aid was finite.
Pak-US Relations in governments under Benazir Bhutto December 1988 to August 1990 October 1993 to November 1996
Major events• Increase in Islamic fundamentalism• Intensification of Kashmir proxy war.• Taliban‟s creation
Policies• Pak-US relations remained on a mixed note during her tenures.• Many people saw her as pro-Western and pro- democracy but that wasn‟t really the case.• Wanted friendly mujahidin regime in Afghanistan.• Initiated a program designed to make Pakistan a central member of both the Islamic bloc and the Trans-Asian axis.• Pakistan emerged with distinct roles such as center for finance, military and technology among the Muslim countries.
Dec.1988- Aug.1990• Benazir Bhutto had to pay back billions of dollars in loans made to Zia-ul-Haq.• Pakistan faced heightened tensions with India over Kashmir and problems associated with the unresolved Afghan war on the international front.• U.S. aid and most arms sales to Pakistan were suspended when President Bush could not certify to Congress, that Pakistan does not possess a nuclear explosive device.
Oct. 1993- Nov. 1996• The free and peaceful elections of October 1993, were welcomed by the US.• In 1992 US relaxed sanctions on Pakistan to allow food and economic assistance to NGOs.• However US continued to be concerned about reported terrorist activity, regional dissidence, and human rights abuse.• The United States strongly supported Pakistans economic reform efforts, including privatization of public sector industries, trade liberalization policies, and efforts to attract international investment.
Nawaz Sharif‟s Governments• Elected twice as the 12th Prime Minister of Pakistan• First term: 1 November 1990 to 18 July 1993• Second term: 17 February 1997 to 12 October 1999.
Pak-U.S Relations during Nawaz Regimes• Diplomatic ties between the two states: unfriendly• Reasons:1. Inclination towards establishing an ISLAMIC Society2. Allegations of having links with Al-Qaeda leader Osama Bin Laden3. Being alleged for “not cracking down on the Taliban as it flourished in Afghanistan and influenced the Northwest Frontier Province
The Nuclear Dilemma• Neither India nor Pakistan is signatories of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) or the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).• Pakistan carried out its successful nuclear tests on 28 May 1998, and on 30 May 1998.• Justification: National Security
The Nuclear Dilemma…• Various Sanctions imposed by the U.S:1. U.S. Aid Cut-off in 19902. Non-delivery of some 71 F-16 fighter aircraft ordered in 19893. In 1998, President Clinton imposed economic and military sanctions on Pakistan: Section 102 of the Arms Export Control Act (AECA)4. Any U.S. exports to Pakistan required a Commerce Department license, and most license requests reportedly were denied
George W. Bush• September 11 attacks planted sour seeds early in the Bush Administration• Bush‟s main focus was the Middle East (Bahrain, Philippines, Thailand, Kuwait, Moroc co, Pakistan)• More co-operation demanded from the Pakistan Governemnt
Pakistan‟s Foreign Policy-Post 9/11• Remolding itself into a more co-operative ally• Joining the „War On Terror‟• “Weve captured 689 and handed over 369 to the United States. Weve earned bounties totaling millions of dollars…” – P.M.
Post 9/11 Era• Afghan war. Bush‟s statement.• 2003: US forgave $1 billion in Pakistani debt.• Oct 2005: Condoleezza Rice‟s statement regarding Kashmir earthquake.• 11 Jun‟ 08: Us airstrike on Pak-Afghan border killed 10 members of paramilitary frontier corps.• Nov 2008: Mumbai attacks• Iraq war stance: Prime minister Jamali’s statement.
Present RelationsObama elected in Nov 2008.A stable, democratic, prosperous Pakistan isconsidered vital to U.S. interests.The Obama Administration states an intentionto continue pursuing close and mutuallybeneficial relations with Islamabad.
“ In the past, we too oftendefined our relationship withPakistan narrowly. Those days are over.... The Pakistani people must know Americawill remain a strong supporter of Pakistan’s security and prosperity.”- Barack Obama
The Aims of newly seated U.S. Administration• A new concentration on stabilizing Afghanistan.• The appointment of US special representative Pakistani officers are now allowed to view video feeds from unmanned American drones and to access U.S. intercepts of militants‟ communications.
• October 2009: U.S. Aid Package• A new $7.5 billion U.S. aid package for Pakistan• Expect to receive approximately 1.3 billion for 2010.• Growth in anti-Americans feeling in Pakistan.
• Pakistan military Operations• Result of US demand of „Do More‟ and external pressure.• Relation remains fragile e.g. Faisal Shahzad incident.