Continuing use of TraditionalMedia Many teachers want to forget traditional media and just focus on the “new technologies” however, traditional media will be with us for many years because they accomplish some tasks as well as or better than the new technology. Teachers and students need to learn how to select from all available media those materials that will best promote learning. The overhead projector continues to be an effective tool for gaining and maintaining student attention. Instructors cannot just brush off traditional media in favor of computers and digital technology.
Maintaining Computer Use “There is near saturation of computers in K-12 schools, while higher education institutions report moderate saturation. Students and teachers have almost universal access to computers, many of which are connected to the internet” -Don Ely, in Trends in Educational Technology
Becker (1999) notes an evolutionary pattern for their use. At first, computers were housed in computer labs, were employed within a narrow range of the curriculum—typically in “computer literacy” or mathematics—and teachers had a low level of involvement in decision making and a low sense of ownership. Over time, computers have tended to be relocated into classrooms where teachers employ them across a wider range of the curriculum.
Electronic learning or e-learning, is altering the earlier institutional structures, which were based on transportation. In the past we operated on the assumption that, to learn, learners had to physically be in the “territory” of the teacher. Some parents are growing more and more concerned about excessively long bus rides their children take, as well as the high cost of transportation. These factors make it attractive to return to smaller and more numerous “attendance centers”
In general, distance education courses have been of limited importance to U.S. Public schools in the past. Because primary and secondary schools are inherently local in structure, they saw little need to share courses over long distances (unlike a large business or university that might have branches all across the state or country). School systems sought whole courses only in cases where a local school could not afford to maintain teacher in a given subject and that subject is vital to the mission of the school
Multipurpose, wireless devices may replace the desktop computer to connect to the Internet and other functions. This wider variety of services reflects the rapid changes in technological devices available. Currently you have access to a videophone, fax machine and computer in the form of a single, hand-held device. You can communicate with this device by voice commands, by hand-written notes, or by typing, which ever you choose.
Advancing Telecommunicationsand Interactive Technologies Technology is becoming more useful, more prevalent, more “intelligent”, and more powerful, while at the same time becoming less intimidating, less noticeable, less demanding, and less expensive. User interfaces are becoming simpler and devices are becoming increasingly user friendly.
HARDWARE- recent hardware developments include all-in-one desktop computers, such as the apple iMac and eMac. These new designs incorporate a built-in monitor so they require only one power cord. Most new computers used LCD screens and come standard with the ability to burn CDs and to play DVDs.
Digital Cameras Will continue to become smaller, faster, cheaper and easy to use. At the same time image quality will continue to improve. Resolution will continue to improve. The storage format may become standardized. Currently compact Flash is the most common.
Digital video camcorders have gotten smaller, as have digital videotapes. The newer digital camcorders come with automatic settings and touch screen LCD to access menus. They also allow easy editing. Some can capture still images, so your digital camera and video camcorder become one device.
DVD drivers decreasing in price and increasing in capabilities. Recordable drives can burn DVDs at four times the play rate. The future promises to bring even faster speeds. Rewriteable DVDs allow you to reuse discs, and soon you will be able to rerecord selected parts of a disc.
Video Projectors are improving the brightness of their image and decreasing in weight. Many incorporate networking and wireless capabilities allowing you to connect a laptop to a projector without any cables or cords.
LCD displays Will become more common on computers and larger ones will appear in classrooms and conference rooms. The cost will continue to come down, and size will continue to increase from the current 42-inch maximum width.
Plasma displays are maturing. Their size is increasing– some now are in the 60 inch range. The quality of their image makes them better in a lighted room than a video projector.
E-books a conceptual blend of the traditional book and the computer, e-books are hand-held devices roughly the size of a paperback book.
Blogs A new kind of website has emerged that is not a standard “home page.” it is an annotated bookmark list available for public viewing, a “log” of journeys around the web with this links and commentaries. Called a weblog, it is a website that serves a publicly accessible personal journal for an individual to regularly post commentary and related hyperlinks.
Wikis Provides an alternative. A wiki’s core concept includes the idea that any document created on it is subject to any by any of its user. Wikis can be used to encourage interactive communication among students in the same classroom or between classrooms. wikis can be described as a knowledge management technique– a way to compile the experiences of a community.
Changing Role of the Teacher The teachers role in learning is changing new technologies appear in the classroom. Teachers are not being replaced by technology, but their role has changed from information presenter to learning resources coordinator. In addition, they serve as a facilitator, manager, counselor, and motivator. Their new roles free them to work more independently with individuals and small groups while leaving the formal presentations to another medium.
Teachers help students find and process information from many sources. In the future, teachers will become more and more “the guide on the side” rather than “the stage on the stage.” The trend toward changing teacher certification requirements, primarily to permit knowledgeable laypersons to teach, will probably be accelerated by the acceptance of courses delivered by technology.
Charter School is “an autonomous, results oriented, publicly funded school of choice that is designed and run by teachers or others under contract with a public sponsor.” They are tax-supported non sectarian public schools operating free of state regulations and independent of local school districts. However, they are held accountable for the academic achievement of their students.
There is a great variation from one charter school to another and legislation governing them differs significantly across states. Consequently there is no “typical” charter school. They should not be confused with these other types of schools:1.) Innovative schools - created with input from teachers, parents and community.
2.) magnet schools- created by school districts using additional funding to provide specialized curriculum themes to attract parents and students.3.) alternative schools- designed by school districts to serve specific populations of pupils who are not well served in traditional schools, such as students with behavioral problems and students at risk of dropping out.
Pedagogical Agents Is a computer program that appears to have the characteristics of an animated being. Introduce a new paradigm for instruction based on the concept of shared abilities and cooperative learning between humans and computers. Can be useful tools for teachers.
Roles For Pedagogical Agents in theclassroom might include thefollowing: Information assistant to help students manage information. Tutor to facilitate learning. Coach/mentor to support, guide, and extend students thinking. Tool for creating a students own personal pedagogical agent.
The pedagogical agent can helpstudents with information overloadin the following: Help them organize information Provide feedback Create unique learning experiences
USING TECHNOLOGY IN SCHOOLMEDIA CENTERS Materials for lifelong learning will continue to be available through libraries, information centers, and online. School media specialists will need to think not only in terms of shelving and circulation but also in terms of downloading and uploading— electronically receiving, storing, indexing, and distributing information to teachers, students, classrooms and homes.